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Motorcycle ABS Testing Related to Draft GTR Phase II Results June, 2006 Dynamic Research, Inc. 355 Van Ness Ave Torrance California 90501 310-212-5211.

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Presentation on theme: "Motorcycle ABS Testing Related to Draft GTR Phase II Results June, 2006 Dynamic Research, Inc. 355 Van Ness Ave Torrance California 90501 310-212-5211."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motorcycle ABS Testing Related to Draft GTR Phase II Results June, 2006 Dynamic Research, Inc. 355 Van Ness Ave Torrance California Fax This document is confidential and proprietary, and it is not to be released to anyone without the permission of Dynamic Research, Inc.

2 2 TOPICS OBJECTIVES DESCRIPTION OF TESTS METHODS TEST RESULTS OBSERVATIONS DISCUSSION Dynamic Research, Inc.

3 3 OBJECTIVES Confirm the feasibility and practicality of the proposed test methods in –4.9.3, ABS stops on high friction surface –4.9.4, ABS stops on low friction surface –4.9.7, ABS response to low to high friction transition Refine and clarify test procedures and parameters so they are reproducible, repeatable For the various motorcycles and riders, compare surface friction measurement K to ASTM method Make observations of the response of the various motorcycles relative to the proposed criteria –Stopping distance and MFDD –No capsize –Wheel lock –Stay in lane Dynamic Research, Inc.

4 4 DESCRIPTION OF TESTS Test sequence included: –ABS stops on high friction surface –ABS stops on low friction surface –ABS response to low to high friction transition –Peak Braking Coefficient (PBC) using K method (motorcycle ABS off) on Low friction surface High friction surface –PBC using ASTM method Low friction surface High friction surface Wet high friction surface Dynamic Research, Inc.

5 5 DESCRIPTION OF TESTS Pilot tests involved 1 motorcycle (BMW R1200GS), 1 rider –Preliminary test procedures and results were reviewed by Informal Working Group members –Preliminary results confirmed suitability of sensors, data acquisition –Detailed Draft Test Procedure was clarified, revised and circulated prior to Main Tests Dynamic Research, Inc.

6 6 DESCRIPTION OF TESTS Main tests included 5 motorcycles, 4 riders Riders were: –2 engineering test riders with previous road racing experience (Riders1 and 4) –1 engineering test rider (Rider 2) –1 experienced club racer and professional race instructor (Rider 3) Dynamic Research, Inc.

7 7 DESCRIPTION OF TESTS Motorcycles –Kawasaki ZZR 1400 –Honda VFR800 –Suzuki Bandit 1200 –Yamaha FZ6 –BMW F650 GS Surfaces –High friction asphalt, dry –High friction asphalt, wet –Low friction coal-tar-sealed asphalt, wet Dynamic Research, Inc.

8 8 DESCRIPTION OF TESTS ABS stops on high and low friction surfaces –Approach the test location at 60 km/h –Apply braking force to front lever and foot pedal Hand lever force 200 N ± 40N Foot pedal force 350 N ± 70N Analog display (needle type) in view of rider shows applied forces with respect to the target values –Hold target brake forces until motorcycle comes to rest –Stay in the test lane –Process and review measured lever/pedal force data after several runs in order to determine compliance with the criteria Determine if more runs are necessary Dynamic Research, Inc.

9 9 DESCRIPTION OF TESTS ABS stops on high and low friction surfaces (cont’d) –Lever/pedal force criteria Start time is when brake light is initially illuminated “Not later than 0.5 seconds after the activation of the brake lamp, the hand and foot actuation forces shall be within the specified tolerance.” “from [0.5 s] after the brake light is activated, to the moment when the vehicle speed falls below [5 km/h],” the average lever and pedal force shall be within the specified tolerance. Dynamic Research, Inc.

