# FINAL REVIEW: PHYSICAL SCIENCE

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FINAL REVIEW: PHYSICAL SCIENCE
1. The diagrams below show a person moving a 50-kilogram object up a ramp. In which diagram is there the least amount of friction on the object? 3. The diagram below shows a stationary cart on a frictionless surface. Two unequal opposing forces are about to be applied to the cart. If the unequal opposing forces are applied to the cart at the same time, what will occur? (1) The cart will move to the left. (2) The cart will move to the right. (3) The cart will alternate between moving left and right. (4) The cart will remain stationary. 2. Which energy source is a nonrenewable resource? (1) solar (3) moving water (2) wind (4) fossil fuel

4. The pie chart below compares the amounts of energy from different sources used in the United States each year. Which two energy sources together provide more than 50% of the energy needs of the United States? nuclear and natural gas oil and coal hydropower and oil natural gas and coal 5. The diagram below shows the steps necessary to produce the energy needed to run a hair dryer. As it moves from location A to location D in the diagram, the energy stored in the coal (1) is converted to solar energy (3) is recycled (2) reduces the friction in the hair dryer (4) is transformed

6. The illustration below shows an example of energy changing forms.
Which changes in energy form are illustrated in the diagram? (1) electrical → sound → light and mechanical (2) mechanical → light → sound and electrical (3) sound → mechanical → light and electrical (4) light → electrical → mechanical and sound 7. Which graph below shows an object slowing down?

8. The cartoon below shows a humorous view of a law of motion.
Which statement best summarizes the scientific concept shown in the cartoon? (1) A falling body accelerates at a constant speed. (2) The motion of an object is constantly changing due to magnetic forces. (3) The force of friction causes an object in motion to move faster. (4) A body in motion will remain in motion unless influenced by an outside force.

some tape. It looked similar to the diagram below.
*Base your answers to questions 9 through 12 on the diagram and information below. A student made a rocket balloon using an inflated balloon, a straw, a long piece of string, two poles, and some tape. It looked similar to the diagram below. AIR BALLOON 9. On the diagram above draw and label arrows to show the motion of the air and the motion of the balloon that would occur when the student releases the inflated balloon. 10. Why is marking the starting position important to calculate the average speed of the balloon? _______________________________________________________________________________ 11. How would taping a coin (adding mass) to the balloon affect the overall motion of the balloon? _____________________________________________________________________________________ 12. If the string were extremely long, what would eventually happen to the motion of the balloon? ______________________________________________________________________________________ TO CORRECTLY MEASURE DISTANCE (STARTING POINT). IT WILL SLOW IT DOWN DUE TO INCREASED MASS. FRICTION WOULD SLOW IT DOWN AND THEN STOP ITS MOTION.

13. The diagram below shows two dogs pulling
on a rope with constant but unequal forces. 17. The diagram below shows a pinwheel rotating above a lit candle. The arrows indicate the direction of air flow. In which direction will both dogs move? (1) east (2) west (3) north (4) south 14. The illustration below shows a student approaching the door to a building. Which energy transformation is best shown in this diagram? (1) heat to mechanical (3) sound to heat (2) mechanical to light (4) heat to sound 18. Which two factors determine the gravitational attraction between two objects? (1) time and temperature (3) shape and orbital speed (2) color and hardness (4) mass and distance apart Which two simple machines are being used to enable the student to reach the door? (1) inclined plane and pulley (2) lever and wheel-and-axle (3) pulley and lever (4) wheel-and-axle and inclined

15. A television set changes electrical energy to
sound and light energy. In this process, some energy is (1) created (3) changed to matter (2) destroyed (4) changed to heat 16. Which two factors determine the pull of gravitational attraction between two objects? (1) time and temperature (2) shape and orbital speed (3) color and hardness (4) mass and distance apart 19. The diagram below shows a student using a spring scale to pull a wooden block up a ramp that is resting on a stack of books. Which change would require more force to move the wooden block up the ramp? (1) Have the student use two hands. (2) Reduce the mass of the wooden block. (3) Restack the books so the thinnest book is on the bottom. (4) Glue sandpaper to the surface of the ramp. 20. The wheels and gears of a machine are greased in order to decrease _____________. (1) potential energy (3) output (2) efficiency (4) friction

21. The diagram below shows a boulder
rolling down a hill into a valley and then up the opposite hill. 24. Which setup below would require the least force to lift a 100-gram mass a distance of 10 centimeters? A D C B At which position does the boulder have the greatest kinetic energy? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D

22. The drawing below shows a person about
to lift a book using a ruler and pencil. *Base your answers to questions 25 & 26 on the diagram, that shows two students ready to dive into a pool. FULCRUM This drawing illustrates an example of which simple machine? (1) gear (2) pulley (3) balance (4) lever 23. Which object represents a simple machine? 25. Explain why student B has more potential energy than student A.  ________________________________________________\ 26. Student A dives from the board into the water. Explain why student A’s kinetic energy decreases as the student enters the water.  ________________________________________________ STUDENT B IS HIGHER UP = PE WATER SLOWS HIS MOVEMENT.

