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WWI Battles SSBAT criticize the motives, strategies, and outcomes of WWI after viewing the WWI Battles lecture SSBAT criticize the motives, strategies,

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Presentation on theme: "WWI Battles SSBAT criticize the motives, strategies, and outcomes of WWI after viewing the WWI Battles lecture SSBAT criticize the motives, strategies,"— Presentation transcript:

1 WWI Battles SSBAT criticize the motives, strategies, and outcomes of WWI after viewing the WWI Battles lecture SSBAT criticize the motives, strategies, and outcomes of WWI after viewing the WWI Battles lecture

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3 Schlieffen Plan Defeat France b/f Russia is mobilized Defeat France b/f Russia is mobilized French will immediately retake Alsace-Lorraine. French will immediately retake Alsace-Lorraine. Plan failed: Plan failed: –Germans held up by Belgians –Stopped by French & British at the Battle of the Marne. –Russians also mobilized more quickly than expected.

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5 WWI War Goals France France –regain Alasace/Lorraine, Saar Basin (coal region) –create a DMZ (Rhineland) as a buffer –cripple Germany’s military –get German & Turkish colonies in Africa & Mid-East Great Britain Great Britain –get German & Turkish colonies in Africa & Mid-East Italy Italy –wanted land from Austria-Hungary

6 WWI War Goals Russia Russia –wanted control of the Dardenelle & Bosporus Straits Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary –self preservation Germany Germany –part of France, Luxembourg, Belgium, western Russia –A-H and the Balkans as a “sphere of influence” –take over French and British colonies in Africa United States United States –win an end the war –Wilson’s 14 Points

7 Stalemate Both sides dig in: Both sides dig in: –Barbed wire entanglements 10 miles exchanged in 2 years. 10 miles exchanged in 2 years. Mass is supreme principle Mass is supreme principle Cross b/w 19 th C & modern warfare Cross b/w 19 th C & modern warfare

8 Trench Warfare Machine gun and artillery make it difficult to attack a trench. Machine gun and artillery make it difficult to attack a trench. –Artillery creates “No Man’s Land” - Impassable –E-tool most important “weapon” Huge casualties for attackers Huge casualties for attackers Chlorine & Mustard Gas Chlorine & Mustard Gas –First used against French in 1915

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11 Major Battles Battle of Verdun, 1916 Battle of Verdun, 1916 Battle of the Marne, 1914, 1918 Battle of the Marne, 1914, 1918 Battle of Ypres, 1914, 1915, 1917 Battle of Ypres, 1914, 1915, 1917 Battle of the Somme, 1916 Battle of the Somme, 1916 Battle of Cambrai, 1917 Battle of Cambrai, 1917 Battle for Belleau Wood, 1918 Battle for Belleau Wood, 1918

12 Battle of Verdun German attack to frighten French - Feb German attack to frighten French - Feb General Henri Petain commander of Verdun General Henri Petain commander of Verdun March: Germans attack - advance 3km March: Germans attack - advance 3km Small attacks during Summer & Autumn Small attacks during Summer & Autumn French counter-attack – 2km over six weeks French counter-attack – 2km over six weeks Longest battle – Feb – Dec 1916 Longest battle – Feb – Dec 1916 Losses: French 550,000 – German 434,000 Losses: French 550,000 – German 434,000

13 Battles of the Marne Battle that stopped German advance German army advancing through Belgium and northern France Germans pushing again. The four years in between had cost hundreds of thousands of lives Armies were still exactly where they were when they started.

14 Battles of Ypres (E-Pray) attempt by the British to stop the advances of Germans First use of poison gas Over-ambitious aims, bad weather, and bad judgments led to horrific losses. Total casualties: over 250,000

15 Battle of Somme (Some) “Big Push” attack across river Somme by British Huge Failure: – –Soldiers didn’t follow orders – –Artillery didn’t dislodge German wire – –Didn’t destroy machine-gun posts Biggest slaughters in military history

16 Battle of Cambrai (Comebray) First full-scale offensive with the tank 476 British tanks charge towards German lines Success surprised both sides British were not prepared for the victory

17 Battle for Belleau Wood (Below Wood) “Beautiful Water” First US Marines in WWI combat - 4 June 1918 First US Marines in WWI combat - 4 June June 1918 Marines assist French forces 5 June 1918 Marines assist French forces –Retreating Frenchman advise Marines to retreat. Capt Lloyd Williams replies “Retreat, hell. We just got here.” Marines pick off Germans at 800 yards Marines pick off Germans at 800 yards –200 yds considered far to Germans

18 Belleau Wood Dan Daly Dan Daly –“Come on you sons of bitches. Do you want to live forever?” 26 June US victory 26 June US victory Devil Dog Devil Dog –Title given Marines by Germans “Teufel Hunden”

19 Casualties Great Britain 1,000,000 France 1,300,000 Russia 1,700,000 Germany and allies 3,500,000 America 50,000 At least 5,500 people died per day during the War

20 WWI Weapons Machine gun Machine gun Tank Tank Airplane Airplane Poison gas / chemical weapons Poison gas / chemical weapons Subs (Invented in Revolutionary War) Subs (Invented in Revolutionary War) Radios Radios

21 Tanks Brits introduce in Sept 1916 Brits introduce in Sept 1916 –Means to cross No Man’s Land w/ protection –Employed piecemeal to be decisive –Unreliable and slow

22 Submarines Germans announce submarine blockade Germans announce submarine blockade –Part physical, part psychological weapon Draws resources from offensive operations Draws resources from offensive operations –Civilian control of production Gap = protection for merchant ships? Gap = protection for merchant ships?

23 Aviation Used for reconnaissance/spotting Used for reconnaissance/spotting –Wireless communication critical development in spotting Arial combat Arial combat –Troops don’t like planes Drop bombs on railways, intersections, factories, etc. Drop bombs on railways, intersections, factories, etc. Von Richtofen “Red Baron”

24 “Jenny” JN-4

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