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Motorcycle Safety & Enforcement

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Presentation on theme: "Motorcycle Safety & Enforcement"— Presentation transcript:

1 Motorcycle Safety & Enforcement
International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training & National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Bill Sullivan NHTSA Law Enforcement Liaison Introductions

2 Technology and Motorcycle Safety

3 “What are the characteristics of a motorcyclist?”
“The Motorcyclist” Describe in your own words the following: “What are the characteristics of a motorcyclist?” What words describe a motorcyclist and motorcycle? Are there any motorcyclist in the class? Instructor: Note comments/feedback on a flipchart.

4 Course Purpose To understand why the enforcement of motorcycle laws, support of national motorcycle safety enforcement efforts and best practices are critical to reduce motorcycle fatalities and injuries. Training Objectives: Educate law enforcement officials about motorcycle safety issues and resources. Understand that the enforcement of motorcycle laws has a direct correlation with reducing the number of motorcycle fatalities and injuries. Understand the critical areas of enforcement of motorcycle laws. We’ll be covering a lot of information in one day. We encourage you to ask questions and if after taking this class you are interested in advanced training classes related to motorcycling, ie, crash investigation, MSF Rider Coaches, becoming a motorcop, etc., please ask and we’ll be happy to share information.

5 Course overview This training will look at situations unique to the enforcement of motorcycle laws such as the following: Motorcycle equipment required Motorcycle licensing and speeding issues Officer and motorcyclist safety Strategies for traffic stops Strategies to avoid pursuit situations Detection of impaired motorcyclists Detection of non-compliant helmets Latest on enforcement & public relations campaigns We’ll be covering a lot of information in one day. We encourage you to ask questions and if after taking this class you are interested in advanced training classes related to motorcycling, ie, crash investigation, MSF Rider Coaches, becoming a motorcop, etc., please ask and we’ll be happy to share information.

6 Course goals Understand critical areas of Enforcement Motorcycle Laws
DUI Detection Licensing Personal Protections Equipment – Helmets Speeding In order to enforce particular laws and/or address safety issues related to motorcycling one must learn the laws.

7 MODULE 1 WHY?

8 What is the scope of the problem?

9 National Statistics Injuries & Fatalities
*According to US DOT, Motorcycle fatalities have more than doubled since 1998, increasing 110 percent. They Were down 16% in 2009 (4,465) Registration trends *Motorcycles account for 3 percent of all registered vehicles; however motorcycle fatalities represent 14 percent of highway fatalities in the United States. Unlicensed motorcycle drivers *1 out 4 motorcycle operators involved in fatal crashes were not properly licensed. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, Motorcycles. DOT HS National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2009). Highlights of 2009 Motor Vehicle Crashes. DOT HS National Statistics Give a brief history of the problem and why this class is important. Fatalities up 110 % ( ) in last ten years. Registrations up across the country. The Insurance Industry reports… It is a known statistical comparison that when registrations go up so do fatalities and injuries. Ask students - How does inexperience play into motorcycle skill and operation?

10 National Statistics DUI is a factor in fatalities
*Alcohol is a significant factor in far too many motorcycle fatal crashes. In 2008, 29 percent of all fatally injured motorcycle operators had BAC levels of .08 or higher, and 64 percent of those killed in single-vehicle crashes on weekend nights have a BAC of .08 or higher. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2009). Highlights of 2009 Motor Vehicle Crashes. DOT HS Alcohol and drugs are also a concern. Motorcyclists also must be aware of how fatigue can affect them on a road trip and the potential of how over the counter drugs also can affect operation.

