Presentation on theme: "FINAL REVIEW: PHYSICAL SCIENCE"— Presentation transcript:
1 FINAL REVIEW: PHYSICAL SCIENCE 1. The diagrams below show a person moving a50-kilogram object up a ramp. In which diagramis there the least amount of friction on the object?3. The diagram below shows a stationary cart on africtionless surface. Two unequal opposing forces are aboutto be applied to the cart.If the unequal opposing forces are applied to the cart at the same time, what will occur?(1) The cart will move to the left.(2) The cart will move to the right.(3) The cart will alternate between moving left and right.(4) The cart will remain stationary.2. Which energy source is a nonrenewable resource?(1) solar (3) moving water(2) wind (4) fossil fuel
2 4. The pie chart below compares the amounts of energy from different sources used in the United States each year.Which two energy sources together provide more than 50% of the energy needs of the United States?nuclear and natural gasoil and coalhydropower and oilnatural gas and coal5. The diagram below shows the steps necessary to produce the energy needed to run a hair dryer.As it moves from location A to location D in the diagram, the energy stored in the coal(1) is converted to solar energy (3) is recycled(2) reduces the friction in the hair dryer (4) is transformed
3 6. The illustration below shows an example of energy changing forms. Which changes in energy form are illustrated in the diagram?(1) electrical → sound → light and mechanical(2) mechanical → light → sound and electrical(3) sound → mechanical → light and electrical(4) light → electrical → mechanical and sound7. Which graph below shows an object slowing down?
4 8. The cartoon below shows a humorous view of a law of motion. Which statement best summarizes the scientific concept shown in the cartoon?(1) A falling body accelerates at a constant speed.(2) The motion of an object is constantly changing due to magnetic forces.(3) The force of friction causes an object in motion to move faster.(4) A body in motion will remain in motion unless influenced by an outside force.
5 some tape. It looked similar to the diagram below. *Base your answers to questions 9 through 12 on the diagram and information below.A student made a rocket balloon using an inflated balloon, a straw, a long piece of string, two poles, andsome tape. It looked similar to the diagram below.AIRBALLOON9. On the diagram above draw and label arrows to show the motion of the air and the motion of the balloonthat would occur when the student releases the inflated balloon.10. Why is marking the starting position important to calculate the average speed of the balloon?_______________________________________________________________________________11. How would taping a coin (adding mass) to the balloon affect the overall motion of the balloon?_____________________________________________________________________________________12. If the string were extremely long, what would eventually happen to the motion of the balloon?______________________________________________________________________________________TO CORRECTLY MEASURE DISTANCE (STARTING POINT).IT WILL SLOW IT DOWN DUE TO INCREASED MASS.FRICTION WOULD SLOW IT DOWN AND THEN STOP ITS MOTION.
6 13. The diagram below shows two dogs pulling on a rope with constant but unequal forces.17. The diagram below shows a pinwheel rotating abovea lit candle. The arrows indicate the direction of air flow.In which direction will both dogs move?(1) east (2) west (3) north (4) south14. The illustration below shows a studentapproaching the door to a building.Which energy transformation is best shown in this diagram?(1) heat to mechanical (3) sound to heat(2) mechanical to light (4) heat to sound18. Which two factors determine the gravitational attractionbetween two objects?(1) time and temperature (3) shape and orbital speed(2) color and hardness (4) mass and distance apartWhich two simple machines are being usedto enable the student to reach the door?(1) inclined plane and pulley(2) lever and wheel-and-axle(3) pulley and lever(4) wheel-and-axle and inclined
7 15. A television set changes electrical energy to sound and light energy. In this process, someenergy is(1) created (3) changed to matter(2) destroyed (4) changed to heat16. Which two factors determine the pull of gravitational attraction between two objects?(1) time and temperature(2) shape and orbital speed(3) color and hardness(4) mass and distance apart19. The diagram below shows a student using a springscale to pull a wooden block up a ramp that is resting on astack of books.Which change would require more force to move the woodenblock up the ramp?(1) Have the student use two hands.(2) Reduce the mass of the wooden block.(3) Restack the books so the thinnest book is on the bottom.(4) Glue sandpaper to the surface of the ramp.20. The wheels and gears of a machine are greased inorder to decrease _____________.(1) potential energy (3) output(2) efficiency (4) friction
8 21. The diagram below shows a boulder rolling down a hill into a valley and then upthe opposite hill.24. Which setup below would require the least force tolift a 100-gram mass a distance of 10 centimeters?ADCBAt which position does the boulder havethe greatest kinetic energy?(1) A (3) C(2) B (4) D
9 22. The drawing below shows a person about to lift a book using a ruler and pencil.*Base your answers to questions 25 & 26 on the diagram,that shows two students ready to dive into a pool.FULCRUMThis drawing illustrates an example of whichsimple machine?(1) gear (2) pulley (3) balance (4) lever23. Which object represents a simple machine?25. Explain why student B has more potential energy thanstudent A. ________________________________________________\26. Student A dives from the board into the water. Explainwhy student A’s kinetic energy decreases as the studententers the water. ________________________________________________STUDENT B IS HIGHER UP = PEWATER SLOWS HIS MOVEMENT.
