Revisit the Monroe Doctrine Asserted US right to intervene in Western Hemisphere when national security was at stake US wants no part of Europe’s internal disputes With Europe leading toward WWI, it was difficult for US to follow Monroe Doctrine
What was the American stance during the early stages into WWI?
Isolation & neutrality US initially tried to stay out of events going on in Europe Woodrow Wilson won presidential election of 1912: vowed to keep America in isolation When WWI broke out in August 1912, Wilson declared neutrality. –America would treat all countries fairly and without favoritism Neutrality was difficult to follow because the US & Britain were close allies
U.S. Enters War -Peace without Victory Wilson attempts to keep U.S. out of the war – isolationist -idealistic peace plan -Submarine warfare continues Germany continues unrestricted submarine warfare, no warnings -Zimmerman Note intercepted Proposed Mexican alliance -Wilson calls for War “ Make world safe for democracy ” Wilson ’ s “ Moral Diplomacy ” -Russian Revolution takes them out of the war Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, set up communist government and exit war “Property can be paid for; the lives of peaceful and innocent people cannot be. The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind…We are glad…to fight…fore the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples…The world must be made safe for democracy…We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities…IT is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war…But the right is more precious than peace.” ~Woodrow Wilson
Military Operations Mobilizing the U.S. for war -Selective Service Act (May 1917) drafted over 3 million troops 24 million men registered, 3 million randomly selected -recruits trained for 9 months 17-hour days with fake weapons, not prepared -transportation problems Must get men, food, equipment across ocean gov ’ t control of industry Took over warships and production use of convoy system Guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships across Atlantic To meet the government’s need for fighting power, Congress passed the Selective Service Act in May of 1917. The act required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service. By the end of 1918, 24 million men had registered under the act. Of this number, almost 3 million were called up. About 2 million troops reached Europe before the truce was signed, and three-fourths of them saw actual combat. Most of the inductees had not attended high school, and about one in five was foreign-born.
Military Operations - ” Over There ” – Europe/France - ” Dough Boys ” – nickname for American soldiers -General John Pershing- -graduated from West Point -fought in Spanish-American war -led the American Expeditionary Force in WWI American Expeditionary Force Most went to Western Front -Argonne Forest Campaign -Alvin York-American war Hero Killed 25 Germans and captured many prisoners of war Most Decorated soldier in WWI Medal of Honor recipient -Armistice Nov. 1918 Nov. 11 at 11 a.m. Germans exhausted, A-H already surrendered; cease-fire no battles fought in Germany A redhead mountaineer and blacksmith from Tennessee, York sought exemption from war as a conscientious objector, a person who opposes warfare on moral grounds, saying that the Bible says, “Thou shalt not kill.” York eventually decided that it was morally acceptable to fight if the cause was just. On October 8, 1918, armed with only a rifle and a revolver, York killed 25 Germans and—with six other doughboys—captured 132 prisoners.
Fighting Over There -most U.S. soldiers were not experienced travelers Impressed by foreign sights and sounds, not ready for harsh realities of war -huge cannons, Zeppelins, machine guns, poison gases, tanks, airplanes -Machine guns stopped advancing for the enemies. -Air Planes early values in war effort were to spy on enemies. Modern warfare brings large numbers of casualties -poor medical care Trench Foot
Public Opinion -Committee on Public Information Propaganda agency to sell the war George Creel 4 Minute Men – volunteers who spoke out about the war (draft, rationing, bonds, etc.) “ I Want You ” Campaign Army and Navy recruitment -Espionage and Sedition Act Fined $10,000 or jailed 20 years for interfering with the war effort or saying anything disloyal about the government Schenck v. United States Can limit freedoms in times of clear and present danger -Anti-immigrant sentiment Discrimination and violence against immigrants
I) Civil Liberties Violated Espionage Act (1917) = illegal to try to convince someone to dodge the military draft Sedition Act (1918) = illegal to try to prevent the sale of war bonds or to speak negatively of the government, the flag, the military, or the Constitution
Committee on Pubic Information (CPI) Government wartime propaganda Sensational messages Created images of the Germans as cold-blooded, baby-killing power hungry people. Encouraged Americans to reject all German things: –Sauerkraut = liberty cabbage
II) Women Number of women in workforce did not increase greatly during WWI Employment changed: Quit domestic work & started working in factories –20% of factory manufacturing jobs Ended when males returned home
America after WWI Racial Unrest - After THE GREAT MIGRATION, soldiers came wanting their jobs back. Red Scare -Americans became very anti-German -Palmer Raids- anyone that is suspected of being communist or as spies were deported. Economy in Turmoil –Inflation After war people rushed to get the things during war they were rationed. Cost of Living increased. –Series of strikes Seattle General Strike Boston police strike Steel strike
WWI ENDS Battle of Argonne Forest- final Allied offensive that forced and surrounded the Germans to agree to the armistice. Turning the war to an end. WWI (1914-1918) America in War (1917-1918)
IV) Aftermath of WWI American participation tipped the balance in the Allies’ favor, who won the war The Versailles Treaty was to be written in Paris President Woodrow Wilson attended because he wanted them to implement his Fourteen Point Plan: –Free trade through lower tariffs and freedom of the seas –Reduction of arms supplies on all sides –Promotion of self-determination (both in Europe and overseas) –Creation of the League of Nations (organization that functions like the United Nations)
Results of the Versailles Treaty Punished Germany through disarmaments, reparation of payments, admittance of Germany’s fault for starting the war Many historians agree that by leaving Germany humiliated & in economic ruin, the Treaty set the stage for WWII Wilson’s 14 Point Plan was mostly discarded, except for the League of Nations
In the end, the United States rejected the treaty and American participation in the League of Nations America wanted to return to a period of isolationism Wanted less interaction with Europe, not more Wilson tried to campaign for popular support of the treaty but he suffered a stroke and could not complete it.