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World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1949 The West CHAPTER 26.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1949 The West CHAPTER 26."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II and Its Aftermath, 1931-1949 The West CHAPTER 26

2 An Uneasy Peace 1918 peace settlements failed Fostered political instability in central and eastern Europe League of Nations proved too weak to serve as the basis for a new world order Persistence of a framework of alliances within Europe Created resentment in Italy and Japan

3 The 1930s: Prelude to World War II The Great Depression heightened international instability Increased economic nationalism and territorial expansion Japan, Italy and Germany pursued policies of militarization and imperial conquest German invasion of Poland prompted declaration of war by France and Britain, September 3, 1939

4 Evaluating Appeasement Britain assumed the initiative to respond to Nazi aggression with a policy of appeasement - negotiation and conciliation Belief that many German grievances were legitimate Desire to strengthen Germany against the Soviet Union Belief that resolving legitimate German grievances would weaken Nazi appeal

5 A New Kind of Warfare Technological and tactical advances in offensive warfare, since WWI Use of air force and tanks to break swiftly through defensive lines Blitzkrieg - by June 1940, Germany, with its allies and satellites, controlled most of continental Europe British won the air war over Britain, preventing German land invasion

6 The Invasion of the Soviet Union Economic considerations caused by Italian military weakness delayed the invasion German invasion was initially very successful, June-October 1941 German supply and communication lines became overstretched Soviet resistance and industrial output increased Onset of the Russian winter proved fatal

7 The Globalization of the War Britain depended on manpower and resources from colonies and the Commonwealth to survive The US, officially neutral, supplied both Britain and the Soviets, against Germany Japanese occupation of much of South East Asia and the Pacific December 1941 - US entered the war against Japan and Germany

8 From Allied Defeat to Allied Victory American and Soviet industrial supremacy pushed the balance in the Allies’ favor Crucial defeats of Japan, at Midway, and of Germany, at Stalingrad Allied offensive began to push back German gains, in Europe, and Japanese gains, in the Pacific May 7 1945 - Germany surrendered August 15 1945 - Japan surrendered

9 The Other Wars Formation of resistance and guerilla groups, against German occupation in Europe German savagery against such resistance deterred all but a minority Divisions, often between communists and anti- communists, weakened resistance In Yugoslavia, German occupation and resistance activities led to a bloody civil war along ethnic and ideological lines

10 The Home Fronts Targeting of civilian areas by bombing raids, on both sides, led to huge non- combatant casualties Nazi racial ideology shaped the experience of occupation - extreme brutality in Eastern Europe Use of forced, foreign labor in Germany cushioned civilian morale

11 Women’s Work In Britain and the Soviet Union, women were fully mobilized into the war effort Women fought in resistance movements and in the Soviet Army Nazi ideology and use of forced labor prevented female mobilization, until 1944 In the US, gender distinctions and the separation between soldiers and civilians were maintained

12 What Are We Fighting For? Institutionalized propaganda by governments in all combatant nations Enlistment of artists, musicians, film and mass media to build morale and contribute to national myths Emergence of a political consensus on the need for social democracy in Europe Resistance to German rule enhanced the role of the individual in modern society

13 Devastation, Death and Continuing War Ca. 55 million people died in Europe, during WWII Europe was physically and economically devastated Refugees and forced deportations changed the ethnic map of Europe Continued warfare in Eastern Europe over ethnic and ideological divisions

14 Imperial Encounters After WWII, nationalist movements across Asia resisted the reimposition of imperial government Economic pressure forced Britain to dramatically reduce its empire Proclamation of the state of Israel, 1948, led to Arab-Israeli conflict Independence of India led to bloody conflicts among Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs

15 From Hot to Cold War: Fraying Seams, 1943-1945 Clashing interests and aims between the Allies even before the war’s end US sought to establish a new global order, based upon international organizations and cooperation - establishment of the UN, the IMF, and the World Bank Yalta Conference, 1945 - guaranteed Soviet influence over Eastern Europe, and divided Germany and Berlin

16 From Hot to Cold War: Torn in Two, 1945-1949 Potsdam Conference, 1946 - division between Allies over treatment of Germany Truman Doctrine, 1947 - policy of actively containing communist expansion Marshall Plan, 1947 - US underwrote the economic reconstruction of Western Europe April, 1949 - Formation of NATO 1949-1955 - Formation of the Warsaw Pact

17 The New Europe, the New West Reshaped the dominant idea of the West into a commitment to democratic processes and values Division of Europe into two hostile, military blocs Geographical redefinition of the West, as the US and its allies Beginning of the end of European imperial power

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