11 3 states without helmet laws – Iowa, Illinois and New Hampshire
National Statistics Helmet Use Nationally - Helmet Laws from State to State 20 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico require helmet use by all; Other States have “partial helmet” laws based on age, or no laws requiring helmet use. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, Motorcycles. DOT HS ASK STUDENTS - *Who here knows which states do not require helmets? Helmet use around 40% non-compliance nationwide. How many states that have helmet laws are experiencing an increase in non-compliant helmet use? Helmet laws by state vary. 27 states with partial helmet laws – what does this mean for enforcement? How can you tell if someone is 18 or 21 years old when they drive by you on a motorcycle? 20 states with helmet laws for everyone 3 states without helmet laws – Iowa, Illinois and New Hampshire

12 3 states without helmet laws – Iowa, Illinois and New Hampshire
National View National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS *Who here knows which states do not require helmets? Helmet use around 40% non-compliance nationwide. How many states that have helmet laws are experiencing an increase in non-compliant helmet use? Helmet laws by state vary. 27 states with partial helmet laws – what does this mean for enforcement? How can you tell if someone is 18 or 21 years old when they drive by you on a motorcycle? 20 states with helmet laws for everyone 3 states without helmet laws – Iowa, Illinois and New Hampshire

13 Enforcement Issues Limited training on motorcycle laws
Often specialized training Motorcycle enforcement appeals to riders What enforcement issues with motorcycle and riders do you look for? Do you enforce motorcycle laws and if so which ones do you look for? Instructor note: Consider writing class responses on flip chart. If you do not know what to look for, does this perpetuate that concern that there is a public perception of lack of enforcement?

14 Motorcycle Risks Motorcyclists Are at Risk from Other Drivers.
Drivers of all types of vehicles need to be alert of motorcycles. Motorcycles are small and may be difficult for motorists to see. Motorcycles have a much smaller profile than other vehicles. Due to the smaller profile it can be difficult to judge the speed and distance of an approaching motorcycle. Source: Motorcyclists Are at Risk from Other Drivers. Depending on your riding season for motorcycle, we all must be aware when warmer weather hits, more motorcycles are back out on the road – and the drivers of passenger vehicles need to be alert. Motorcycles are small and may be difficult for drivers of other vehicles to see. Motorcycles have a much smaller profile than other vehicles. This can make it difficult to judge the speed and distance of an approaching motorcycle. After a crash, the drivers of other vehicles involved often say they never saw the motorcyclist and were unable to respond in time. In the event of a crash, a motorcyclist is much more vulnerable and in much greater danger physically than are other vehicle drivers. In fact, per vehicle mile traveled, NHTSA estimates that in 2006, motorcyclists were about 35 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a traffic crash. Source: (Continued on next slide.)

15 Motorcycle Risks Motorcyclists Are at Risk from Other Drivers. After a crash, the drivers of other vehicles involved often say they never saw the motorcyclist and were unable to respond in time. In the event of a crash, a motorcyclist is much more vulnerable and in much greater danger physically than are other vehicle drivers. In fact, per vehicle mile traveled, NHTSA estimates that in 2008, motorcyclists were about 37 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a traffic crash. Motorcyclists however do pose the greatest risk to themselves.* Source: Motorcyclists Are at Risk from Other Drivers. *Please note that students need to know that we identify the risk other drivers pose to motorcyclists, but clearly point out that motorcyclists are responsible for a majority of the crashes, fatalities and injuries. Source:

16 Motorcycle Fatalities
Motorcyclist Deaths Rising or Falling. In 2009, motorcycle rider fatalities decreased for the 1st year, following an 11 year increase. During 2009, 4,462 motorcyclists lost their lives in fatal highway crashes. That means motorcycle riders were involved in more than one out of eight of all U.S. road fatalities during 2009. 47 % of all fatalities in motorcycle crashes in 2008 involved another vehicle in addition to the motorcycle in the crash. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2009). Highlights of 2009 Motor Vehicle Crashes. DOT HS 2009 – saw the first decline in motorcyclists fatalities after 11 years of continues increases….110 % increase in 11 years. Fatalities up 144 % in last ten years! “Share the Road” -- Motorcyclist Deaths are Rising. Motorcyclist Deaths are Rising. In 2008, motorcycle rider fatalities increased for the 10th straight year. During 2008, 5,290 motorcyclists lost their lives in fatal highway crashes. That means motorcycle riders were involved in more than one out of nine of all U.S. road fatalities during 2007. 47 % of all fatalities in motorcycle crashes in 2007 involved another vehicle in addition to the motorcycle in the crash. Source:

17 State Statistics Registrations are up Helmet use estimate
Unlicensed motorcycle drivers Fatalities DUI Enforcement issues Add your own state specific comments here….

