Slide 2April 2009 version Course Agenda Classroom Session: –Introduction –Clarify Objectives & Set Goals –Theory & Discussion Field session –Exercises –Testing field and theory competencies Course evaluation & feedback
Slide 3April 2009 version Get the most from the Course Most people learn best by doing In class –Participate, ASK QUESTIONS! –There are no DUMB QUESTIONS. –All questions are welcome In the field –Participate in all exercises –In case you feel an exercise is too risky for you, let the instructor know
Slide 4April 2009 version Course Objective The objective of this course is to provide the background information which will enable the ATV operator to carry out his or her duties in a safe, efficient and productive manner in the workplace.
Slide 5April 2009 version The ATV operator must be able to: explain special characteristics of the ATV; locate the center of gravity; explain the effect of balloon-type tires; explain the effect of solid rear axle (no differential); describe the effect of no ROPS; explain the meaning of a “rider-active” vehicle. bring defects to your employer’s attention; check the tire pressure, oil & fuel levels; demonstrate safe operating skills! Course Goals
Slide 6April 2009 version Course Goals continued In addition, the operator must be able to: select & wear appropriate personal protective equipment; load & secure the ATV for transit & unload the ATV for work; identify basic mechanical components of the machine; perform pre & post trip inspections to ensure proper operation; load the machine with, trees. gear, first aid equipment, etc., establish a safe route; operate the equipment safely; carry out safe winching procedures; and tow a trailer.
Slide 7April 2009 version What is an ATV? It is a piece of equipment which, like an SUV or truck, is typically used for serious work, but can also be used for leisure. It is not a toy!
Slide 8April 2009 version What is an ATV? a.k.a ‘Quad’ - All Terrain Vehicles are: designed specifically for rough, unpaved terrain. equipped with 4 large balloon-type, low pressure tires. designed to be “Rider Active”. operated from a seated as well as standing position similar to a motorcycle. steered with handlebars.
Slide 9April 2009 version What is “Rider Active”? Rider active means that: body positioning helps control the ATV; it is operated like a motorcycle, bicycle, and snowmobile if you start to loose control, roll or tip, JUMP OFF !!! the ATV is replaceable, you are not!
Slide 10April 2009 version Correct Riding Posture When riding an ATV: keep head and eyes looking well ahead; keep shoulders relaxed, elbows bent slightly out and away from your body; keep knees in toward the gas tank; and keep feet on the footrests, toes pointing straight ahead.
Slide 11April 2009 version BC Legal Operating Requirements Three Acts of the BC Legislature control the operating requirements: BC Motor Vehicle Act; BC Motor Vehicle (all terrain) Act WCB Act & Regulations
Slide 12April 2009 version BC Legal Operating Requirements MVA and MV(all terrain) Act Requirements Not legal to drive ATV on BC highways – that means anywhere in the right of way. –An ATV is a motor vehicle ( MVA definitions ) –A forest service road is an industrial road, not a highway ( MVA definitions ) Operator MUST have driver’s License, ( MVA part 1, 2(10) ) Special Permit required: –for use along side of highway, –along shoulders, etc. and –to cross the highway. Must cross at designated points unless one has a special permit !
Slide 13April 2009 version BC Legal Operating Requirements WorkSafeBC Requirements Must comply with Occupational Health & Safety Regulation: Part 16. That means: Equipment must be safe for conditions. Defective equipment must be taken out of service. Logbook and Operator’s Manual must be with vehicle. Rider must have received ATV training. Rider must demonstrate safe ATV use before using the vehicle.
Slide 14April 2009 version Rider must have employer’s authorization. If required, vehicle must have lights. Modifications made only by P.Eng. Exposed moving parts, must be guarded. No passengers are allowed. Pre-trip inspection is required. Defects must be noted and reported. BC Legal Operating Requirements WorkSafeBC Requirements (continued)
Slide 15April 2009 version Use parking brake when ATV is un-attended. Use chocks if necessary. Use written safe work procedures when operating on slopes > 5%. Use non-skid ramps for loading/unloading. Wear PPE (Personal Protective Equipment). BC Legal Operating Requirements WorkSafeBC Requirements (continued)
Slide 16April 2009 version ATV Workplace Accidents WCB Claims INDUSTRY19992000 AGRICULTURE4 (7%)3 (7%) FORESTRY21 (39%)15 (34%) OIL, GAS, MINING, PETROLEUM00 ALL MANUFACTURING00 GENERAL CONSTRUCTION3 (6%)3 (7%) ROAD CONSTRUCTION4 (7%)0 TRANSPORTATION1 (2%)2 (4%) RETAIL00 PUBLIC ADMINISTTRATION4 (7%)3 (7%) ACCOMMODATION, FOOD SERVICES5 (9%)6 (14%) BUSINESS, PROFESSIONAL, OTHER SERVICES10 (19%)11 (25%) UTILITIES & RAIL00 PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT2 (4%)1 (2%) TOTAL5444 Note: this table was researched for the 2003 WSCA Needs Analysis
Slide 17April 2009 version ATV Characteristics Different from other vehicles. Different from one another. Controls differ between machines. Handling varies with design, equipment & load. Remember: ATV’s are “Rider Active”. You are part of the load! ATV is intended for OFF-HIGHWAY use only. Not designed for use on paved surfaces.
