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British Win the War But Lose the Peace! How so?

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Presentation on theme: "British Win the War But Lose the Peace! How so?"— Presentation transcript:

1 French and Indian War- The Aftermath-Causes the American Revolution {Act. A-F}
British Win the War But Lose the Peace! How so? 1.In some ways…the parents have come home and mean to instill order and discipline to their wayward children! How were the colonists behaving as wayward children? A. The colonists have grown accustomed to many freedoms that were perhaps available no place else in the British Empire. B. “spoiled children are not easily brought under control” So…how would you try to rein in an unruly child?

2 Jeffery Amherst is put in charge of Ohio
Treaty of Paris 1763-Britain gains Ohio and the remnants of the French Empire in America Jeffery Amherst is put in charge of Ohio Takes 4 actions! 1. Britain acts harshly towards Nat. Amer. 2. Settlers built forts and cleared lands of Nat. Americans 3. In building farms-drove away game animals! 4. Raised price of trade goods to Native Americans- makes trade more difficult and perhaps seem unfair.

3 Native Americans Respond! “The British are dogs in red”
An Ottawa Chief Galvanizes Resistance! 1. Leads raids against Brit settlements and forts {Fort Detroit} 2. Drives settlers out of homes! * What should the British do? As responsible parents what would you do? Children…”No playing in Ohio” Chief Pontiac wages war and tries to get the tribes of Ohio to fight as 1

4 Britain acts with caution? Fairness?
Proclamation of 1763 – Had 2 Goals… 1. Protect the Indians and settlers west of the Appalachians 2. Ease tensions-avoid another costly war! Why? British Treasury was dangerously low of revenue/funds. Brit. takes 4 hated measures… A line was drawn west of Appalachians All settlers west told to return east No more settlers could go west Merchants told if they insisted on trade in Ohio that they did so at their own risk of pain and death! Is this a “fair” response of a concerned parent? Why or not? Why were merchants on their own? Answer… $$$$$$$$

5 Colonists Respond with Tempers!
Why were the colonists so mad? Analyze the Proclamation of 1763… The Proclamation serves to do what? Without protections it limits colonial trade with Nat. Americans Those dreaming of going west-can no longer do so! Some colonies, {Pa. Va.} lost claims west-arouses anger! 10,000 British soldiers stationed in coastal cities to enforce the Proclamation Are colonists rightfully suspicious by some of these provisions? *** Look closely at point 4. Why might this appear suspicious to a colonist accustomed to freedoms? Colonists in the end-largely ignore the Proclamation of 1763 Ex. One of our heroes explored Kentucky… Who was he?

6 Daniel Boone! Hero or Lawbreaker? Explorer/Settler or Trespasser?
Boone and a few woodsmen friends cross Appalachians through Cumberland Gap finds a “Hunter Paradise” loaded with game and with lush meadows for farming. returns with 30 others to Kentucky-est. “Wilderness Road” that others will later follow west 3. Founded Boonesborough, Kentucky

7 a. make colonists pay fair share
A new Prime Minister has 2 Goals! “Okay spoiled colonists-mom and dad are home!” 1. Grenville Program a. make colonists pay fair share of French Indian War debt b. Tighten restrictions on colonists: 1. enforce existing taxes 2 impose new taxes

8 Pontiac’s Rebellion Loses Steam/Fails!
1. Treaty 1763 required French to abandon North American settlements As A Result… The French tell Pontiac that they could no longer support his efforts against the British “Red Dogs”. 1 by 1 Indian tribes in the Ohio Region realize that without French support…they could not defeat the British and they abandon the rebellion! “ You just can’t trust anyone now-a-days”

9 Review…Activity A Who was Jeffery Amherst?
How did British anger the Nat. Americans? Who galvanizes the N.A. against British? Who becomes Prime Minister-2 Goals? Which person gains fame for ignoring the Proc. 1763 Why were American Colonists angry over the Proc. 1763 Why does the native rebellion eventually lose steam? If your opinion, was Britain correct in its actions? Explain your answer? Think-what might they try that could work better? Should they even have to try…after who is the parent and child?