18 Kansas Licensed Motorcycle Drivers

19 Kansas Motorcycle Fatalities

20 Kansas Motorcyclist Fatalities – % Increase from 2000-2002 to 2005-2007
Kansas also experienced the 14th highest percentage increase in motorcyclist deaths, with 86 percent more occurring in than had in Overall in , Kansas recorded 144 fewer impaired driving deaths, 200 fewer unbuckled occupant deaths and 215 fewer speeding-related fatalities. These gains were partly offset by the increase of 68 motorcyclist fatalities. Motorcycles clearly represent Kansas’ greatest challenge. But the State also must expand its impressive efforts relating to speeding, impaired driving and occupant protection to move the fatality rates assopciated with those issues to much lower levels.

21 Motorcycle Awareness THINK SPOT – WCSH/WLBZ THINK SPOT – WCSH/WLBZ
Look for motorcyclist! THINK SPOT – WCSH/WLBZ

22 MOTORCYCLE TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS
MODULE 2 MOTORCYCLE TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS

23 Motorcycle Types & Characteristics
Background: Motorcycle Types & Characteristics Until the 1950s, there was just one kind of motorcycle available. This all-purpose type of machine was designed for street use and was modified for more specialized applications. As motorcycles became more popular, new configurations were created to address certain interests and needs. Initially, special models were designed for off-highway riding. However, the range and variety of models has grown as manufacturers identified and addressed new market niches. By the 1980s, several distinct types of street-legal motorcycles had emerged. The characteristics and capabilities of current street motorcycles vary with their style. Different categories have different strengths and weaknesses, which may be helpful to recognize. Although some machines blur the distinctions, in general, current street-legal motorcycles fit into the following categories:[1]

24 AMA PSA Distracted video – courtesy of AMA PSA
Distracted video – American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) PSA Mr. Davis goes to the dentist office. Dr. White is the motorcyclist…. Distracted video – courtesy of AMA PSA

25 Traditional Traditional motorcycles designed as practical transportation, with few styling frills or amenities. This category falls in the middle of the spectrum in most areas of ergonomics and performance, including power, handling response, and braking. Although they were once almost universal, traditional-style motorcycles have declined in popularity as more specialized types have become available.[2]

26 Cruiser Currently the most popular category of the market, centered on traditional or classic American styling. Once dominated almost exclusively by Harley-Davidson, the cruiser category has attracted competition from all major manufacturers and is the entry category for new American manufacturers. The profile is long with a low saddle height. The emphasis in the cruiser category is on appearance, style, and sound, with less emphasis on performance. Owners frequently customize these machines.[3]

27 Sport bike Styled and constructed in the manner of road-racing motorcycles with streamlined bodywork, front-end weight bias, and forward-leaning riding positions, the emphasis is on handling, acceleration, top speed, braking, and cornering prowess. Performance handling and braking systems are the rule on sport bikes, which tend to be lighter and more technologically advanced than other types of motorcycles. Often less comfortable than other types, they are favored for riding on twisting roads.[4]

28 Touring Large motorcycles with luggage, wind protection and other amenities (stereo, two-way communication, cruise control, etc.) designed to transport rider and passenger in comfort. Touring bikes are heavy with moderate power outputs. Their intended purpose is comfortable, long-distance travel.[5]

29 Sport-Touring These motorcycles combine the comfort and some of the luggage capacity of touring motorcycles with the responsive handling of sport bikes. Usually powerful with relatively responsive handling, and high-performance brakes, sport-touring motorcycles offer fewer amenities than touring bikes. The ideal mission of a sport-touring machine is medium- and long-distance travel via curving roads.[6]

30 Dirt Bike Machines designed to be used off-road. They are typically lightweight, tall and narrow with single-cylinder engines, long suspension travel and tires suitable for off-highway use. They are not street legal as they are missing lighting, signals, and road worthy equipment.