Slide 18April 2009 version ATV Characteristics Special features: Low pressure Tires, High Center of Gravity, Fixed Rear Axle, Rider active, Limited Operator Protection.
Slide 19April 2009 version ATV Characteristics Tires Are good on rough terrain; bad on pavement. Require special air pressure gauge. Have poor steering response. Must have equal pressure. Can add to instability.
Slide 20April 2009 version ATV Characteristics Center of Gravity Without Load Center of gravity is: The point where the total system is in balance with respect to the force of gravitation. Top View Side ViewEnd View Stability Base Line Center of Gravity Stability Base Line
Slide 21April 2009 version ATV Characteristics Stability Base Line As loading is added on top, Centre of Gravity moves up As ground slope changes, Center of Gravity moves to the outside of the Stability Base Line and rolling risk increases STABILITY BASE LINE C/G WITH LOADC/G WITHOUT LOAD C/G CENTER OF GRAVITY ON SLOPED TERRAIN ( 30° angle shown )
Slide 22April 2009 version ATV Characteristics Fixed Rear Axle Most ATV’s have solid rear axle. Most ATV’s have no differential. ATV tends to go straight. ATV is inclined to roll-over away from the curve. “Rider Active” assists the ATV to negotiate the curve.
Slide 23April 2009 version Lean into curve and place weight on outside foot-rest. ATV Characteristics Rider Active
Slide 24April 2009 version ATV Characteristics Operator Protection ATV provides no Roll Over Protection Structure (ROPS) Rider expects to dismount in the event of an accident. Rider is provided with very little shielding. Rider must rely on skill and clothing to avoid injury.
Slide 25April 2009 version ATV Characteristics Operator Protection (continued) Operator protection is derived from: Good/Safe Attitude; Good Operating Skills; Well Maintained Equipment; Adequate Protective Clothing.
Slide 26April 2009 version ATV Characteristics Protective Gear Protective gear for an ATV operator includes: helmet (with a face shield); long-sleeved shirt, long pants; over-the-ankle sturdy boots ; gloves; no loose ends – untied; bootlaces, long scarf, etc.
Slide 27April 2009 version ATV Characteristics The Helmet Must be certified for ATV use. Should have a certification sticker. Must have chin strap and visor. Visor (or goggles) should be: –Free from scratches, –Shatterproof, –Securely fastended, –Well ventilated, –Tinted for riding on bright days, clear for nights, yellow for overcast. Must be undamaged.
Slide 28April 2009 version ATV Characteristics Clothing Suitable clothing is a WSBC requirement. Long sleeved shirt –protects you from sunburn, windburn, dehydration, hypothermia and minor abrasions. –Bright colours make you more visible in the field. Gloves protect you hands. Kidney Belt (Optional).
Slide 29April 2009 version ATV Characteristics Boots Good boots help control the ATV. Should be sturdy & comfortable. Should have good ankle support. Must provide good traction. Shin pads (optional) extend the protection offered by a good pair of boots.
Slide 31April 2009 version ATV Mechanism Controls Know location & operation of all controls. –Starter, –Fuel supply valve, –Brakes, –Engine Kill Switch, –Throttle, –Shift lever, –Clutch, –Parking Brake.
Slide 32April 2009 version ATV Mechanical Condition Reporting Defects Remember: You can ride an ATV a lot farther in one hour than you can walk back in one day!
Slide 33April 2009 version ATV Mechanical Condition Prior to trip start Perform a pre-trip inspection. Check the log book & note any deficiencies. Tag out unsafe equipment. Each ATV must have on board the operator’s log book & manufacturer’s manual.
