Presentation on theme: "Russia in the immediate aftermath of the 1905 Revolution."— Presentation transcript:
Russia in the immediate aftermath of the 1905 Revolution
What had the 'real' revolutionaries learned from the experience of the 1905 revolution? Widespread revolution was difficult to control and lead. It was vital to gain control of the Tsar Support of the military was vital to success The military was mostly loyal to the Tsar Most of the people were still loyal to the Tsar as a person and looked to him for protection and help There was the potential for revolution but for it to be successful it would need to be concentrated in the cities
In 1906 Stolypin was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers He wanted to bring stability to the countryside by giving greater ownership of land to the peasants He wanted to bring greater stability to the cities by stimulating industry He wanted to increase the Tsar's political credibility by making the Duma effective
The Duma in action The first Duma (April 1906) was radical in composition - 30% workers and peasants - was quickly dissolved The second Duma was called in Feb 1907 and lasted until June - it was equally radical A new electoral law was passed which greatly increased the influence of the land- owning class and reduced the power of the working class As a result the Third and Fourth Duma (1907 - 1914) were more Right Wing, more opposed to reform and less representative of the people.
Stolypin's agricultural reforms He wanted the peasants to be free from the communes (the co-operative councils in the villages) and so he made it easier for them to buy land The peasants themselves were not too keen on this, preferring land to be held for everyone by their commune, but the Kulaks saw this as an opportunity to increase their wealth By 1917 90% of land was owned by the peasants, communes and Kulaks. The land however had become less productive as there were now no large estates which could get economies of scale. This had the effect of decreasing food stocks for use in time of crisis and increasing the price of food, especially bread
Russian industry expanded Between 1906 and 1917 Russian industry saw rapid growth and increased profits This expansion was stimulated by Government investment powered by foreign loans. This in turn fuelled inflation within the economy which adversely effected the living standards of the working class. This was particularly from 1914- 1917
3 events started to move Russia back towards revolution 1908-1909: the crisis with Austria-Hungary over Bosnia and Herzegovina Sept 1911: the assassination of Stolypin 1st August 1914: German declared war on Russia