31 Dual-Purpose Machines designed to be used both on- and off-road. They are typically lightweight, tall and narrow with single-cylinder engines, long suspension travel and tires suitable for on- and off-highway use.[7]

32 Scooters These two-wheeled vehicles are small, mostly low-power designs with small-diameter wheels suitable primarily for use at low and medium speeds on surface streets in urban environments. Their appearance differs significantly from motorcycles’ because of their bodywork and the “step-through” frame design. Most are not suitable or legal for use on high-speed or controlled-access roadways, though some do have sufficient power and other capabilities to allow such use.[8] Motorcycle - shall mean any motor-driven vehicle having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground. Scooter – falls under the definition of MV and motorcycle. Moped – means a motor driven cycle equipped with 2 or 3 wheels, foot pedals to permit muscular propulsion, max motor size 50 cc, max speed 30 mph, and automatic, no clutch or shifter. (T. 23 § VSA Section 4)

33 Mopeds Lightweight, very low-power two-wheelers designed for cheap urban transportation. Their bicycle-like design, slow acceleration, and limited top speed (30 miles per hour) make them unsuitable for use on high-speed roadways and create unique traffic issues for their users.[9] Motorcycle - shall mean any motor-driven vehicle having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground. Scooter – falls under the definition of MV and motorcycle. Moped – means a motor driven cycle equipped with 2 or 3 wheels, foot pedals to permit muscular propulsion, max motor size 50 cc, max speed 30 mph, and automatic, no clutch or shifter. (T. 23 § VSA Section 4)

34 Sidecars A third wheel can be added to the side of a motorcycle to create a motorcycle/sidecar combination. These devices attach to the frame of the host motorcycle and provide additional passenger or cargo capacity. These accessories strongly affect all aspects of handling and control by essentially creating an entirely different kind of vehicle, which in some ways is more like an automobile than a motorcycle.[10]

35 Trikes These machines are created by either grafting the front of a motorcycle to the back of an automobile or adding an automobile-type rear axle to the rear of a motorcycle to create a three-wheeled vehicle. Although they are usually licensed as motorcycles, these vehicles are dramatically different in many ways and do not handle or steer like motorcycles.[11] XYZ123

36 Classes of Street Motorcycles officers may encounter:
Sport Bikes Street Bikes Cruiser Class Scooters Sport Bikes - factory built motorcycles that resemble professional racing motorcycles. This style of motorcycles generally attracts younger riders. Street Bikes - regular motorcycles that range from 250cc to 1100cc engines. The riders of these bikes are in all age groups. Cruiser Class - “Top End” motorcycles that average 1100cc to 1800cc in size and usually are equipped with windshields, saddlebags and accessories. Due to their price, their riders are usually older.[1]

37 Motorcycle Laws Endorse your sport – PSA – courtesy of Washington State Patrol Endorse your sport – PSA – courtesy of Washington State Patrol

38 SAFETY LAWS RELATED TO EQUIPMENT & OPERATION
MODULE 3 SAFETY LAWS RELATED TO EQUIPMENT & OPERATION

39 Motorcycle Moving Violations
Motorcycle operators must obey the same rules of the road as all other drivers (with a few exceptions) Enforce these as you would any other violation KSA : Rights and duties of persons riding motorcycles. Every person operating a motorcycle shall be granted all of the rights and shall be subject to all of the duties applicable to the driver of any other vehicle under this act, except as provided in K.S.A to , inclusive, of this article and except as to those provisions of this act which by their nature can have no application.

40 Definitions Motor Vehicles—Every vehicle, other than a motorized bicycle, which is self-propelled. Motorcycle—Any motor vehicle designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, but excluding a tractor. Motor-Driven Cycles—Means every motorcycle, including every motor scooter, with a motor which produces not to exceed 5 brake horsepower, and every bicycle with motor attached.

