Presentation on theme: "Treaty of Paris The war continued for another three years after the Battle on the Plains of Abraham. The capture of Quebec brought about the end of the."— Presentation transcript:
Treaty of Paris The war continued for another three years after the Battle on the Plains of Abraham. The capture of Quebec brought about the end of the French empire in North America. New France was transferred to Britain by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. England now controlled a vast area of North America, including the rich fur lands of the Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes.
Pontiac’s Rebellion The Treaty of Paris did not include any negotiations with the Aboriginal Peoples of Canada. As far as they were concerned, they were still at war. They were partners with the French in the fur trade and allies with them during the war. The French treated them as partners and were not interested in their land. The British were expanding their territories into their land. They came to settle and change the hunting grounds to farms. The native way of life was in danger.
Pontiac’s Rebellion The Ottawa warriors gathered in a council of war to hear Pontiac’s message. “Why do you allow the white man to live among you? Why do you forget the ways of your ancestors? Why do you not become true Indians once more?” “You have bought guns, knives, kettles and blankets from the white men. Now you think you cannot do without them. What is worse, you have drunk the poison firewater that turns you into fools.” “Fling all these things away. Clothe yourselves in skins, and use the bows and arrows, like your ancestors did.” “As for these English, you must lift the hatchet against them!” In what way did the Pontiac blame his own followers for the problems they faced? What two actions did he urge them to take in order to solve their problems.
Pontiac’s Rebellion Several Indian chiefs and spiritual leaders decided to combat European colonization. They attacked the settlers for 5 weeks By June of 1763, Pontiac’s multi-tribal alliance controlled nine of the twelve British held forts west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Pontiac’s Rebellion & Germ Warfare Lord Jeffrey Amherst was commanding general of British forces in North America during the final battles Despite his fame, Jeffrey Amherst's name became tarnished by stories of smallpox-infected blankets used as germ warfare against the natives. The smallpox incident happened when two representatives of the Delaware tribe parleyed with Captain Simeon Ecuyer of Fort Pitt. He told them he would not surrender the fort. There were 500 people--most of them soldiers-- inside Fort Pitt, and smallpox had broken out. As Ecuyer concluded his meeting with the Delaware men, he offered them gifts-including two blankets and a handkerchief from the fort's smallpox ward
Pontiac’s Rebellion & Germ Warfare Stated in a letter... Captain Simeon Ecuyer had bought time by sending smallpox-infected blankets and handkerchiefs to the Indians surrounding the fort. This was an early example of biological warfare -- which started an epidemic among them. Amherst himself had encouraged this tactic in a letter to Ecuyer.
Pontiac’s Rebellion Despite the fact that British reinforcements re- took the forts, King George issued a proclamation forbidding colonists from settling west of the mountains. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 upset crowded colonists hungry for more land, pushing America closer to Revolution.
Pontiac’s Rebellion Although the British were victorious against the Native American forces in the Great Lakes region, the engagement had its cost in lives lost, supplies and weapons bought, and salaries paid out. The British were already deeply in debt as a result of the recently won war. The crown owed 146 million pounds in 1763.
The Office of James Murray Governor of the colony in Quebec Four possible plans of the British after the war: Expulsion: Remove all French settlers from Quebec Anglicization: Change the way of life of the French so they would think, talk and act like English people. French System: Keep Quebec much as it had been under French control. Hope the French would accept British rule. Separation: Divide Quebec into separate parts – one for French (who were already present), one for English (willing to move in).
The Royal Proclamation of 1763: Anglicization At first, the colony of Quebec was to be given an English lifestyle. Governor Murray was ordered the change over to English laws, language, schools, churches and government. Quebec was to be like Britain’s other colonies in North America. The English were forbidden to claim land beyond the Proclamation Line (western limit). The fur traders had to have licenses before going into native territory.
The Quebec Act: 1774 Sir Guy Carleton becomes governor He believes that in order for the Quebec colony to be loyal to Britain, they must be satisfied with the government. The appointed council was increased in numbers, and the French were included. Roman Catholics were now allowed to be councillors, civil servants, judges etc. Much of the law remained French. The seigneurial system was secure. The idea of Anglicization seemed to die off.
The Quebec Act: 1774 It increased the size of the colony, which seemed like a barrier to the 13 colonies that were expanding. To the 13 colonies, it becomes the last Intolerable Act and becomes one of the causes of the American Revolution