Slide 34April 2009 version ATV Mechanical Condition Recommended Additional Equipment High lift jack, Winch, Tree strap or additional towing strap, Map, compass & GPS –(& the skills to use them), Air compressor to re-inflate tires, Emergency food and water, Basic tool-kit, Communication device.
Slide 35April 2009 version ATV Mechanical Condition Pre-trip Inspection Check: Log Book & Owner’s Manual, First Aid &Tools kits, Fuel & Oil Levels, Belts and Pulley, Tires, Wheels, Nuts, & Swivels, CV Boots, Steering Linkage.
Slide 36April 2009 version ATV Mechanical Condition Pre-trip Inspection (continued) Inspect brakes, cables & brake lines. Check Exhaust System. Inspect Drive Shaft & Drive Chain. Inspect Drive Chain. Check Control Cables. Check Fuel Line & Fuel Line Switch.
Slide 38April 2009 version ATV Mechanical Condition Pre-trip Inspection (continued) Before starting the machine: Check that the transmission is in neutral. Set the parking brake. Remove the wheel chocks. Turn fuel valve ON. Check that the engine stop switch (a.k.a. Kill Switch) is in the RUN or ON postition. Put the choke in the ON position. Start Engine.
Slide 39April 2009 version ATV Mechanical Condition Pre-trip Inspection – engine running Lights should be on Warm up engine. Operate Handle bars left to right. Mount ATV and check main brakes. Perform tug test on parking brake. Stop Engine. Complete Pre-trip Inspection Report.
Slide 41April 2009 version ATV Mechanical Condition Post-trip Inspection (continued) Re-check the tires: pressure & condition. Re-check componets for looseness or play –Footpegs & footplates, –wheels & wheel bolts. (Tighten any that need it.) –Racks,winch,hitches,etc. Re-check lines & cables. Re-check fluid levels & top them up. Clean machine thoroughly. Check the helmet for damage. Restock First Aid or emergency kits.
Slide 42April 2009 version Loading & Unloading On & Off The Truck Back transport vehicle to hill or mound or use ramps. Position truck and ramps. Ramps must be secured to the transport vehicle. Ramps should be skid resistant and capable of carrying the ATV’s weight.
Slide 43April 2009 version Loading & Unloading On the Truck There are two methods to load an ATV safely onto a pickup or similar vehicle: Carefully riding on, body forward to adjust for Centre of Gravity shift with steep ramp. Guiding the ATV from the side is preferred if rider can reach
Slide 44April 2009 version Loading & Unloading Off the Truck There is one safe method to unload Put the ATV in low gear Stand at the front of the ATV Push it backward in line with the ramps As the rear wheels start down the ramp, let go of the ATV and let it roll backwards Never ride the ATV backwards down the ramp
Slide 45April 2009 version Loading & Unloading On & Off The Truck Tie down the ATV for transport & use a ratchet to snug up the hold-down straps. Lift the ATV onto the truck, with the assistance of others only as a last resort.
Slide 46April 2009 version Loading & Unloading Trees & Gear Assure load is packed not to hinder driver. Rider must be able to remain “Rider- Active”. Assure load does not obstruct vision. Assure load does not hinder operation of steering or controls. Do not let load extend past edges of carrier racks. Tie load to racks & test to be sure it remains in place. Assure straps have no loose ends.
Slide 47April 2009 version Loading & Unloading Trees & Gear (continued) Assure weight is evenly distributed front & back; left & right, especially after offloading partial loads. Transport fluids in approved, baffled tanks. Keep all loads close to the center of gravity and as low as possible.
Slide 48April 2009 version Establish the Route Establish the route Assess route for potential hazards. Identify the target location. Recce (reconnaissance) potential route. Identify sensitive issues. Discuss how safe the use of the ATV is in this picture
Slide 49April 2009 version Prepare the Route Prepare a safe route: Avoid side slopes. Avoid swamps. Prepare stream crossings. Clear the Trail. Remove obstacles. Fill deep holes. Remove overhead hazards.
Slide 50April 2009 version Test the Route Test the route Identify a safe turn-around. Walk the trail. Test trail without a load.
Slide 51April 2009 version Riding the ATV Prepare Expect the unexpected. Look well ahead. Use sound judgment Scan - the terrain Identify – the hazards Predict - what may happen Decide - on actions Execute - your decision
Slide 52April 2009 version Riding the ATV Turning Turns cause 20% of ATV accidents. Turns require you to be ‘Rider Active’. When turning, lean your body weight into the turn with your weight kept on the outside running board. Never turn at a speed you can’t control. If the ATV starts to roll: –lean further into the turn –close the throttle gradually, –straighten the wheels gradually to widen the turn and increase the turning radius.