41 Definitions Cont. Motorized Bicycle—Means every device having two tandem wheels or three wheels which may be propelled by either human power or helper motor, or by both, and which has: (a) A motor which produces not more than 3.5 brake horsepower; (b) a cylinder capacity of not more than 130 cubic centimeters; (c) an automatic transmission; and (d) the capability of a maximum design speed of no more than 30 miles per hour except a low power cycle. If under 18 must wear a DOT helmet See KSA a for more regulations Low Power Cycle—Every vehicle and every bicycle and tricycle with not to exceed one brake horsepower provided by battery in addition to human power.

42 Motor-driven Cycles 8-1562: Special speed limitation on motor-driven cycles. No person shall operate any motor-driven cycle at any time mentioned in K.S.A at a speed greater than thirty-five (35) miles per hour unless such motor-driven cycle is equipped with a head lamp or lamps which are adequate to reveal a person or vehicle at a distance of three hundred (300) feet ahead.

43 Licensing One out of four motorcycle operators (25%) involved in fatal crashes in 2008 were operating their vehicles with invalid licenses at the time of the collision. 27 % of motorcycle operators involved in fatal traffic crashes had a previous speeding conviction. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS One out of four motorcycle operators (25%) involved in fatal crashes in 2008 were operating their vehicles with invalid licenses at the time of the collision, while only 12 percent of drivers of passenger vehicles in fatal crashes did not have valid licenses. Motorcycle operators involved in fatal traffic crashes were 1.4 times more likely than passenger vehicle drivers to have a previous license suspension or revocation (18% and 13%, respectively).[1] 1. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS

44 CHECK OPERATOR’S LICENSE FOR PROPER ENDORSEMENT
Operator requirements for a motorcycle endorsement Motorcyclists are required to have proper license and endorsement to operate. What is your state law? 1 out 4 motorcycle operators involved in fatal crashed are not properly licensed. Motorcyclists are required to have proper license and motorcycle endorsement to operate. T. 23 VSA § 615. Endorsement *License endorsement required DMV Rule 9.

45 Motorcycle Endorsement Kansas
All operators operating a MC registered in Kansas must have a class “M” endorsement (motorized bicycle can have a class c) To obtain a class M you must complete a written test, vision test, and a driving test. Class M Instructional Permit - can obtain at age 14, must complete vision and written test. Good for one year and can be renewed indefinitely. “The holder of the permit may operate a motorcycle at any time if accompanied by an adult who has a valid Class M license and who is riding a motorcycle in the general proximity of the permitee” How does your state define the difference between a motorcycle, scooter and moped? HANDOUT MOTORCYCLE / SCOOTER - The operator is required to have a motorcycle endorsement. MOPED - The operator does not need a motorcycle endorsement.

46 CHECK REGISTRATION All motorcycles operated on a public highway must be… properly registered, and insured. Numbers on registration plate should match the registration certificate. Does your state require annual inspection and proof of insurance? Some states allow exemption from helmet law if rider has training certificate/endorsement with proof of insurance at certain minimum coverage requirements.

47 CHECK INSURANCE CARD FOR PROOF OF INSURANCE
Maintenance of financial responsibility Insurance required –Compulsory Liability (Minimum Limits)(25/50/10). Title 23 VSA § 800. Maintenance of financial responsibility Insurance required - established state limits. Must produce before MV inspections Civil penalty assessed not more than $100.00

48 CHECK VIN PLATE Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)
Location of VIN plate Check plate – VIN structure Make sure not tampered with VIN should match registration – ID Manual A great resource for checking vehicle identification number (VIN) structure is with a National Insurance Crime Bureau, 2009 Passenger Vehicle Identification Manual. The manual contains a section at the back on motorcycles and checking motorcycle VIN structure by each (resource for ordering ID Manuals on their web site) – Discuss location of VIN Plate Frame numbers Engine Serial Numbers You can find the serial number on the frame behind the headlight i.e. on the frame between the front forks on most non sport bikes.  Sport bikes vary in serial number location but it is usually on the front of the motorcycles frame somewhere i.e. on either side, or on the lower section of the frame (down tube) near a front motor mount. The serial number should match the same make and model you are running to determine what kind of motorcycle it is. The specific make motorcycle dealer can help with this if unsure or check against handout. See VIN Motorcycle codes handout.