10 10 DESCRIPTION OF TESTS ABS response for low to high friction transition –Approach the test area at appropriate speed for a transition speed of 50 km/h (e.g., approach at 70 km/h) –Apply braking force to front lever and foot pedal at a marked location (e.g., 10 m before the friction transition) Hand lever force 200 N ± 40N Foot pedal force 350 N ± 70N Analog display (needle type) in view of rider shows applied forces with respect to the target values –Hold target brake forces until motorcycle comes to a stop –Stay in the test lane –Process and review measured lever/pedal force data and speed at transition in order to determine compliance with the criteria Dynamic Research, Inc.

11 11 DESCRIPTION OF TESTS Evaluate peak braking coefficient (PBC) using K method and each test motorcycle –Disable ABS –Run tests on high and low friction surfaces –Rider to follow “Baseline Test Instructions” –K value is the average deceleration in g units from 40 to 20 km/h –Rider makes multiple runs; the maximum result across multiple runs is the K value Dynamic Research, Inc.

12 12 BASELINE TEST INSTRUCTIONS 1.DETERMINATION OF THE COEFFICIENT OF ADHESION (K) FOR PURPOSES OF VERIFYING THE TEST SURFACES 1.1.The coefficient of adhesion shall be determined from the maximum braking rate, without wheel lock, of the vehicle with the anti-lock device(s) disconnected and braking both wheels or systems simultaneously. [1]/ [1] 1.2.Braking tests shall be carried out by applying the brakes at an initial speed of about 60 km/h (or, in the case of vehicles unable to attain 60 km/h, at a speed of about 0.9 Vmax) to a stop with the vehicle unladen (except for any necessary test instrumentation and/or safety equipment). As constant a force as is practicable must be used on each brake control throughout the tests. 1.3.A series of tests may be carried out up to the critical point reached at incipient wheel(s) lock by varying both the hand and the foot brake control forces, in order to determine the maximum braking rate of the vehicle. [2]2/[2] Dynamic Research, Inc. (clarifications are indicated in red bold)

13 13 DESCRIPTION OF TESTS Evaluate Peak Braking Coefficient (PBC) using ASTM E1337 “Chirp Test” procedure –DRI Mobile Tire Tester –SRTT tire (E1136) –Test speed 64 km/h (40 mph) –Ramp brake torque until after peak slip is achieved. Peak torque to be achieved in 0.3 to 0.5 seconds –Measurement is the average of at least 8 measurements Dynamic Research, Inc.

14 14 METHODS Motorcycle measurements –Vehicle speed (radar sensor) –Brake master cylinder pressures, front and rear Calibrated to indicate lever and pedal force In some cases, in addition, used force transducer on brake pedal in place of rear master cylinder pressure –Brake caliper pressures, front and rear (at banjo bolt) –Wheel rotational speed, front and rear –Longitudinal acceleration –Pitch angle, pitch rate –Brake rotor temperature, front and rear –Brake light status –Event marker indicating surface transition occurrence (for applicable runs) Dynamic Research, Inc.

15 15 METHODS Dynamic Research, Inc. Yamaha FZ6 front wheel showing caliper pressure sensor, optical speed sensor, and brake temperature thermocouple wires

16 16 METHODS Dynamic Research, Inc. Suzuki Bandit showing rider display of lever/pedal forces and brake rotor temperatures. Also seen is the radar speed and master cylinder pressure sensors

17 17 METHODS Dynamic Research, Inc. Example master cylinder pressure sensor

18 18 METHODS Dynamic Research, Inc. Kawasaki ZZR 1400 showing rider displays, speed sensor, and inertial measurement unit

19 19 METHODS Dynamic Research, Inc. Kawasaki ZZR1400 showing magnetic pickup speed sensor

20 20 METHODS Dynamic Research, Inc. Kawasaki ZZR1400 doing an ABS stop on low friction surface

21 21 METHODS Example time history data (low friction ABS stop) Dynamic Research, Inc.

22 22 METHODS Example time history data (low friction ABS stop) Dynamic Research, Inc.

23 23 METHODS Example time history data (low friction ABS stop) Dynamic Research, Inc.

24 24 METHODS Example time history data (low friction ABS stop) Dynamic Research, Inc.

25 25 METHODS Example time history data (low friction ABS stop) Dynamic Research, Inc.