Slide 53April 2009 version Riding the ATV The 3 point turn (K-Turn) The 3 point turn is a technique for turning an ATV around to get out of tricky predicaments; particularly handy if you are stalled going uphill. The turn follows a triangular path You are more likely to stall when: towing a trailer packing a heavy load
Slide 54April 2009 version Riding the ATV The 3 point turn (continued) If you are about to stall: Stop; apply brakes. Set parking brake. Shift to neutral. Shut off engine. Keep body weight on uphill side. Dismount on uphill side. Turn handlebars fully towards you. With handbrakes applied, release parking brake. Partially release the handbrakes to let ATV roll back as you walk beside the unit.
Slide 55April 2009 version Riding the ATV The 3 point turn (continued) Turn handlebars to face downhill. Set parking brake and mount the ATV from uphill side while keeping body weight on uphill side. Start engine and proceed downhill. Keep body weight on uphill side, well back on the seat. When riding downhill, keep as much of your body weight uphill as possible.
Slide 56April 2009 version Riding the ATV Riding Uphill Remember: Some hills are too steep for your abilities. Some hills are too steep for the ATV. NEVER ride past your limit of vision. What you can’t see can kill you! Keep both feet firmly on the footrests. Shift down & accelerate before ascending the hill. Keep body weight & load forward. Avoid abrupt maneuvers.
Slide 57April 2009 version Riding the ATV Riding Uphill (continued) Never perform a U-Turn on the face of a hill. Never let your ATV roll backwards while you are riding. Use only the front brakes if you start to roll backwards Dismount if you cannot control the ATV. Remember: –The ATV can be fixed. –YOU cannot!
Slide 58April 2009 version Steep slopes: Slopes measured in % grade or degrees 5% grade = 5 meter rise over a 100 metre run 5% grade = 2.86° angle 6% grade = steep highway grade 30% grade = slope for an expert, black diamond, ski run The ramp shown is about 30° or a grade of more than 57%. Special care must be taken to ride or guide ATVs on such extreme slopes. Riding the ATV Riding Uphill (continued)
Slide 59April 2009 version Riding the ATV Riding Uphill (continued) If the slope is too steep: BEFORE you lose power completely, apply the front and rear brakes. Dismount. Apply the parking brake. Decide what to do.
Slide 60April 2009 version Riding the ATV Descending a Hill Keep your body weight on the uphill side of the seat. Keep feet firmly on the footrests. Point the vehicle straight downhill & don’t turn. Avoid traversing the slope. Shift to low gear and descend with throttle closed. Maintain slow speed and cautious attitude. Avoid use of the front brakes & brake gradually.
Slide 61April 2009 version Riding the ATV Traversing a Slope Maintain slow steady speed. Keep weight on the uphill side of the ATV. Avoid loose or slippery terrain. Turn front wheels slightly uphill to follow a straight path. If in danger of flipping over, turn downhill and STOP, or dismount.
Slide 62April 2009 version Riding the ATV Riding Through Water - Streams and Ponds Check the owner’s manual for depth restrictions for your ATV. Chart a safe route, walk it first. Keep feet firmly on foot rests. Never allow ATV’s tires to float. Avoid steep banks. Maintain a slow steady speed. Avoid submerged obstacles and slippery rocks. Dry brakes after crossing. Avoid crossing where you may cause damage to streambeds and banks
Slide 63April 2009 version Riding the ATV Going around Obstacles Best to go around obstacles along the trail. Keep feet firmly on the footrests. Look in the direction of the swerve. Move your body weight forward and into the turn. Apply the brake only when you are moving in a straight line again. If you have to swerve to negotiate several obstacles, keep your feet firmly on the footrests, raise your weight off the seat and lean into each turn.
Slide 64April 2009 version Riding the ATV Crossing Obstacles Use good judgment and approach with caution. approach object straight on When front tires are in contact lean forward off the seat. Keep arms and legs flexible. Give throttle minor nudge to get over obstacle. Repeat for back wheels while remaining seated. If machine starts to tip, shift body weight toward raised wheels to keep wheel on the ground. Expect the unexpected!
Slide 65April 2009 version Riding the ATV Winching - becoming “Unstuck” (1/5) Involve more than one person is possible. Mishaps can lead to injury and death. Use Safe Operating Procedures. Use only equipment designed for the purpose. Equipment must be in good condition. Winch only if conditions permit. Notify supervisor of your intent to winch. Use a spotter.