10 *Base your answers to questions 27-30 on the illustration below, which shows a number of activities happening on a sunny day.27. What is the original source of energy for all activities?___________________________________________28. Identify one activity that requires the use of fossil fuels.29. Identify one renewable resource in the diagram.30. An energy transformation occurs when one form ofenergy is changed to another. Fill in the spaces below todescribe an energy transformation that occurs as thechildren play baseball._________________________________ is changed to_________________________________THE SUNCAR, GAS GRILL, FUEL TRUCKSUN, WATERCHEMICALMECHANICAL
11 Base your answers to questions 31-33 on diagram 1 & 2 below *Base your answers to questions on diagram 1 & 2 below. The amount of force required to keepthe same block of wood moving across a tabletop is shown in the diagrams.31. What is the name of the device in thediagrams used to measure force.(1) spring scale (3) voltmeter(2) thermometer (4) graduated cylinder32. What change could be made in the setupin diagram 1 to increase the amount of forcenecessary to move the block of wood?(Answer below)33. Explain why the round pencils in diagram2 decrease the amount of force necessary tomove the block of wood32._____________________________________________________________________________________33._____________________________________________________________________________________MORE WOOD, HEAVIER OBJECT, MAKE SURFACE ROUGHCHANGES SLIDING FRICTION TO ROLLING FRICTION.
12 *Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of science. The diagram shows a set of materials that a science teacher used to demonstrate motion. The rubber band has been stretched with a string that has been tied to the nail. A weight is resting on the platform. The platform is resting on several round pencils on a tabletop.34. On the diagram draw an arrow to represent the direction the wooden platform will move when the lit match burns through the string and the weight is propelled from the platform.35. The table below lists four changes to the materials in the diagram. Will the changes cause the distance the woodenplatform moves to decrease, increase, or remain the same? For each change in the left column, circle your answer in theright column.
13 energy transformations. *Base your answers to questions 36 &37 on the diagram of a moving car below. The diagram showsenergy transformations.36. What is the sequence of the energy transformationsrepresented in the diagram?(1) mechanical → chemical → solar(2) solar → electrical → mechanical(3) mechanical → electrical → solar(4) solar → chemical → electrical37. State one advantage to the environment by using this car instead of a car powered by fossil fuel.______________________________________________________________________________________DECREASE POLLUTION, SAVE ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT…
14 *Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the information and diagram below. A rock hanging from a spring scale is being lowered into a graduated cylinder containing water. Figure A shows the reading on the spring scale before the rock is lowered into the water. Figure B shows the reading on the spring scale when the rock is in the water. The reading on the spring scale in figure A is greater than the reading on the spring scale in figure B.38. Explain why the spring scale shows a greater reading in figure A than in figure B.THE FORCE OF WATER (BUOYANCY) PUSHING UP ON THE ROCK.39. Explain why placing the rock in the water causes the water level to rise.THE ROCK DISPLACES THE WATER MAKING THE VOLUME OF THE WATER RISE.
15 Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the diagram below *Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the diagram below. The diagram shows wind turbines that are usedto generate electricity.40. Describe one advantage (other than cost) of using wind turbines rather than burning fossil fuels to produce electricity.__________________________________________________41. Describe one disadvantage (other than cost) of using wind turbines rather than burning fossil fuels to generate electricity.IT PROVIDES CLEAN ENERGY (NO POLLUTANTS).IT DEPENDS ON WIND CONDITIONS ONLY.