*Base your answers to questions 27-30 on the illustration below, which shows a number of activities
happening on a sunny day. 27. What is the original source of energy for all activities? ___________________________________________ 28. Identify one activity that requires the use of fossil fuels. 29. Identify one renewable resource in the diagram. 30. An energy transformation occurs when one form of energy is changed to another. Fill in the spaces below to describe an energy transformation that occurs as the children play baseball. _________________________________ is changed to _________________________________ THE SUN CAR, GAS GRILL, FUEL TRUCK SUN, WATER CHEMICAL MECHANICAL

Base your answers to questions 31-33 on diagram 1 & 2 below
*Base your answers to questions on diagram 1 & 2 below. The amount of force required to keep the same block of wood moving across a tabletop is shown in the diagrams. 31. What is the name of the device in the diagrams used to measure force. (1) spring scale (3) voltmeter (2) thermometer (4) graduated cylinder 32. What change could be made in the setup in diagram 1 to increase the amount of force necessary to move the block of wood? (Answer below) 33. Explain why the round pencils in diagram 2 decrease the amount of force necessary to move the block of wood 32._____________________________________________________________________________________ 33._____________________________________________________________________________________ MORE WOOD, HEAVIER OBJECT, MAKE SURFACE ROUGH CHANGES SLIDING FRICTION TO ROLLING FRICTION.

*Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows a set of materials that a science teacher used to demonstrate motion. The rubber band has been stretched with a string that has been tied to the nail. A weight is resting on the platform. The platform is resting on several round pencils on a tabletop. 34. On the diagram draw an arrow to represent the direction the wooden platform will move when the lit match burns through the string and the weight is propelled from the platform. 35. The table below lists four changes to the materials in the diagram. Will the changes cause the distance the wooden platform moves to decrease, increase, or remain the same? For each change in the left column, circle your answer in the right column.

energy transformations.
*Base your answers to questions 36 &37 on the diagram of a moving car below. The diagram shows energy transformations. 36. What is the sequence of the energy transformations represented in the diagram? (1) mechanical → chemical → solar (2) solar → electrical → mechanical (3) mechanical → electrical → solar (4) solar → chemical → electrical 37. State one advantage to the environment by using this car instead of a car powered by fossil fuel. ______________________________________________________________________________________ DECREASE POLLUTION, SAVE ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT…

*Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the information and diagram below.
A rock hanging from a spring scale is being lowered into a graduated cylinder containing water. Figure A shows the reading on the spring scale before the rock is lowered into the water. Figure B shows the reading on the spring scale when the rock is in the water. The reading on the spring scale in figure A is greater than the reading on the spring scale in figure B. 38. Explain why the spring scale shows a greater reading in figure A than in figure B. THE FORCE OF WATER (BUOYANCY) PUSHING UP ON THE ROCK. 39. Explain why placing the rock in the water causes the water level to rise. THE ROCK DISPLACES THE WATER MAKING THE VOLUME OF THE WATER RISE.

Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the diagram below
*Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the diagram below. The diagram shows wind turbines that are used to generate electricity. 40. Describe one advantage (other than cost) of using wind turbines rather than burning fossil fuels to produce electricity. __________________________________________________ 41. Describe one disadvantage (other than cost) of using wind turbines rather than burning fossil fuels to generate electricity. IT PROVIDES CLEAN ENERGY (NO POLLUTANTS). IT DEPENDS ON WIND CONDITIONS ONLY.