26 26 METHODS Example time history data (low friction ABS stop) Dynamic Research, Inc.

27 27 METHODS Example time history data (low friction ABS stop) Dynamic Research, Inc.

28 28 METHODS Example time history data (low friction ABS stop) Dynamic Research, Inc. Note: Black trace is radar speed data that is uncorrected for pitch angle Red trace is radar speed data that is corrected for pitch angle

29 29 TEST RESULTS Rider Number of attempts Number of successful attempts MFDD measurements (m/s 2 ) Dynamic Research, Inc. Stops on high friction surface Kawasaki ZZR 1400 Successful attempt means that initial speed, brake lever and pedal force meet criteria Draft performance criteria for high friction surface is for MFDD to exceed 6.17 m/s 2

30 30 TEST RESULTS Rider Number of attempts Number of successful attempts MFDD measurements (m/s 2 ) Dynamic Research, Inc. Stops on low friction surface Kawasaki ZZR 1400 Successful attempt means that initial speed, brake lever and pedal force meet criteria Draft performance criteria for low friction surface is for MFDD to exceed 2.05 m/s 2

31 31 TEST RESULTS Rider Number of attempts Number of successful attempts MFDD measurements (m/s 2 ) Dynamic Research, Inc. Stops on high friction surface Suzuki Bandit 1200 Successful attempt means that initial speed, brake lever and pedal force meet criteria Draft performance criteria for high friction surface is for MFDD to exceed 6.17 m/s 2

32 32 TEST RESULTS Rider Number of attempts Number of successful attempts MFDD measurements (m/s 2 ) Dynamic Research, Inc. Stops on low friction surface Suzuki Bandit 1200 Successful attempt means that initial speed, brake lever and pedal force meet criteria Draft performance criteria for low friction surface is for MFDD to exceed 2.05 m/s 2

33 33 TEST RESULTS Rider Number of attempts Number of successful attempts MFDD measurements (m/s 2 ) Dynamic Research, Inc. Stops on high friction surface Honda VFR 800 Successful attempt means that initial speed, brake lever and pedal force meet criteria Draft performance criteria for high friction surface is for MFDD to exceed 6.17 m/s 2

34 34 TEST RESULTS Rider Number of attempts Number of successful attempts MFDD measurements (m/s 2 ) Dynamic Research, Inc. Stops on low friction surface Honda VFR 800 Successful attempt means that initial speed, brake lever and pedal force meet criteria Draft performance criteria for low friction surface is for MFDD to exceed 2.05 m/s 2

35 35 TEST RESULTS Rider Number of attempts Number of successful attempts MFDD measurements (m/s 2 ) Dynamic Research, Inc. Stops on high friction surface Yamaha FZ6 Successful attempt means that initial speed, brake lever and pedal force meet criteria Draft performance criteria for high friction surface is for MFDD to exceed 6.17 m/s 2

36 36 TEST RESULTS Rider Number of attempts Number of successful attempts MFDD measurements (m/s 2 ) Dynamic Research, Inc. Stops on low friction surface Yamaha FZ6 Successful attempt means that initial speed, brake lever and pedal force meet criteria Draft performance criteria for low friction surface is for MFDD to exceed 2.05 m/s 2

37 37 TEST RESULTS Rider Number of attempts Number of successful attempts MFDD measurements (m/s 2 ) Dynamic Research, Inc. Stops on high friction surface BMW F650GS Successful attempt means that initial speed, brake lever and pedal force meet criteria Draft performance criteria for high friction surface is for MFDD to exceed 6.17 m/s 2

38 38 TEST RESULTS Rider Number of attempts Number of successful attempts MFDD measurements (m/s 2 ) Dynamic Research, Inc. Stops on low friction surface BMW F650GS Successful attempt means that initial speed, brake lever and pedal force meet criteria Draft performance criteria for low friction surface is for MFDD to exceed 2.05 m/s 2

39 39 TEST RESULTS During testing of motorcycle High friction surface Low friction surface Wet high friction surface Kawasaki ZZR Suzuki Bandit Honda VFR Yamaha FZ BMW F650 GS Dynamic Research, Inc. Peak Braking Coefficient Measurements DRI Mobile Tire Tester (ASTM E1337)

