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Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 1 Galileo: trial & aftermath lThe trial of 1633 zThe charge: Galileo had disobeyed Bellarmine’s order of 1616. zThe.

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Presentation on theme: "Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 1 Galileo: trial & aftermath lThe trial of 1633 zThe charge: Galileo had disobeyed Bellarmine’s order of 1616. zThe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 1 Galileo: trial & aftermath lThe trial of 1633 zThe charge: Galileo had disobeyed Bellarmine’s order of 1616. zThe Copernican theory was not debated at the trial.

2 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 2 Galileo: trial & aftermath zGalileo was convicted. zSentence: Banning of the Dialogue; imprisonment; & reading of penetential Psalms. zThe sentence of imprisonment was immediately changed by Urban VIII to house arrest.

3 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 3 Galileo: trial & aftermath zAfter leaving Rome, Galileo resided for several months with his friend, Archbishop Piccolomini of Siena. zThen returned to his villa Arcetri outside of Florence. zResumed his scientific research.

4 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 4 Galileo: trial & aftermath zGradually become blind. zDied at Arcetri in 1642. zBuried in church of Santa Croce, Florence, across from Michelangelo.

5 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 5 Galileo: Letter to the Grand Duchess zLetter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1613; 1615; 1636) zIs principally a discussion about how to handle conflicts between scripture and science zThe passages at issue: Psalm 92:1; Psalm 103:5; Ecclesiastes 1:5. zAppeal to the authority of Augustine for interpreting some passages of scripture metaphorically.

6 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 6 Galileo: Letter to the Grand Duchess zThe two-book metaphor (182 & 183). zGod reveals self in two ways--nature and the Bible zThus no contradiction between these two forms of revelation is possible-- truth is one. zThe significance of the two book metaphor for the relation between science & religion

7 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 7 Galileo: Letter to the Grand Duchess zThe Principle of Accommodation – the scriptures were often written in plain language to accommodate the understanding of common people.

8 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 8 Galileo: Letter to the Grand Duchess zPrinciple of modification by scientific demonstration (183, 194, 197, 206-07) zIf there is a conflict between science and scripture, then the interpretation of scripture must be changed only where the scientific position has been demonstrated. zOtherwise the traditional interpretation of scripture stands.

9 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 9 Galileo: Letter to the Grand Duchess zHow Galileo thought this applied to Copernicanism -- the argument from tides

10 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 10 Galileo: Letter to the Grand Duchess zPrinciple of Neutrality (183, 185, 186) – Scripture is neutral with respect to scientific theory & when scripture says something about physical phenomena, these statements have no bearing on science. “The intention of the Holy Spirit is to teach us how one goes to heaven, not how the heavens go” (186). zGalileo blundered by accepting Bellarmine’s high standard of scientific truth (Shea 122 CHECK)

11 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 11 Galileo: Letter to the Grand Duchess zComments on the letter zThe P. of modification by scientific demonstration appeals to a very high standard for scientific truth--certitude, conclusive proof--one proposed by Bellarmine--. zBut it was also the standard of Aristotle, & on this issue, Galileo accepted Aristotle’s position.

12 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 12 Galileo: Letter to the Grand Duchess zShea proposes that Galileo blundered by accepting Bellarmine’s high standard (Shea 122). zThe two principles are inconsistent.

13 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 13 Galileo: Letter to the Grand Duchess zNote the shift in the burden of proof in the two principles. zUnder the P. of the Modification by Scientific Demonstration, the burden of proof is on those challenging the traditional interpretation of scripture. The traditional interpretation is to be adopted unless there is reason to believe that the passage should be read metaphorically & the only relevant reason for this is what can be demonstrated scientifically.

14 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 14 Galileo: Letter to the Grand Duchess z Under the Principle of Neutrality, the burden of proof is on those who claim a traditional interpretation of passages of scripture dealing with the natural world. zThe Principle of Neutrality is commonplace in contemporary biblical hermeneutics. zThe Principle of Neutrality may be a good principle for biblical hermeneutics, but is it a good principle for the relationship between science and religion generally?

15 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 15 Galileo: interpreting the trial zInterpreting the trial zWas it simply a clash of religious authority with a scientist’s freedom of expression? zSome other factors zGalileo’s personality zCopernicanism was not well-confirmed zThe attitude of the Roman censors was that Galileo had no right to meddle in biblical hermeneutics (Shea in L&N 119).

16 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 16 Galileo: interpreting the trial zThe new conservatism of Rome in the face of the Reformation. William Shea: “In this climate of opinion a revolution in science or any field of human endeavor could easily be perceived as a threat unless shown to agree with the teachings of the church” (L&N 118). See also Westman 86. zPart of this new conservatism was a new biblical literalism.

17 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 17 Galileo: interpreting the trial zA change in worldview – demotion of place of humans in the universe; the idea of the fittingness of humans at the center of the universe. Thomas Kuhn: “Copernicanism was potentially destructive of an entire fabric of thought.... More than a few lines of scripture were at stake.” (The Copernican Revolution 192).

18 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 18 Galileo: interpreting the trial zThe alliance of Aristotle with Catholic theology via Aquinas at the Council of Trent (1545-1563). Shea comments that the Counter-Reformation turned Aristotelianism into rigid dogma (L&N 115).

19 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 19 Galileo: postscript zThe 1992 Vatican apologia zIn October of 1992, Pope John Paul II before the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, offered an apology for the Galileo affair. zCardinal Paul Poupard of France gave the speech (he headed the commission which studied the case).

20 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 20 Galileo: postscript zTheologians who attacked Galileo failed to understand the Scripture should not be taken literally when it described the physical world. No one is named, but the reference is to “theological advisors” (members of the hierarchy are not mentioned).

21 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 21 Galileo: postscript zGalileo suffered greatly from these errors. zComplemented Galileo for being more perceptive in his interpretation of Scripture than the theologians who opposed him.

22 Galileo: trial & aftermath - slide 22 Galileo: postscript zNothing was said about the condemnation of 1616, which set off the chain of events leading to the trial


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