Topics for Test MAIN Chart = Long Term Causes of WWI Murder in the Balkans Theatres of War Total War Winning the War Aftermath
Casualties of WWI More than 16 million people were dead, and famine and disease spread rapidly.More than 16 million people were dead, and famine and disease spread rapidly. The cost of rebuilding and paying off huge national war debts were staggering.The cost of rebuilding and paying off huge national war debts were staggering. Shaken and scared, everyone was bitter about the war and wanted a scapegoat to blame.Shaken and scared, everyone was bitter about the war and wanted a scapegoat to blame.
The Winners! The Allies: England, France, Italy, U.S.
The Losers! The Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary
A.In January 1918, the “Big Three” (England, France, and the U.S.) met at Versailles, France to create a peace treaty - they had very different goals.
B. Woodrow Wilson (U.S.) wanted to include his 14 Points in the treaty, to guarantee a “lasting peace.” 1.Freedom of the seas 2.No secret alliances 3.Reduce militaries and weapons 4.Equal trade (no blockades)
“Mr. Wilson bores me with his Fourteen Points,” complained Clemenceau (France). “Why, God Almighty has only ten!”
C. But Britain and France wanted to punish Germany and make it a weak nation so it could never again invade anybody.
D.To make things worse, Austria- Hungary was split into two countries but did not have to pay any debt and was not humiliated like Germany was.
Territorial Losses Box Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France. Due to the collapse of the Austro- Hungarian government, Austria and Hungary became independent nations. Germany lost almost all its overseas colonies.
Take out your charts from Friday! (In Friday’s folder). PUT LATE ESSAYS IN MY FOLDER! WRITE “ABSENT” OR “LATE” ON TOP!
Military Restrictions Box Germany’s army was limited to 100,000 troops, and its navy to 15,000. No tanks, U-boats, or military aircraft. No chemical weapons.
War Guilt and Reparations Box Germany had to accept full responsibility for the war. They had to pay $33 billion to the Allies in reparations to compensate for war damage.
“May the hand wither that signs this treaty.” Frederick Scheidemann, the German Chancellor (June 1919) …who resigned rather than agree to the Treaty
Germany’s war reparations would be approximately $393.6 billion US dollars as of 2005 - if Germany had paid off all reparations, they would not be finished until 2025.
The League of Nations Box This was a group of over 40 countries that wanted to settle problems through negotiation. It was Wilson’s idea, but the U.S. never joined, which made the League very weak and ineffective.
A.Germany was horrified by the T of V, the huge reparations and total blame for WWI, but they would sign the treaty because they had no choice. B.German resentment would poison the international climate for the next 20 years – and help spark the next world war.