47. The diagram below shows a spinning water sprinkler.
Water comes through a hose and is sprayed by the sprinkler. Which principle best explains why the sprinkler spins? 42. Moving water in a river is considered a renewable resource because it: (1) carries dissolved oxygen (2) easily erodes sediments (3) is made of natural gas (4) can be recycled by nature over time 43. Which event is a chemical change? (1) The baseball strikes the roof. (2) The roof of the car dents. (3) The paint cracks and chips. (4) The exposed metal rusts 44. Which process is an example of a physical change? (1) wood burning (3) ice melting (2) iron rusting (4) milk souring (1) Every action has an equal and opposite reaction. (2) Solids are usually more dense than liquids. (3) Energy is released when water condenses. (4) Substances expand when heated & contract when cooled. 48. Which energy source is considered nonrenewable? (1) oil (2) moving water (3) sunlight (4) biomass 49. The gravitational force between two objects depends on the distance between the objects and each object’s (1) mass (3) pressure (2) volume (4) temperature 45. Which statement best describes the energy changes that occur while a child is riding on a sled down a steep, snow-covered hill? Kinetic energy decreases and potential energy increases. (2) Kinetic energy increases and potential energy decreases. (3) Both potential energy and kinetic energy decrease. (4) Both potential energy and kinetic energy increase 50. Which sequence of energy transformations occurs after a battery-operated flashlight is turned on? (1) electrical → light → chemical (2) electrical → chemical → light (3) chemical → light → electrical (4) chemical → electrical → light

46. The diagram below shows a hammer being used by a person to remove a nail from a piece of wood.
51. All matter is made up of particles called (1) cells (3) atoms (2) molecules (4) compounds 52. The force of an object, with a certain mass accelerating at a certain rate, can be determined by using the equation below. force = mass ╳ acceleration Which object would have the greatest force? (1) a 5-kg object accelerating at 10 m/s2 (2) a 5-kg object accelerating at 20 m/s2 (3) a 20-kg object accelerating at 4 m/s2 (4) a 20-kg object accelerating at 3 m/s2 The hammer is being used as which type of simple machine? (1) wheel and axle (3) lever (2) inclined plane (4) pulley 53. The diagrams below show smooth blocks of wood being pushed across the same surface. The mass of the block and amount of force applied are labeled in each diagram. In which diagram would the block of wood have the greatest acceleration?

54. The graph below shows the distance traveled by four cars, A, B, C, and D, over a period of time,
*The average speed of a moving object can be determined by using the equation below. Average speed = distance or v = d / t Time Which car traveled at an average speed of 20 kilometers per hour? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D *Base your answers to questions 55 & 56 on the information and diagram below. The diagram below shows a toy airplane. The propeller is turned twenty times, which twists the rubber band connected to it. When the propeller is released, the rubber band unwinds and the propeller turns at a high speed, enabling the airplane to fly. 55. What type of energy results when the rubber band unwinds and the propeller turns, enabling the plane to fly? ________________________________________________ 56. Identify one change that could be made that would make the toy airplane fly at a different speed. KINETIC ENERGY / MECHANICAL ENERGY WINDING IT MORE (INCREASE POTENTIAL).

57. A person uses a bow to shoot an arrow at a target
57. A person uses a bow to shoot an arrow at a target. In which diagram does the bow and arrow have the greatest amount of potential energy? 58. The diagram below shows a home with a solar heating system. 62. The diagram shows a lever that can be used to lift a person. The fulcrum is the point where the lever pivots. Describe one change that could be made to the lever to decrease the input force needed to lift the person. ____________________________________________ What is the original source of energy for this heating system? (1) heated water (3) sunlight (2) heated air (4) water pump MOVE THE FULCRUM TO THE RIGHT

59. Which energy source is considered
nonrenewable? (1) moving water (3) wind (2) fossil fuel (4) biomass 60. Which type of energy in gasoline is transformed into mechanical energy in a motorcycle engine? (1) chemical (3) magnetic (2) nuclear (4) electrical 61. A student pushes against a tree with a force of 10 newtons (N). The tree does not move. What is the amount of force exerted by the tree on the student? (1) 0 N (3) 10 N (2) 5 N (4) 20 N *Base your answers to questions 63 & 64 on the diagrams below. The diagrams show a student using a bow and arrow. The bow string on the bow is used to propel the arrow forward. 63. State one change the student could make, without changing the angle at which the bow is held, so that the arrow would travel a greater distance. _____________________________________________ 64. Describe how gravity affects the path of the arrow after it has been released. PULL THE STRING BACK MORE. IT IMMEDIATELY PULLS DOWN ON IT.

65. The diagrams below show two ways of loading a box into a truck.
The person using the track with the rollers uses less energy to load the box because the rollers reduce the (1) mass of the box (3) force of gravity (2) distance traveled by the box (4) force of friction *Base your answers to questions 66 & 67 on the diagram below. The diagram shows one type of power facility that provides electricity for use in houses. 66. What phase change occurs in the boiler? ____________________ phase to phase. 67. Name one fossil fuel that may be burned in this furnace. _________________________ LIQUID (WATER) GAS (WATER VAPOR) OIL, NATURAL GAS, COAL