40 40 TEST RESULTS Rider High friction surface Low friction surface ASTM PBC Dynamic Research, Inc. Kawasaki ZZR 1400 Peak Braking Coefficient measurements K method and ASTM method

41 41 TEST RESULTS Rider High friction surface Low friction surface ASTM PBC Dynamic Research, Inc. Suzuki Bandit 1200 Peak Braking Coefficient measurements K method and ASTM method

42 42 TEST RESULTS Rider High friction surface Low friction surface ASTM PBC Dynamic Research, Inc. Honda VFR 800 Peak Braking Coefficient measurements K method and ASTM method

43 43 TEST RESULTS Rider High friction surface Low friction surface ASTM PBC Dynamic Research, Inc. Yamaha FZ6 Peak Braking Coefficient measurements K method and ASTM method

44 44 TEST RESULTS Rider High friction surface Low friction surface ASTM PBC Dynamic Research, Inc. BMW F650GS Peak Braking Coefficient measurements K method and ASTM method

45 45 TEST RESULTS Dynamic Research, Inc. Comparison of ABS MFDD measurements (÷9.8 m/s²) and K test measurement for each motorcycle on the high friction surface. Also shown is the corresponding ASTM PBC. K shown is the average for all riders. Each rider “K” represents that rider’s best run Error bars show range of measurements for all runs.

46 46 TEST RESULTS Dynamic Research, Inc. Comparison of ABS MFDD measurements (÷9.8 m/s²) and K test measurement for each motorcycle on the low friction surface. Also shown is the corresponding ASTM PBC K shown is the average for all riders. Each rider “K” represents that rider’s best run Error bars show range of measurements for all runs.

47 47 TEST RESULTS Dynamic Research, Inc. Comparison of ABS “adhesion utilization” measurements based on K and ASTM PBC for each motorcycle on the high friction surface. Error bars show range of measurements for all runs.

48 48 TEST RESULTS Dynamic Research, Inc. Comparison of ABS “adhesion utilization” measurements based on K and ASTM PBC for each motorcycle on the low friction surface. Error bars show range of measurements for all runs.

49 49 TEST RESULTS Data Reduction ABS stops on high and low friction surface –MFDD –Corrected stopping distance Non ABS stops on high and low friction surface –“K” Peak Braking Coefficient Peak Braking Coefficient measured with DRI Mobile Tire Tester –ASTM E1337 ABS stops for low to high friction transition –Time delay definition and performance criteria for brake response is not yet specified Dynamic Research, Inc.

50 50 TEST RESULTS Dynamic Research, Inc. Example Data Low to High Friction Transition

51 51 TEST RESULTS Data Reduction Possible method for evaluation of time delay for low to high friction transition –T1 when the motorcycle rear axle passes the surface transition –Identify peak longitudinal acceleration (Ax) for the low friction interval –T2 is when Ax first exceeds [110%] of the low friction Ax peak –Time delay is T2 – T1 Assumption –Low friction interval ends 150 ms before T1, to ensure that motorcycle front tire has not reached the transition Dynamic Research, Inc.

52 52 TEST RESULTS Rider No. of attempts No. of successful attempts Time Delay (sec) Dynamic Research, Inc. Kawasaki ZZR 1400 Low to High Friction Transition

53 53 TEST RESULTS Rider No. of attempts No. of successful attempts Time Delay (sec) Dynamic Research, Inc. Suzuki Bandit 1200 Low to High Friction Transition

54 54 TEST RESULTS Rider No. of attempts No. of successful attempts Time Delay (sec) Dynamic Research, Inc. Honda VFR 800 Low to High Friction Transition

55 55 TEST RESULTS Rider No. of attempts No. of successful attempts Time Delay (sec) Dynamic Research, Inc. Yamaha FZ6 Low to High Friction Transition Time delay measurement of 1.14 seconds will be used to demonstrate a possible deficiency in this example data reduction algorithm

