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…how to lay the smack down on your unsuspecting opponent! Language of Argument.

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Presentation on theme: "…how to lay the smack down on your unsuspecting opponent! Language of Argument."— Presentation transcript:

1 …how to lay the smack down on your unsuspecting opponent! Language of Argument

2 Counterclaims and Rebuttals Language of Argument

3 Counterclaim (n): An argument that makes an opposing point to another argument. Rebuttal (n): A statement that gives reasons why an accusation is untrue; when you make a rebuttal of a counterclaim in an argument, you give reasons why that counterclaim is not a good argument.

4 Counterclaim and Rebuttal You should buy a motorcycle. They are smaller than cars and allow you to move into and through traffic with ease. By being able to move into and through traffic with ease, you can save time by not having to sit in traffic. Some may argue that because motorcycles are smaller than cars, you should not buy one. While this argument is valid in the sense that motorcycles can be more dangerous than cars because they are smaller, the benefits of driving a motorcycle, such as saving money on gas, make it a good reason to buy.

5 Counterclaim and Rebuttal Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution. Driving a private car is a typical citizen’s most air polluting activity. Because cars are the largest source of private (as opposed to industry produced) air pollution, switching to hybrid cars should have an impact on fighting pollution. Another reason why hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution is because hybrid cars combine a gasoline engine with a battery-powered electric motor. This combination of technologies means that less pollution is produced.

6 Counterclaim and Rebuttal Some people feel that instead of focusing on cars, which still encourages a culture of driving even if it cuts down on pollution, the nation should focus on building and encouraging use of mass transit systems. While mass transit is an environmentally sound idea that should be encouraged, it is not feasible in many rural areas, or for people who must commute to work; thus hybrid cars are a better solution for much of the nation’s population.

7 Counterclaim and Rebuttal Sentence starters for Counterclaim and Rebuttal “On the other hand, some people believe ______...” “One may argue _________; however, _____...” “Some people feel that_________; however,_____...”

8 Counterclaim and Rebuttal Make the Counterclaim real! You will not fool anyone by misrepresenting people who disagree with you; in fact, you will only weaken your own position because you will appear to fear the truth. Bring up a counterclaim that represents a (seemingly) valid objection to your claim.

9 Counterclaim and Rebuttal Never make a counterclaim you cannot rebut! Bringing up the opposing viewpoint and then failing to show why it is wrong will cause your audience to doubt that your position is the only right one (which is the point of persuasion, after all).

10 Counterclaim and Rebuttal Make it clear that you do not agree with the counterclaim! Do not allow your audience to think you are simply contradicting yourself. How can you persuade someone to accept your claim if you sound like you do not completely accept it?

11 Counterclaim and Rebuttal Do not repeat a reason you have already given to rebut the counterclaim! The rebuttal should focus specifically on the objection in the counterclaim. If you merely repeat what you have already said, your audience will assume you cannot think of an effective response.

12 Counterclaim and Rebuttal You are allowed to have more than one rebuttal! The more reasons you can give to show that the counterclaim is wrong, the better.

13 The Context of your Claim How do you start your letter? Before you can jump into your claim, evidence, warrants, counterclaims and rebuttals, you must explain the context for your argument in an introduction. Three teenagers, all of which are deserving, are applying for admission to your university and the basketball program.

14 The Context of your Claim How do you start your letter? This is your chance to WOW the reader!!!

15 The Context of your Claim You may want to address these questions in your introduction: What was the process for deciding which teen should be first on the list? Who made up the committee (group) that is making the recommendation? What considerations did you take into account as the criteria for judging each candidate?

16 How to Write Your Letter Claim: Evidence #2: Warrant: Evidence #1: Warrant: Counterclaim: Rebuttal: Introduction:

17 Closing Out Your Argument How do you END your letter? After you have stated your claim, evidence, warrants, counterclaim, and rebuttals, it is time to tie is all together in a conclusion!

18 Closing Out Your Argument A good conclusion in an argument paper should include a call to action! You’ll want to reiterate who your athlete of choice was, state the two most important qualities he/she possesses (evidence), and what exactly you want the committee to do!

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