49 CHECK EQUIPMENT

50 CHECK TIRES Check condition of wheels, tires and rims for any unsafe conditions Check tires for tread depth “It is unlawful for any person to operate a motor vehicle or combination of vehicles having one or more tires in an unsafe condition… A pneumatic tire is in an unsafe condition if it has: (1) Any part of the ply or cord exposed; (2) any bump, bulge or separation; (3) a tread design depth of less than 1/16 inch measured in any two or more adjacent tread grooves, exclusive of tie bars, or, for those tires with tread wear indicators worn to the level of the tread wear indicators in any two tread grooves; (4) a marking "not for highway use" or "for racing purposes only" or "unsafe for highway use"; (5) tread of sidewall cracks, cuts or snags deep enough to expose the body cord…; (7) …such other conditions as may be reasonably demonstrated to render it unsafe. Check tires and rims for any damage or unsafe conditions.

51 Tread must be at least 1/16” deep
NY VTL 375(35c)

52 A Lincoln penny can be used to check tire wear.
Gauge is Lincoln’s head on penny as tread depth minimum.

53 CHECK BODY OF MOTORCYCLE
Check body items of motorcycle Check for any obvious defective part(s) Check for parts projecting from vehicle. FENDERS AND MUDGUARDS MUST BE EQUIVALENT TO MANUFACTURER’S ORIGINAL SPECIFICATIONS.

54 CHECK FOOTRESTS Check foot rests Make sure they are securely fastened
Are foot rests in proper location? Can an operator ride side-saddle? T. 23 VSA § Footrests and handlebars CHECK FOOT RESTS TO MAKE SURE THEY ARE SECURELY FASTENED IN PROPER LOCATION.

55 READY FOR PASSENGERS? If carrying passenger, check if equipped
Is it designed to carry more than 1 person? Must be equipped with foot rests and seat for passengers (KSA ) Where can a passenger ride? T. 23 VSA § Footrests and handlebars CHECK IF EQUIPPED FOR PASSENGERS MOTORCYCLES DESIGNED TO CARRY MORE THAN ONE PERSON MUST BE EQUIPPED WITH HANDGRIPS AND FOOTRESTS FOR PASSENGERS.

56 CHECK HANDLEBARS Check handlebar height
What does your state specify for height? What does your state specify for handlebar height? Example is that some states restrict handlebars over 15 inches or handlebars may not be higher than the operator’s shoulders. NO HIGHER THAN 15 INCHES ABOVE THE OPERATOR’S SEAT HEIGHT (VT) - VT T. 23 VSA § Footrests and handlebars A GOOD GAUGE IS NO HIGHER THAN THE OPERATOR’S SHOULDERS (NY) - VTL – 381(5) Photos courtesy of New York State Police – Lt. Jim Halvorsen.

57 DISPLAY OF REGISTRATION PLATE
Check registration plate as it must be secure. Mounted horizontally or Is vertical mount permitted? The plate must be clean and clearly visible. Is plate in required position? Plate illuminated by white plate light? White plate light - visible at night to the rear. MOUNTED HORIZONTALLY (VT) A WHITE PLATE LIGHT IS REQUIRED & VISIBLE AT NIGHT FIFTY (50) FEET TO THE REAR (VT).

58 Plates lit from the top and bottom of a tail lamp.

59 Examples of rear plate lighting and height Plates must be secure.
No plate lamp Lamp Housing 12”?? Examples of rear plate lighting and height Plates must be secure. Plates must be mounted at specific height requirements Plates are to be conspicuously displayed at the rear. New York specific requirements: VTL 381(1a) Rear plate must be illuminated and visible for 50 feet. VTL 402 (a) Plates must be secure and mounted between 12 and 48” VTL 411(1) Plates are to be conspicuously displayed at the rear.