10 Grenville’s Program is put in place! {Act. B}
1764 Sugar Act is passed-it changes a high tax on sugar and adds new tax on molasses…How did colonists respond? As a “spoiled” child might! Resist paying the tax Smuggled in goods wherever possible Bribed tax collectors…perhaps even threaten collectors Their actions force Britain into taking even harsher measures! Can any nation permit its people to not pay taxes? Why or why not? If yes…what could be the devastating repercussions?

11 Britain issues the Stamp Tax…Enraging Colonists!
What items were actually taxed by this new duty? Documents requiring a legal stamp? Ex. Various legal documents… Such as: Wills Diplomas Almanacs Newspapers Dice Playing Cards Marriage Licenses Analyze the list of items…why would Americans be so enraged? How do American Colonists respond to the Stamp Act?

12 American Colonists Respond to Stamp Act…
Acts of anger/violence! Attack Tax Collectors Tar and Feather some Intimidate/threaten others Refuse to pay the taxes Riots break out in cities Brit. official’s homes are set ablaze Colonists view this as an example of “____________ without ____________” Form the Stamp Act Congress

13 Purpose of the Stamp Act Congress?
As a forum for representatives in colonies to discuss ongoing issues/problems To create a petition and give it to King George III asserting the idea that Parliament had no power to tax the colonies Parliament’s response… Ignore the petition! How will colonists now respond? Stamp Act Congress calls on colonists to “Boycott” British made goods! Results! British trade decreases by 14% Success! Parliament repeals the Stamp Act in 1766

14 But the Colonists Are Not Done
But the Colonists Are Not Done! Patrick Henry…Becomes a great leader/rebel! He was a leading member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses he issues the Declaration of Rights and Grievances…It states 1.Only Colonial governments have the right to pass laws on the colonists 2. Parl. Had no right to extend Admiralty Courts to the colonies 3. As Brit. Subjects-colonists are entitled to trial by jury. 4. Only Colonial legislatures had the right to tax the colonists 5. Called for a repeal of Sugar Acts Patrick Henry makes an even bolder statement! He refers to the actions of King George III as… Tyrannical – the king is a Tyrant! Dangerous words indeed, why? Educated people of the day knew the Teachings/philosophies of John Locke

15 George III a Tyrant? John Locke George III
English Phil. Late 1600s Eng. Monarch mid-late 1700s

16 According to John Locke…
Why was it dangerous to refer to the monarch as a “Tyrant” or “Tyrannical” According to John Locke… Monarchs get authority to rule from the people Rulers who act without the consent of the governed are by definition acting as tyrants People have the right to remove tyrants from power and replace them with a government that will better meet with their consent Since people grant consent to be governed, it is the place of monarchs and governments to work on the behalf of the people and with their consent In short…the governed people of any nation have the right to remove “Tyrants’ from power and replace them with another monarch/government

17 Locke’s 3 Natural Rights of People
All People had certain Rights that no person or government had to right to remove… Life! Property! Liberty! Which did he believe was most important? Why?

18 {Act C} Tensions with Colonies Increase! Britain Seeks to Gain Revenue
1766 parliament issues Declaratory Act: It declares Parliament in fact has the right to pass taxes and to make laws on behalf of the 13 American Colonies and all British subjects. Charles Townshend insists Britain tax the colonists! Grenville calls is folly “We Dare Not” but Townshend insists and dares to do it!! 1767 Townshend Act is passed by Parliament! A. creates taxes on items such as: glass, paper, paint, lead, tea {low taxes}

19 Britain attempts to drive home its authority!
Although colonists state Parl. Has no right to tax… Britain persists! Assigns new more dedicated customs officials to enforce import duties on merchants Customs Officials are given “Writs of Assistance” that empowers them to search anywhere for any reason Customs agents are now empowered to search and seize any items believed to be of suspicious origins… Americans respond with outrage! They believed such actions were forbidden under British Common Law.