Slide 66April 2009 version Riding the ATV Winching - becoming “Unstuck” (2/5) When planning the winching operation exercise the following Safe Work Procedures: On a heavily loaded vehicle, reduce loading on the cable. Tuck in all loose clothing Confirm the vehicle and winch are appropriate to safely perform the required task. Use a snatch block. The operation must be under the direction of one person, the winching guide. Only the vehicle operator and the winching guide should be involved in the winching operation.
Slide 67April 2009 version Riding the ATV Winching - becoming “Unstuck” (3/5) Keep your eyes on the process during the entire winching operation and react to what is happening. Do not add chains as an extension cable. Do not stand near the cable when it is under load. Those not involved in the operation must stand 1 ½ times the length of the cable away from the operation in all directions. Never step near, over, or underneath a cable when it is under load. Always use the correct size and type of cable and fittings for the job.
Slide 68April 2009 version Riding the ATV Winching - becoming “Unstuck” (4/5) Do not jump or bounce the wheels on the stuck unit. Handle the winch bale with gloves to avoid cuts and slivers. Use the hand over hand method to guide cable. When re-spooling the cable maintain slow to moderate speed. Stand back a minimum of 1 meter when re-spooling cable.
Slide 69April 2009 version Riding the ATV Winching - becoming “Unstuck” (5/5) Never have hands or loose clothing near fairlead, rollers or winch drum when winch is in operation. Wind cable back onto the drum neatly to avoid kinks. Do not operate a winch while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Once the winching procedure is completed lock the winch. Clean the winch assembly upon returning to base.
Slide 70April 2009 version Riding the ATV Towing Three primary concerns are: –Collision with the towing vehicle, –Failure of mechanical systems, –Personal injury. Use Safe Work Procedures.
Slide 71April 2009 version Riding the ATV Towing (continued) Safe Work Procedures for Towing Follow the vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations. Attach tow equipment only to the main structure of the vehicles, or specifically designed tow hooks. Tow equipment must be routed so as not to touch any part of the steering, braking or cooling system, or suspension on either vehicle. Always tow vehicles from the front. Do not exceed 20 km/hr while towing. Set manual locking hubs in the free wheel position on the vehicle being towed.
Slide 72April 2009 version Riding the ATV Towing (continued) Use only chains, cables or straps. Length of the towing cable or strap should not exceed 4 meters. Do not combine tow assemblies. Always take up slack in the tow line gradually. No-one should stand near the cable or strap when it is under load. Only the vehicle operator and the person responsible for the operation should be involved in the process. The towing operation must be under the direction of only one person.
Slide 73April 2009 version Riding the ATV Towing (continued) There must always be someone steering the vehicle being towed. Vehicles being towed must have brakes in good working order. Never tow the ATV on a paved roadway. Never tow or operate a towed vehicle while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Once the towing procedure is completed park the ATV effectively. Report the incident, make note of it in the log book, flag the unit, and do not use the ATV again until defects have been corrected.
Slide 74April 2009 version Riding the ATV Towing a Trailer Towing a trailer using the ATV Use only an approved hitch. Do not tow by attaching rope or cables to carrier racks. Do not overload the trailer. Travel at a reduced speed. Towing a trailer shifts the ATV’s center of gravity. Be prepared to compensate, or provide ballast loading. Once again: EXPECT THE UNEXPECTED!
Slide 75April 2009 version Review WSBC Regulations require that: ATV operators wear PPE; the equipment is safe and in good repair; you maintain a log book; you keep the owner’s manual with the equipment; you perform a pre-trip and post-trip inspection; you demonstrate an acceptable level of competence before operating an ATV.
Slide 76April 2009 version Review Features of the ATV include: A high center of gravity, Balloon type low pressure tires, A fixed rear axle, limited operator protection - no ROPE’s, Driver must be ‘Rider Active’.
Slide 77April 2009 version Review Points to Consider Alterations to the ATV require a professional engineer. Loading affects performance. Cary no passengers, unless the ATV is designed for passengers and you receive special training for that 2 person vehicle. This course does not cover that training. Perform a pre-trip and post-trip inspection. ATV’s are different from other vehicles and require special riding techniques.
Slide 78April 2009 version Review Additional Considerations Loading the ATV on & off the transport vehicle. Loading the payload. Establishing and preparing a safe route. SIPDE - riding techniques; Towing and winching.