60 CHECK LIGHTS KSA 8-17 When are headlights required?
What distance must headlamp illuminate? Do the high and low beams work? Are turn signal lights/tail lights required? The light from the front lamp of a motorcycle shall render any substantial object on the ground clearly visible at least 100 feet ahead of such motorcycle. CHECK LIGHTS – What distance must headlamp illuminate to make objects be visible? Do the high and low beams work? VT T. 23 VSA § Lights / T. 23 VSA § Illumination required on motorcycles The light from the front lamp of a motorcycle shall render any substantial object on the ground clearly visible at least 100 feet ahead of such motorcycle. VT T. 23 VSA § Illumination required - Sections applies to all MVs except MTC.

61 CHECK LIGHTS Turn Signal markers if equipped must work.
Does your state require original equipment manufacturer (OEM) turn signals? What if they have been removed? Review your state’s inspection manual and law on front and rear turn signals. Does your state require hand signals if no turn signals?

62 HEADLAMP / FRONT LIGHT Motorcycle modulating headlamps are permitted
Motorcycle headlamp modulation systems are allowed under FMVSS 108. No ticket for this. Do not mistake for wig-wag emergency lights. Vermont State Inspection Manual was updated in 2004 covering modulating headlights.

63 Lighting Restrictions
Does your state restrict light colors emitted to the front or rear of vehicle? Many states prohibit blue lights except for fire and police showing to the rear or front of vehicle. You must perform a close examination to determine if the light is emitted through the lens or reflected. NY VTL 381(3): States only yellow or white light can be emitted to the front of the vehicle. NY VTL 375 (41)4 States no blue lights except for fire and police (rear only). You must perform a close examination to determine if the light is emitted through the lens or reflected. All reflectors must be approved by the commissioner.

64 CHECK WINDSHIELD If equipped, check windscreen/windshield
It should not obstruct or obscure the rider’s line of vision Is it secure?

65 CHECK MIRRORS Check for rear view mirror(s) required
KS Law-One on left side required It must permit a clear view to the rear. CHECK FOR REAR VIEW MIRROR(S) REQUIRED (IN VT & NY) IT MUST PERMIT A CLEAR VIEW TO THE REAR OF THE VEHICLE. Are one or two mirrors required. Check your state law and inspection manual.

66 CHECK EXHAUST SYSTEM Exhaust must be original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or equivalent Many states prohibit altered pipes and straight pipes. Some States have noise restrictions on exhaust pipes. What is Kansas Law? What is your specific state exhaust system requirement? Some States have noise restrictions on exhaust pipes. Vermont specifies in their inspection manual that exhaust must be original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or equivalent. New York specifies original equipment or similar and no altered/no straight pipes - New York: VTL 381(11).

67 EXHAUST ANATOMY Exhaust tube Fiberglass baffling Muffler body
Anatomy of an exhaust pipe

68 EXHAUST OEM Exhaust with baffle tube

69 OEM Exhaust Aftermarket Exhaust
OEM Exhaust - Note smaller diameter baffle tubes within the wider diameter exhaust housing. Aftermarket exhaust - Note uniform diameter with no baffles. Aftermarket Exhaust

70 Differences in thickness
Note the differences in the thickness of the inner walls of the pipe Baffles removed? Does your state have emissions requirement for motorcycles? Differences in thickness

71 Close-up of OEM exhaust stamping found on the underside of the pipes.

72 CHECK HORN Check operation of the horn
The horn is located on the left handlebar. It must work and be audible under normal conditions. Next, what are some laws pertaining to the motorcyclist?…

73 Kansas Helmet Law Statute : Operation of motorcycles; equipment required for operators and riders. (a) No person under the age of 18 years shall operate or ride upon a motorcycle or a motorized bicycle, unless wearing a helmet which complies with minimum guidelines established by the national highway traffic safety administration pursuant to the national traffic and motor vehicle safety act of 1966 for helmets designed for use by motorcyclists and other motor vehicle users. No helmet required 18 or older

74 Remember to CHECK THE MOTORCYCLE HELMET!
Helmets that are compliant - meet DOT Standard FMVSS No. 218 Helmets that are non-compliant T. 23 VSA § Motorcycles-Headgear Show video: “Wear it every time you ride!”

