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Chapter 29 Scientific Revolution and the Enlightened Aftermath

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1 Chapter 29 Scientific Revolution and the Enlightened Aftermath

2 Scientific Revolution of the Seventeenth Century
Scientific method new style of examination Careful observation and systematic experimentation Used to achieve new and verified knowledge Rene Descartes Separated material from non-material universe Material world could be understood through mathematics Deductive reasoning from a general law to a particular example

3 Francis Bacon Most ideas that explain nature have not yet been discovered Looked forward to better, more understood world Inductive reasoning observe phenomenon without any preconceived laws or explanations Empirical method gather data based on five senses, then form generalization

4 Background of the Scientific Revolution
Medieval science was not as laughable as once thought Problem was reliance on authority rather than evidence Scholars accumulated evidence on nature, geography Rapid advance in mathematics became useful for exploring theories as well as counting New instruments invented: scales, gauges, microscopes etc.

5 Progress of Scientific Knowledge
Copernicus Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies Criticized geocentric universe as too complex Heliocentrism believed Earth revolved around fixed sun Catholicism, Protestantism condemned his theory Brahe and Kepler Brahe: measured planet rotations Kepler: Three Laws of Celestial Mechanics showed planets moved in ellipses

6 Galileo and Newton Galileo
His discoveries strongly supported Copernicus Theories forced Church to reconsider their condemnation of Copernicus Newton Was looking for explanation of movement Discovered formula of law of gravitation Principia Mathematica most influential book on science in 17th C Proposed new universe in which every part played particular role

7 Religion and Science in the 17th Century
Rejection of Church Saw science as rejecting Scripture, downgrading Creation Galileo threatened with imprisonment if he did not retract theory Most scientists thought themselves good Christians Most ordinary people were unmoved by new science But Church’s truth was being challenged by science Strong appeal to educated people (not the masses) Science came to be seen as alternative to theology Spinoza - great questioner - rejected personal deity

8 Science of Man Math and Science had been in university curriculum, but low prestige Relationship between Science and Philosophy was undergoing change Philosophy not regarded as worthy anymore New emphasis on Science as useful to humans Other phenomena were in second place New idea that phenomena such as creativity, imagination, ethics, political behavior could be measured Science of Man, social science

9 The Enlightenment Thought that social sciences could be examined just like natural sciences Ways of viewing physical world now applied to social, political, moral aspects Formative figures and basic ideas Newton Insisted on rational lawful principles in examining physical nature Human society, as part of nature, can also be rational Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding Mind is blank tablet until experience writes on it Humans must take charge of their future, can perfect themselves

10 The Enlightenment Faith in perfectability is distinguishing innovation of the Enlightenment Progress is reachable and real Must learn from the past Reformers took harsh view of Catholic Church – saw it as parasite Reformers believed in education as the salvation of humankind

11 Philosophes and Their Ideals
Men and women, scientists and philosophers committed to reform United in their desire for progress Where found? Paris was center of the Enlightenment Network of clubs, correspondence Less impact in eastern Europe Period of activity corresponded with French Revolution Difficult to find common denominators in ideas of the philosophes

12 Map 29.1

13 The Philosophes They argued amongst themselves
Got their message out to increasingly literate audience Common goals Balance of governmental power – Spirit of the Laws Constitutional limitation of monarchic power – Voltaire Freedom of conscience Equality before the law (but did not mean they believed in democracy) State supervised mandatory education Abolition of most forms of censorship

14 Adam Smith and Economic Thought
Outstanding figure in 18th C economic thought Wealth of Nations – gospel of free trade, free markets Laissez faire is a simplification Father of free enterprise Criticized mercantilism for operating to disadvantage of the consumer

15 Educational Theory and Popularization of knowledge
Rousseau Influential in pedagogy and educational philosophy Little influence in his lifetime, more popular in 19th C Encyclopedie of Diderot Upper class very interested in collecting knowledge Contributors included many outstanding intellectuals, often controversial Sold over 15,000 copies (very unusual)

16 Ideals of the Enlightenment: Reason, Liberty, Happiness
Reason - key word, humans’ highest gift Liberty - personal freedom to do, say anything not harming another Happiness - accessible here and now Progress - inevitable improvement

17 The Audience of the Philosophes
Urban elite, not for masses No attempt to get ideas to masses (illiterate, traditionalists) No sympathy for occasional call to violence

18 Discussion Questions 1. In the 18th century, the Scientific Revolution completely changed science forever. Its impact was enormous, even if the ideas did not directly affect most of the population for some time. Can you see a link between such modern inventions as the computer and the space shuttle and the discoveries of the Scientific Revolution? Compare the impact of the Scientific Revolution and the invention of the computer. 2. The philosophes pushed for political reform, emphasizing such concepts as legal equality and popular sovereignty, but at the same time they were not in favor of political democracy per se. Why not? What were they afraid of? Does their ambivalence make them hypocrites? Why or why not?

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