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World War I and Its Aftermath

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1 World War I and Its Aftermath
Section 1: The United States Enters World War I Section 2: The Home Front Section 3: A Bloody Conflict Section 4: The War’s Impact Standards: 3.5, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10

2 Section 1: The United States Enters World War I
Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy Opposed Imperialism Promotion of democracy The Mexican Revolution Victoriano Huerta seized power Wilson Sends Troops Into Mexico American sailors arrested in Tampico for entering a restricted area (quickly released) When Mexican government refused to apologize for the arrests gave Wilson reason to overthrow Huerta Anti-American riots broke out in Mexico Wilson accepted international mediation Venustiano Caranza, becomes Mexican president

3 The Outbreak of World War I
Pancho Villa Guerrilla warfare General John J. Pershing Invaded Mexico to try to apprehend Villa Wilson’s policy damaged US foreign relations Sent marines into Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic to preserve order as an attempt to build stable governments The Outbreak of World War I The Alliance System Triple Alliance Germany Italy Austria-Hungary

4 The Naval Race The Balkan Crisis A Continent Goes to War
Triple Entente Great Britain Russia France The Balkan Crisis Nationalism: a feeling of intense pride in one’s homeland Self-determination: the idea that people who belong to a nation should have their own country and government Serbs, Bosnians, Croats, Slovenes Russia supported the Serbs in independence Austria-Hungary had no intention of allowing the Slavic people to be independent A Continent Goes to War Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophia assassinated in Sarajevo by Bosnian revolutionary, Gavrilo Princip, part of the “Black Hand” group Austro-Hungarian government blamed Serbia for the attack Got Germany to support them against Russia in case of war Austria-Hungary issued ultimatum to Serbian government Austria declared war on Serbia Russia mobilizes troops Germany declared war on Russia

5 American Neutrality Germany’s Plan Fails Americans Take Sides
Massive attack on France Went through Belgium which was protected in its neutrality by Britain Germany’s movement through Belgium brings Britain into war Allies, those who fought for the Triple Entente France, Russia, Great Britain formed the backbone Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria Battle of the Marne Stopped German advance into France American Neutrality Americans Take Sides Public opinion favored Allied cause

6 Pro-British Sentiment
Wilson’s cabinet very Pro-British Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan favored neutrality British vie for American support Propaganda: information designed to influence Allies and Central Powers used propaganda German propaganda anti-Russian and didn’t appeal to Americans British propaganda better British cut transatlantic telegraph cable from Europe to US, limiting news about the war to mostly British reports Questionable reports of German atrocities in the battlefield such as using bodies for making fertilizer and soap Business Links East Coast strong links with Allied countries Midwest had strong pro-German feelings All foreign loans had to be approved by Secretary of Treasury, William McAdoo, who was pro-British and limited loans to Germany

7 Moving Toward War The British Blockade Planted mines in the North Sea
Forced inspections on neutral ships Expanded definition of contraband (prohibited materials) in order to stop other countries from sending supplies (and food) to Germany Germany begins using U-boats to sink any ship heading to Britain Triggered outrage in US and elsewhere Meant attack on civilian ships without warning Violation of international treaty to warn and protect Lusitania, a British passenger liner entered the war zone, German subs fired on it, killing 1200 passengers, including 128 Americans Many Americans called it an act of terrorism not war Others said that traveling in the war zone was done at one’s own risk Wilson vows to stay out of war German U-boat fires on Sussex, a French passenger ship Sussex Pledge: Germany promised not to fire on merchant ships without warning Wilson gets re-elected “He kept us out of the war”

8 The United States Declares War
Zimmerman telegram German official, Arthur Zimmerman, sends a telegram to the German Ambassador in Mexico proposing that Mexico ally itself with Germany Mexico would regain “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona” British intelligence intercepted the telegram Telegram was leaked to American newspapers Many Americans begin calling for war with Germany Germany resumes U-boat attacks Between Feb. 3 and March 21, U-boats sank six American merchant ships without warning President calls special session of Congress Congress declares war on Germany April 6, 1917

9 Section 2: The Home Front
Building Up the Military Selective Service Conscription: forced military service Draft through lottery 2.8 million American males drafted 2 million others volunteered African Americans in the War Nearly 400,000 drafted About 42,000 served overseas as combat troops Faced discrimination and prejudice in the army Segregated units Supervised by white officers Fought with distinction 92nd and 93rd Infantry Divisions on the Western Front Won praise from French commander, Marshal Henri Pétain and US commander, General John Pershing The entire 369th Infantry Division won the Croix de Guerre (war cross) for gallantry in combat

10 Women in the Military Nurses for both Army and Navy Clerical workers
Wore standard uniforms Navy enlisted women they were ranked yeomen By end of war 11,000 women had served in the navy Clerical Radio operators Electricians Pharmacists Photographers Chemists Torpedo assemblers Army did not enlist women Hired as temporary employees to fill clerical positions Army Nursing Corps Over 20,000 nurses served in the army during the war More than 10,000 served overseas

11 Organizing Industry War Industries Board (WIB) Food and Fuel
Coordinated production of war materials Bernard Baruch appointed to run WIB Told manufacturers what they could and could not produce Controlled raw materials Ordered construction of new factories With presidential approval set prices Food and Fuel Food Administration Herbert Hoover Increase food production/decrease consumption “Food Will Win the War- Don’t Waste It” “Hooverize” by “serving just enough” Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Tuesdays, Porkless Thursdays Victory Gardens Daylight savings time to save energy Heatless Mondays to save energy