56 56 TEST RESULTS Rider No. of attempts No. of successful attempts Time Delay (sec) Dynamic Research, Inc. BMW F650 GS Low to High Friction Transition

57 57 TEST RESULTS Dynamic Research, Inc. Example Data Reduction Not Appropriate for this Example (Time delay = 1.14 sec)

58 58 OBSERVATIONS Measurement of K (max friction coefficient) of the test surfaces Riders are often able to achieve higher Peak Braking Coefficients (PBC) with the K method than those measured with the ASTM method –On average, motorcycle tires may have higher friction capability than the ASTM SRTT tire Substantial variability in K value exists between riders, motorcycles More variability occurs on low friction surface than on high friction surface Rider ranking may change for different motorcycles, so one rider does not always give the highest value Surface PBC depends on the method used to measure it Dynamic Research, Inc.

59 59 OBSERVATIONS ABS Stops on High and Low Friction Surface Riders are generally able to achieve target lever and pedal average force values without difficulty Number of runs required to first achieve the target lever and pedal force criteria may range from 1 to more than 10 Riders improve with practice Riders find that ease of task varies with motorcycle Motorcycles in this study generally meet the proposed performance criteria in draft GTR –Run-to-run variability may be greater for some motorcycles than others –Run-to-run variability may be greater on low friction surface than on high friction surface Dynamic Research, Inc.

60 60 OBSERVATIONS ABS Stops on Low to High Friction Transition This was generally the most challenging task for riders Riders had to: –Apply specific braking lever and pedal forces at a particular ground location –Hold specified lever and pedal forces through a large change in longitudinal acceleration Riders were generally able to achieve the desired lever and pedal force targets Riders were generally able to achieve a target transition speed of 50 ± 5 km/h It is possible to have a negative time delay –The zero time is when the motorcycle rear axle passes over the surface transition. At this point, the front tire has been on the higher friction surface for greater than 100 ms Dynamic Research, Inc.

61 61 OBSERVATIONS General Adding pressure sensors to most hydraulic systems was easily accomplished without any substantial volume or “stiffness” change (in particular by using banjo bolts) Substantial variation in motorcycle pitch angle influenced the radar based speed measurement. This was accounted for in data processing Analog brake effort indicators were very helpful to riders even though (needle type) display time response was perceptible. A faster display might be of some help to riders Brake temperature limits at the start of each run were easily met –This might be more difficult with some combined brake systems where independent brake application is impossible Dynamic Research, Inc.

62 62 OBSERVATIONS General For these motorcycles, disabling of ABS was accomplished easily ABS “cycling” is different in frequency, amplitude and nature for various motorcycles Amount of ABS “cycling” varies by motorcycle, may vary run- to-run for same motorcycle Ideal ABS system may not have perceptible “cycling” Dynamic Research, Inc.

63 63 OBSERVATIONS Dynamic Research, Inc. Example high frequency ABS control on front wheel; is this “fully cycling?”

64 64 DISCUSSION ABS Stops on High and Low Friction Surface If the rider releases the brake lever because of an impending pitchover, is this a failure? Of the test procedure criteria? Of the performance criteria? Dynamic Research, Inc.

65 65 DISCUSSION K method or ASTM measurement of PBC Measurements with Mobile tire tester generally behave like samples of a normally distributed population The estimate of the population is simply the mean of the samples –More samples will improve confidence in the mean –A minimum number of samples is specified –Random measurement errors tend to be removed when taking the average value Dynamic Research, Inc.

66 66 DISCUSSION K or ASTM PBC measurement (cont’d) For K measurement, the result is the “maximum value” within the sample set –The samples would not be expected to have a normal distribution (they are limited at one end) –As the number of samples increases, the maximum value would be expected to continue to increase –Number of samples to be taken is not specified –Random measurement errors tend to be added to the result Dynamic Research, Inc.

67 67 DISCUSSION Surface friction transition runs GTR draft requires that the vehicle deceleration shall increase after passing over the transition point –How to define time for deceleration increase to occur –How to define time required for deceleration to “stabilize” at the higher value Dynamic Research, Inc.


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