16 47. The diagram below shows a spinning water sprinkler. Water comes through a hose and is sprayed by the sprinkler.Which principle best explains why the sprinkler spins?42. Moving water in a river is considered a renewable resource because it:(1) carries dissolved oxygen(2) easily erodes sediments(3) is made of natural gas(4) can be recycled by nature over time43. Which event is a chemical change?(1) The baseball strikes the roof.(2) The roof of the car dents.(3) The paint cracks and chips.(4) The exposed metal rusts44. Which process is an example of a physical change?(1) wood burning (3) ice melting(2) iron rusting (4) milk souring(1) Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.(2) Solids are usually more dense than liquids.(3) Energy is released when water condenses.(4) Substances expand when heated & contract when cooled.48. Which energy source is considered nonrenewable?(1) oil (2) moving water (3) sunlight (4) biomass49. The gravitational force between two objects dependson the distance between the objects and each object’s(1) mass (3) pressure(2) volume (4) temperature45. Which statement best describes the energy changesthat occur while a child is riding on a sled down a steep, snow-covered hill?Kinetic energy decreases and potentialenergy increases.(2) Kinetic energy increasesand potential energy decreases.(3) Both potential energy andkinetic energy decrease.(4) Both potential energy andkinetic energy increase50. Which sequence of energy transformations occursafter a battery-operated flashlight is turned on?(1) electrical → light → chemical(2) electrical → chemical → light(3) chemical → light → electrical(4) chemical → electrical → light
17 46. The diagram below shows a hammer being used by a person to remove a nail from a piece of wood. 51. All matter is made up of particles called(1) cells (3) atoms(2) molecules (4) compounds52. The force of an object, with a certain mass acceleratingat a certain rate, can be determined by using the equation below.force = mass ╳ accelerationWhich object would have the greatest force?(1) a 5-kg object accelerating at 10 m/s2(2) a 5-kg object accelerating at 20 m/s2(3) a 20-kg object accelerating at 4 m/s2(4) a 20-kg object accelerating at 3 m/s2The hammer is being used as which type ofsimple machine?(1) wheel and axle (3) lever(2) inclined plane (4) pulley53. The diagrams below show smooth blocks of wood being pushed across the same surface. The mass of the blockand amount of force applied are labeled in each diagram. In which diagram would the block of wood have thegreatest acceleration?
18 54. The graph below shows the distance traveled by four cars, A, B, C, and D, over a period of time, *The average speed of a moving object can be determined by using the equation below.Average speed = distance or v = d / tTimeWhich car traveled at an average speed of 20 kilometers per hour?(1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D*Base your answers to questions 55 & 56 on the information and diagram below.The diagram below shows a toy airplane. The propeller is turned twenty times, which twists the rubber band connected to it.When the propeller is released, the rubber band unwinds and the propeller turns at a high speed, enabling the airplane to fly.55. What type of energy results when the rubber band unwinds and the propeller turns, enabling the plane to fly?________________________________________________56. Identify one change that could be made that would makethe toy airplane fly at a different speed.KINETIC ENERGY / MECHANICAL ENERGYWINDING IT MORE (INCREASE POTENTIAL).
19 57. A person uses a bow to shoot an arrow at a target 57. A person uses a bow to shoot an arrow at a target. In which diagram does the bow andarrow have the greatest amount of potential energy?58. The diagram below shows a home with a solarheating system.62. The diagram shows a lever that can be used to lifta person. The fulcrum is the point where the lever pivots.Describe one change that could be made to the lever todecrease the input force needed to lift the person.____________________________________________What is the original source of energyfor this heating system?(1) heated water (3) sunlight(2) heated air (4) water pumpMOVE THE FULCRUM TO THE RIGHT
20 59. Which energy source is considered nonrenewable?(1) moving water (3) wind(2) fossil fuel (4) biomass60. Which type of energy in gasoline istransformed into mechanical energy ina motorcycle engine?(1) chemical (3) magnetic(2) nuclear (4) electrical61. A student pushes against a tree with aforce of 10 newtons (N). The tree does notmove. What is the amount of force exertedby the tree on the student?(1) 0 N (3) 10 N(2) 5 N (4) 20 N*Base your answers to questions 63 & 64 on the diagramsbelow. The diagrams show a student using a bow andarrow. The bow string on the bow is used to propel thearrow forward.63. State one change the student could make, withoutchanging the angle at which the bow is held, so that thearrow would travel a greater distance._____________________________________________64. Describe how gravity affects the path of the arrowafter it has been released.PULL THE STRING BACK MORE.IT IMMEDIATELY PULLS DOWN ON IT.
21 65. The diagrams below show two ways of loading a box into a truck. The person using the track with the rollers uses less energy to load the box because the rollers reduce the(1) mass of the box (3) force of gravity(2) distance traveled by the box (4) force of friction*Base your answers to questions 66 & 67 on the diagram below. The diagram shows one type of power facility thatprovides electricity for use in houses.66. What phase change occurs in the boiler?____________________ phase tophase.67. Name one fossil fuel that may be burned in this furnace._________________________LIQUID (WATER)GAS (WATER VAPOR)OIL, NATURAL GAS, COAL