12 Mobilizing the Workforce
Paying for the War Liberty Bonds Victory Bonds By buying bonds Americans were essentially loaning the government money Paid back bonds with interest in a specific number of years Buying bonds was an act of patriotism Mobilizing the Workforce National War Labor Board (NWLB) Chaired by W.H. Taft and Frank Walsh Attempted to mediate labor disputes to avoid strikes Pressured industry to grant concessions, including wage increases, 8-hour workdays, right for unions to organize and bargain collectively Unions agreed not to disrupt war production with strikes

13 Women Support Industry
Filled jobs vacated by men serving in the military Factories and manufacturing jobs Shipping and railroads The Great Migration Begins Immigration from Europe cut off African Americans leave South to the Northern cities 300, ,000 African Americans move from Southern states to Northern cities Changed racial populations of cities such as Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and New York Mexican Americans Head North Due to political turmoil and wartime labor shortage Over 100,000 Mexicans migrated into Texas, Arizona, California and New Mexico, providing labor on farms and ranches in the Southwest Mexican Americans head to Chicago, St. Louis, Omaha, and other cities to take wartime jobs Faced discrimination and hostility Settled in barrios where they could support one another

14 Ensuring Public Support
Selling the War Committee on Public Information George Creel recruited advertising execs, commercial artists, authors, songwriters, entertainers, public speakers, and motion picture companies to help sway public opinion “four-minute speeches” patriotic talks Supported buying bonds Turning in draft dodgers Support the war Civil Liberties Curtailed Espionage: spying to acquire secret government information Espionage Act of 1917 Penalized disloyalty Giving false reports Interfering with war effort Giving aid to the enemy Sedition Act of 1918 Illegal to publicly oppose the war or criticize the president 1500 prosecutions, 1000 convictions

15 The Supreme Court Limits Free Speech
A Climate of Suspicion “Liberty Cabbage” “Salisbury Steak” Dropped German language classes Orchestras stopped performing Schubert, Wagner and other German composers Lynching in Collinsville, IL German-born man lynched on suspicion of disloyalty to US Mobs attacked labor activists, socialists, and pacifists Newspaper ads asked people to monitor their neighbors People formed private organizations American Protective League The Boy Spies of America The Supreme Court Limits Free Speech “Clear and present danger” curbs free speech in Schenck vs. the US Can’t yell “Fire” in a crowded theater

16 Section 3: A Bloody Conflict
Combat in WWI Trench Warfare “no man’s land” New Technology Poison gas Gas masks Tanks Airplanes Observation at first then small bombs Attached machine guns for “dogfights” The Americans and Victory Doughboys: nickname for inexperienced American soldiers Winning the War at Sea Convoys: merchant ships and troop transports were surrounded by warships to insure safe passage

17 The German Offensive Falters
Russia Leaves the War Scarcity of food and fuel Czar Nicholas II abdicated his throne Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin Communist takeover of Russia Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany Russia lost a substantial amount of territory (Ukraine, Polish and Baltic territories and Finland) Removed German troops from Russian lands The German Offensive Falters American troops capture Cantigny French troops block Germans from entering Château-Thierry American and French troops stop Germans from entering Paris

18 A Flawed Peace The Battle of the Argonne Forest The War Ends
American win The War Ends Revolution engulfs Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Turks surrender People of Berlin revolt and force German emperor to step down At the 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month (11/11/1918) fighting stopped Germany signs armistice (ceasefire) A Flawed Peace “Big Four” President Wilson, British prime minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlando enter peace conference; Germany was not invited Wilson’s Fourteen Points A way to peace League of Nations

19 The Treaty of Versailles
Reparations: war damages $33 MILLION DOLLARS Germany could not possibly pay that Required Germany take full responsibility for war War resulted in the dissolution of four empires: Russian Empire Ottoman Empire German Empire Austria-Hungary Nine new countries are formed including, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Czechoslovakia

20 The US Senate Rejects the Treaty
“the Irreconcilables” Against the League of Nations May supersede power of Congress May force US into other foreign conflicts “Reservationists” Supported the League but would only ratify the treaty if amendments were made to preserve a nation’s right to freedom and independent action Wilson takes it to the People Strain too much for him Traveled 8000 miles in 3 weeks Collapsed in Colorado Suffered a stroke upon return to White House Senate refused to ratify Treaty

21 Section 4: The War’s Impact
An Economy in Turmoil Cost of living: the cost of food, clothing, shelter, and essentials people need to survive Inflation Leads to Strikes Owners try to break unions The Seattle General Strike 35,000 shipyard workers walk off jobs Higher wages, shorter hours General strike: one that involves all workers living in an area, not just those on a particular job or industry The Boston Police Strike 75% of officers walk off jobs Calvin Coolidge sends in the National Guard Police Commissioner fires all strikers when they return to work The Steel Strike 350,000 workers went on strike wanting higher pay, shorter hours, and recognition of the union Elbert H. Gary, US Steel, refused to talk to union leaders Blamed strike on immigrants Company hired African Americans and Mexicans to replace strikers End of strike left 18 strikers dead Ended union until 1937

22 Racial Unrest The Red Scare Chicago Anti-Communist Movement
20+ race riots just in summer of 1919 Worst was at an all white beach, both sides threw rocks and stones at an African American teen to hinder him coming ashore, he drowned Led to whites attacking African American neighborhoods and African Americans attacking white neighborhoods Lasted almost 2 weeks 38 people died (23 black, 15 white, over 500 injured) The Red Scare Anti-Communist Movement Communist International: an organization for coordinating the activities of Communist parties in countries other than the Soviet Union The Red Scare Begins Post office intercepts 30 packages with bombs in them The Palmer Raids Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) headed by J. Edgar Hoover Deported thousands of suspects Disregarded civil liberties Searched without warrants Mistreated and jailed people for long periods without counsel

23 Review for Test An End of Progressivism
Economic problems Labor unrest Racial tensions Disillusionment in US Warren G. Harding’s platform “Normalcy” Review for Test

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