Presentation on theme: "Structural Integration of the Informal Sector in Municipal Solid Waste Management Tunisia – case study ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop Bucharest, October 9."— Presentation transcript:
Structural Integration of the Informal Sector in Municipal Solid Waste Management Tunisia – case study ISWA / RDN / EXPRA Workshop Bucharest, October 9 th 2014
Who are we? 2002 – GP is registered as a Romanian private and independent company that provides environmental consultancy services to authorities and industry and business development in various fields of expertise. 2009 – GP together with 4 more consulting companies register the RWA as a UK company with a specialised track record in waste management, resource efficiency and associated advisory and consultancy services. RWA provides support to design and implementation of integrated resources and WM projects.
Why integrating/formalizing the IRS? Informal Recycling Sector (IRS) is more active and effective in recovering and valorising resources that the formal sector in low and middle income countries
Our experience in working with the IRS Green Partners and RWA have extensive proven experience in working with the IRS: - facilitating discussions - opening communication channels - initiate debates and challenges - institutional development and capacity building - developing and analyzing integration/formalization options - Legislation, policy and economic instruments design and implementation - Community mobilisation and public awareness
Our own garden – Pata Rat -Study on the economic impacts of the IRS in waste management in 2006 -Challenges of sustainable and Affordable Modernization in the Solid Waste Sector conference in 2008 -Currently there are approximately 1000 persons living on the landfill and its vicinities -Most of them are participating in SWM activities as waste pickers
Background This project is financed by the BMZ (German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development) through the Fund for Good Governance in the MENA Region. Project activities ccontributes to the objective of the regional network for integrated SWM – SWEEP-Net in MENA region. Another SWEEP-Net study is focusing on the Middle East region SWM practices. The project implementation is done by RWA - January 2014 until June 2015.
Background – project objectives The project has a participatory approach having the following objectives: -improving the living and working conditions of the informal sector through its structural integration; - establishing sustainable income generation and - enhancing efficiency of local waste management schemes,
Background Institutional setup and EPR in Tunisia: Eco-Lef - the Tunisian EPR system from 2001 for post-consumer packaging waste Municipal waste collection services: poor level of services The IS by collecting and recycling part of the municipal waste stream at no cost to the municipality represents an economic benefit to the municipality
Responsibilities Waste management sector ANGed EPR scheme Transport Treatment and disposal Transfer station Municipality Collection ANGed – National Agency for Waste Management
Current situation – informal sector 15,000 t of PET per year recycled, 67% by the informal sector 5000-6000 t of non-ferrous metals per year is recycled 3,600 t paper and cardboard per year, About 8000 people are involved in informal recycling in Tunisia. They work in the collection of recyclable materials from landfills or by crisscrossing the streets of major cities of the country.
Categories of waste pickers Professional waste pickers In this category there are the street pickers and the pickers who are collecting exclusively from the new landfill in La Marsa. They guide the trucks arriving on landfill and then they are sorting recyclables, selecting them and selling them to carriers that come up directly on the discharge points. They earn on average 30 DT/day
Categories of waste pickers Semi-professional waste pickers These persons have between 2 and 10 years of work experience in the field of waste recycling. They sum up to half the total number of waste pickers. There are those who already have a motorcycle, those who have bikes with trailers, and those who are still using the hand cart, or even the wheelbarrow. They have irregular income of about 10-15 DT/day
Categories of waste pickers Waste pickers belonging to vulnerable groups These persons have between 2 and 10 years of work experience in the field of waste recycling. They sum up to half the total number of waste pickers. There are those who already have a motorcycle, those who have bikes with trailers, and those who are still using the hand cart, or even the wheelbarrow. They have irregular income of about 10-15 DT/day
Categories of waste pickers Women barbéchas They have no means of motorized transportation and often they only have a wheelbarrow or even nothing at all. They rarely earn more than ten dinars a day. They find themselves doing this job after becoming a widow or due to a disabled husband.
Current situation – informal sector Types of recycling materials collected include: 5% all types of waste 75% plastic and aluminum cans 10% paper/ cardboard 2% textiles 8% other streams (batteries, wood, etc).
Current situation – value chain There are two parallel competing systems for recycling, ANGED’s Ecolef system (EPR system), and the private recycling value chain, both of which are supplied by waste pickers and others like NGOs and small junk shops.
Current situation – other stakeholders Informal Sector Municipality (Private operator) CitizensANGED
Pilot measures - needs For all pilot there are some similar actions that that are required in all selected pilot zones, these include the need for an agreement, awareness raising, monitoring and raising investment financing. Organisational tripartite agreement monitoring and control quality standards Logistics/ technical pilot are zoning collection frequency equipment need criteria for access to pilot projects Financing Financing investment adn operation
Pilot measures for integration 1.Door-to-door collection of source separated dry fraction 2.Door-to-door primary collection of source separated wet and dry fraction 3.Improving communal collection points including cages Currently we’re mapping and understanding all technical details in the field
Pilot measures – collection of dry fraction -Waste pickers going from door to door of households and buying or collecting for free dry recyclables, especially PET and other plastic. Issues -Door bell or schedule -Zones and routes -Registration of waste pickers and criteria -Badges, uniforms, equipment -Need for motorized equipment micro-credits -Revenues
Pilot measures – collection of wet and dry fraction -The waste pickers have the right over the recycleables and drop wet waste in communal containers Issues -Door bell or schedule -Districts, Zones and routes -Registration of waste pickers -Badges, uniforms, equipment -Need for motorized equipment -Changes to municipal communal containers infrastructure -Revenues and willingness to pay
Pilot measures – communal collection points -Waste pickers own/administer/have access to cages or communal containersn and an obligation to keep the communal collection point clean cages system Informal sector was not interested in this option Issues -Cleanliness and customer satisfaction -Efficiency and financial sustainability -Difficulties in seperation of tasks -Assigning collection points, registration, criteria -Badges, uniforms. Equipment -Changes to municipal infrastructure
Challenges -Challenges are different for the two municipalities -There are various interferences in the value chain between ANGed (Ecolef) and private operators -There are conflicts between formal and informal workers due to access to waste -Different interests and perspectives -Legal issues: patent -Increased earning potential may attracting more people at the bottom of the chain while enforcing the chain -Access to credit, uniforms, equipment
Research studies/publications 2006: Economic Aspects of the Informal Sector in Solid Waste Management 2008: Challenges of sustainable and Affordable Modernization in the Solid Waste Sector; 2010: Egyptian National Solid Waste Management Programme document 2012: Global Extended Producer Responsibility- Informal Sector in Waste Management 2014: Operator Models in Low and Middle Income Countries.
Conclusions -The IRS needs to be taken into account when developing SWM strategies, policies and programmes; -Donors/IFI are keen on working towards the integration/formalisation of waste pickers; -the informal sector creates social benefits and indirect economic and environmental benefits for the municipality; -Working with the informal sector is possible and could be seen as one form of private sector participation. -Many options for integration, still room for analysing their advantages and disadvantages - Questions and open discussions
Cosmin Briciu firstname.lastname@example.org www.rwagroup.net Tel: +40 746 775171 www.greenpartners.ro email@example.com Fantanele 18, 400294, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Tel. +40 264 589291, Fax: +40 264 585585 Thank you for your attention