20 Colonists Grow More United
Colonists Grow More United! Call on others to unite in anger against the British tyranny! Merchants and planters sign non-importation agreements Sons of Liberty are created and get down to business as agents of trouble for the British government. A key leader is Sam Adams – an unlikely leader/hero?

21 What actions are taken by the Sons of Liberty… motto was “Join or Die”
1. Have mock hangings of government officials {hang people in effigy} 2. Threaten/warn/intimidate British officials of possible violence 3. Organize and attempt to join colonies in acts against British rule. Even Worse as things grow more tense! 4. Hang British Customs Agents Note engraving of Customs Agent John Huske prior to The American Revolution

22 Daughters of Liberty Organize efforts against British Tyranny!
Actions taken include: Parade in public against British policies Signed petitions against unfair British policies Organized women to boycott British made goods {ex. Fine cloth} Encouraged women/farmers to raise own sheep, prepare own wool, spin own wool, create own fabrics, make own clothing and to wear only goods made in homes of Americans Colonists/women resistant to these were pressured to follow suit and work for the common good!

23 Hence the traditional term…“Home Spun”
Spinning Wheel Colonial Loom The efforts of the Daughters of Liberty do make an impact on British merchant profits!

24 Writs of Assistance… Not Today!
What do we call a Writ of Assistance today? How are they greatly different?

25 Colonial Tensions Increase {Act. D} Violence In the Streets of Boston!
Liberty Trees become centers of town attention. Why? Analyze it’s attraction? Consider seasons of the year? Consider natural sense of awe?

26 1765 Quartering Act What does it do? What is it’s purpose?
How do American colonists respond?

27 The Boston Massacre When we think of a massacre… What do we think? What do we envision? When we think of the Boston Massacre in 1770 we see… What does it appear happened? What actually happened? Who died? Lawyer of fame? Trial results?

28 Paul Revere – truly a “crafty” patriot
Silversmith Son of Liberty a Midnight Rider…

29 Victims of the “ Massacre”
Those who died on the spot included: Sam Maverick Sam Gray Jonas Caldwell Crispus Attucks {believed -1st to die} Patrick Carr died several days later!

30 The Lawyer…Wins his case!
John Adams Brilliant legal mind Could be arrogant Could be impatient Was not well-liked Capt. Preston and the others are basically found to have acted in self-defense 1 soldier was branded the others acquitted of guilt

31 Group E/Activity E Questions…
Committees of Correspondence Keep the fires of discontent stoked… Keep the colonies informed Plan for the future… How to make even more trouble… And yet tensions calm from 1770 – 1773 until…

32 1773 Parliament passes the Tea Act
Why: To repay a past favor… to save the British East India Tea Co. What did it do? 1. Grants a monopoly to the Brit. East India Tea Co. 2. Imposes a small tea tax 3. Colonial merchants cut out of the tea trade! Results – Price of tea goes down overall!

33 American Colonists Respond w/outrage!
Sons of Liberty again go back to harassing tax collectors and customs agents Plot and plan acts of revenge! Hancock and other merchants are furious! Daughters of Liberty promote the idea of alternatives to drinking tea… etc. etc.

34 Sons of Liberty – Bring Trouble! Dec. 16th, 1773 Party Time!
3 Ships Eleanor, Dartmouth, Beaver Millions of dollars worth of tea – thrown in the sea by “Mohawk Indians” Who did it? Secrecy remains! Revere, Hancock, Sam Adams?

35 Other Colonies Resist! New York
In Virginia, in Charleston and in other cities Refuse to let tea be unloaded Refuse to permit ships to dock Confine tea to warehouses – not to be sold! Are these methods of protest used today? Why have some people joined the “Tea Party?”

