Presentation on theme: "Europe and North America in the Postwar Years"— Presentation transcript:
1Europe and North America in the Postwar Years CHAPTER 314/12/2017CHAPTER 31Europe and North America in the Postwar YearsSection 1: Aftermath of the War in EuropeSection 2: Origins of the Cold WarSection 3: Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in EuropeSection 4: The United States and Canada
2Aftermath of the War in Europe Section 1:Aftermath of the War in EuropeObjectives:Describe the origins of the postwar settlement for Europe.Explain why Germany was divided into four occupation zones and what developed as a result.Explore how the United Nations is organized.Identify the problems the Allies faced in keeping the peace.
3Wartime Conferences and Postwar Problems Section 1:Aftermath of the War in EuropeWartime Conferences and Postwar ProblemsTehran, YaltaDisagreements between “Big Three,” plans for United Nations
4The Occupation of Germany Section 1:Aftermath of the War in EuropeThe Occupation of GermanyDecisions at Potsdam – Allied Control Council, Council of Foreign MinistersRedrawing borders – increased population in GermanyDemilitarization and reparationsThe Nürnberg trials – Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace and humanity
5Aftermath of the War in Europe Section 1:Aftermath of the War in EuropeThe United NationsGeneral Assembly – any nation could join and have same voting rights as othersSecurity Council – ten temporary members and five permanent ones; veto power
6Aftermath of the War in Europe Section 1:Aftermath of the War in EuropePeacemaking ProblemsSoviet Union and Western Allies had conflicting goalsSoviets wanted communist-controlled governments
7SECTION 1Aftermath of War in EuropeQuestion:What were the purposes and results of the wartime conferences?
8SECTION 1 Aftermath of War in Europe Purpose Result Yalta Conference ensure lasting peace, decide how to deal with defeated nationsdecided to establish UN and to partition GermanyAllied Control Councilto oversee temporary German governmentmembers deadlocked on decisions; each ended up governing its own zoneUnited Nationsto prevent another war41 nations drafted charter; members worked together to avoid conflict
9Origins of the Cold War Objectives: Section 2: Examine how and why the alliance between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union ended.Investigate how the United States attempted to stop the spread of communism and aid Europe.Describe how Germany became two separate countries.Identify the Cold War alliances that developed in Europe.
10Origins of the Cold War The End of the Alliance Section 2: Struggle between communism and democracyCold War – war of ideas and worldviews waged by two superpowers
11The United States Aids Europe Section 2:Origins of the Cold WarThe United States Aids EuropeThe Truman Doctrine – United States committed to restricting spread of communismThe Marshall Plan – removal of trade barriers to provide economic aid
12Origins of the Cold War The Cold War in Europe Section 2: Eastern and Central Europe – Soviet Union overthrew Czechoslovakia and forced communism on themProblems in Germany – three Western powers united their zones; Soviets opposed unification and blockaded border into West BerlinThe division of Germany – Western Allies approved formation of West Germany; Soviet Union formed East Germany
13NATO and the Warsaw Pact Section 2:Origins of the Cold WarNATO and the Warsaw PactNATO – twelve Western nations signed treaty to protect each other, others soon joinedWarsaw Pact – Eastern bloc nations’ mutual defense program, troops outnumbered NATO troops
14meant to pro- vide protection for member nations in case of attack SECTION 2Origins of the Cold WarNATOBothWarsaw Pactmembers relied heavily on U.S. nuclear weapons as a deterrent to aggressionmeant to pro- vide protection for member nations in case of attackmembers pledged to supply troops in proportion to their population in case of attack
15Objectives: Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in Europe Section 3: Describe the West German “miracle.”Explain why the British met with mixed success in stimulating economic growth.Explore how France maintained an independent position in European affairs.Analyze how the Soviet Union changed under new leadership.Identify the problems Eastern European nations faced.
16The West German “Miracle” Section 3:Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in EuropeThe West German “Miracle”West German economic recovery – free-market policy, reconstruction and industrial development progressed rapidlyPolitics – stable democracy; committed to market economy; encouraged East Germans to escape to West Germany
17Postwar Britain Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in Europe Section 3:Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in EuropePostwar BritainLoss of workers and coloniesCost of overseas commitmentsShift from coal to oil and nuclear power
18New Republics in France Section 3:Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in EuropeNew Republics in FranceDe Gaulle helped to transform French empire into voluntary association of self-governing nationsPolitical instability led people to reject reforms
19Western Europe and Integration Section 3:Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in EuropeWestern Europe and IntegrationRecovery elsewhere in Europe – democracies in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden; free-enterprise systems in Greece, Portugal, and SpainEconomic integration – Common Market, European Community
20The Soviet Union After Stalin Section 3:Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in EuropeThe Soviet Union After StalinKhrushchev denounced Stalin’s policies, made economic reformsInnovations in military and space technologyEvolved into modern industrial society
21Eastern Europe Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in Europe Section 3:Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in EuropeEastern EuropeCollectivization delayed economic recoveryLower living standards than in the WestDissatisfaction with communism
22SECTION 3Israel and the Occupied TerritoriesReconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in EuropeQuestion:What were the results of economic policies in western Europe?
23SECTION 3 Israel and the Occupied Territories Reconstruction, Reform, and Reaction in EuropeEconomic policiesResultsWest Germanyfree market economy“miracle” recoveryGreat Britainwelfare stateslow economic growth, low productivityFrancehelp from Marshall Planslow recovery, political instabilityOther Western European Nationsvaried; generally focused on free-enterprise systemvaried; differing rates of political and economic stability
24The United States and Canada Section 4:The United States and CanadaObjectives:Examine the major domestic problems the United States faced in the postwar era.Investigate how the policy of containment led to foreign conflicts.Identify the challenges the Canadian people responded to in the postwar era.
25Domestic Challenges Face the United States Section 4:The United States and CanadaDomestic Challenges Face the United StatesThe economy and the Cold War at home – new industries, new construction, economic growth; anticommunist hysteria, McCarthyismDomestic reforms and civil rights – war on poverty; NAACP; public school integration; Martin Luther King, Jr.
26Foreign Policy and the Cold War Section 4:The United States and CanadaForeign Policy and the Cold WarSoutheast Asia Treaty Organization – to halt communist advancesEisenhower Doctrine – economic and military assistance to noncommunist nations in Middle EastCuba turned to Soviet Union for support against United States, resulting in Cuban Missile CrisisVietnam War – sparked frustration, discontent, and antiwar protest in United States
27The United States and Canada Section 4:The United States and CanadaCanada’s ChallengesEconomic and agricultural growth, as well as industrial growthFrench Quebec wanted to separate from rest of Canada
28Question: What were the results of the policy of containment? SECTION 4The United States and CanadaQuestion:What were the results of the policy of containment?
29SECTION 4 The United States and Canada Policies and Actions Purpose Resultspolice action in Koreato stop spread of communismnuclear arms competitionSEATOfear and discontent within the U.S.Eisenhower Doctrineinvasion of Cubainvolvement in Vietnam
30Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 31 1. How effective were command economies in the postwar era?2. What problems regarding democracy did the separatist movement in Canada raise?3. What sort of protests did civil rights activists rely upon in the 1960s?