36 Still Loyal to Britain He states that all the tea – the full price of
the destroyed tea – should be repaid!

37 Tons of tea Destroyed Millions of dollars worth!
Lord North – British Prime Minister Gov. Thomas Hutchinson Angered Bostonians prior to the Tea Party by insisting colonists permit tea be unloaded Warns that Brit. must impose harsh After the Tea Party – told Britain to show penalties or the colonies will be lost! Strength and not give in to colonists

38 Lord North has his way… Brit. passes the Coercive Acts 1774
Colonists call them the “Intolerable Acts” Boston Port will be closed until all the tea is repaid Massachusetts legislatures may only meet once per year. Brit. Officials accused of crimes would now be put on trial in Canada or Britain 2nd Quartering Act is passed {now in private homes}

39 {Group F} American Colonists are Outraged! Bostonians are enraged!
Britain adds insult to injury – passes the Quebec Act of why ? Analyze what it did… seems suspicious? French Canadians – given/gain territory - their territory now includes the Ohio Valley May keep their own language and laws May keep their Roman Catholic faith

40 Quebec Act 1775 Colonists have geographic concerns…
Brilliant move by Britain or mistake? Observe the map!

41 First Continental Congress meets:
Location: Philadelphia Present: each colony is represented except Georgia Lasts 7 weeks Brings forward several resolutions! Still loyal to Britain Seek a peaceful solution Petition/appeal to King George III/Parliament 1. Our rights are being abused 2. Unless respected, will refuse to trade w/England Agree to meet in 1 year to discuss what further to do!

42 Galloway Plan 1775 A plan to unite the colonies into a grand Council w/members from each colony. Representatives of the Grand Council would serve in Parliament Thus gaining representation! New Englanders vote the idea down!

43 1st Continental Congress also creates the Continental Association
Organization created to keep colonies informed and to keep the colonists focused on the goal of… Boycotting British made goods!

44 Massachusetts plans for the worse!
Create their own civilian militia unit… The Minutemen – who will not back down!

45 Gen. Thomas Gage is placed in charge of Brit. forces in Mass.
Sons of Liberty continue to cause problems… Gen. Gage. is given orders that will start a war!

46 Gen. Gage means to bring things under control…
His Orders - To quickly and quietly: 1. March out to Concord and Lexington 2. Seize any weapons that are being stored by the Minutemen 3. Apprehend John Hancock and Sam Adams on charges of Conspiracy and Treason

47 Midnight Riders Give out a warning!
The 3 Riders: Paul Revere William Dawes Samuel Prescott Prescott was the only one to Escape capture! The church: Old North Church The Signal… “1 if by land and 2 if by sea” The warning… “The Regulars are coming”

48 Gage Encounters the Minutemen!
Hancock and Adams escape! No weapons are captured The Minutemen stand their ground and mean to start trouble

49 The “Shot heard round the World”
Date: 19th of April, 1775 Location: Lexington Village Green Gen. Gage orders Minutemen to go home! Capt. Thomas Parker – tells his Minutemen ” hold your powder, if they mean to have war…let it begin here!” Gage’s British soldiers and the Minutemen are face to face…when a shot rings out!

50 8 Die in Lexington – the war begins!

51 Gen. Gage is in for trouble!
Gen. Gage is now in hostile territory and his army – Soldiers are exhausted – previous night’s forced march – 20 miles! Will be harassed and sniped at – most of the way back to Boston! Gage’s army suffered 273 casualties!

52 So. War has begun – or has it? The Olive Branch Petition…
Continental Congress… Declares its loyalty to George III Asks him to repeal the Intolerable Acts… George III responds… Accuses the colonists of trying to start their own independent empire! Vows to bring the rebels to justice!!! Sends 20,000 soldiers to America!!!

53 Rebels Take Ticonderoga!
Key Players: The Green Mountain Boys led by… Benedict Arnold Ethan Allen “Come out you rat!” Significance: 1. Fort’s location- gave it control of lake Champlain? 2. Americans got 43 cannons and 16 mortars A great victory – well, what the books rarely tell you is…

54 2nd Continental Congress… Appoints A Commander of the Continental Army
George Washington There is a “back story” sp listen up! Legend has it that he was…reluctant? Yet, he came to Congress for weeks in his French and Indian War uniform… John Adams – loses a friend? Why Washington? Experience? Geography?

55 The Continental Army…oh boy
Sounds grand but it was a disaster… How/Why? It lacked qualified leaders, was poorly trained, supplied, fed, armed, was disorganized, had temporary enlistments

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