75 Compliant vs. Non-Compliant
Generally 3 pounds or more. Inner liner made of thick polystyrene foam no less than ¾” thick. No protrusions over 2/10 inches. Less than one pound. Thin or no padding. No manufacturer name.

76 Biker Bar Video – Wear your helmet!

77 CHECK FACE PROTECTION Does your state require face protection?
Windshield or windscreen, Must be 10” height measured from center of handlebars, if no eyewear. (KSA ) Eye glasses Goggles, or a Protective face shield Is there a requirement that the glasses, goggles, or face shield have colorless lenses when operated at night? Other requirements? What does your state require? Check for required Face protection Vermont - Title 23 VSA § If no windshield or screen, the operator shall wear either eye glasses, goggles, or a protective face shield. The glasses, goggles, or face shield shall have colorless lenses when operated at dusk to dawn or any other time when due to insufficient light or unfavorable atmospheric conditions, persons and vehicles on the highway are not clearly discernible at a distance of 500 feet ahead.

78 What are some laws pertaining to safe operation…
Stopping at red lights? Dead Red

79 SEATING POSITION Statute : Operation of motorcycles. (a) A person operating a motorcycle shall ride only upon the permanent and regular seat attached thereto, and such operator shall not carry any other person nor shall any other person ride on a motorcycle, unless such motorcycle is designed to carry more than one (1) person, in which event a passenger may ride upon the permanent and regular seat if designed for two (2) persons, or upon another seat firmly attached to the motorcycle at the rear or side of the operator.       (b)   A person shall ride upon a motorcycle only while sitting astride the seat, facing forward, with one leg on each side of the motorcycle.       (c)   No person shall operate a motorcycle while carrying any package, bundle, or other article which prevents such person from keeping both hands on the handlebars.       (d)   No operator shall carry any person, nor shall any person ride, in a position that will interfere with the operation or control of the motorcycle or the view of the operator. WHAT ARE YOUR STATE LAWS ON SEATING POSITION OF RIDER AND/OR PASSENGER? Riding on motorcycles and mopeds Seat must be attached and if passenger must be designed to carry more than one person, and must be a permanent and regular seat designed for two persons, or attached at the rear or side of the operator. Operator must sit astride the seat, facing forward, with one leg on each side of the motorcycle or moped. Do not carry any package, bundle, or other article which prevents operator from keeping both hands on the handlebars. Do not carry any person, nor shall any person ride, in a position that will interfere with the operation or control of the motorcycle or moped or the view of the operator. T. 23 VSA § Riding on motorcycles and mopeds (a) A person operating a motorcycle or moped shall ride only upon the permanent and regular seat attached thereto, and such operator shall not carry any other person nor shall any other person ride on a motorcycle or moped unless such motorcycle or moped is designed to carry more than one person, in which event a passenger may ride upon the permanent and regular seat if designed for two persons, or upon another seat firmly attached to the motorcycle or moped at the rear or side of the operator. (b) A person shall ride upon a motorcycle or moped only while sitting astride the seat, facing forward, with one leg on each side of the motorcycle or moped. (c) No person shall operate a motorcycle or moped while carrying any package, bundle, or other article which prevents him from keeping both hands on the handlebars. (d) No operator shall carry any person, nor shall any person ride, in a position that will interfere with the operation or control of the motorcycle or moped or the view of the operator. (Added 1971, No. 258 (Adj. Sess.), § 3, eff. March 1, 1973; amended 1977, No. 20, § 2.)

80 LANE USE 8-1595: Same; roadways laned for traffic. (a) All motorcycles are entitled to full use of a lane, and no motor vehicle shall be driven in such a manner as to deprive any motorcycle of the full use of a lane. This subsection shall not apply to motorcycles operated two (2) abreast in a single lane.       (b)   The operator of a motorcycle shall not overtake and pass in the same lane occupied by the vehicle being overtaken.       (c)   No person shall operate a motorcycle between lanes of traffic or between adjacent lines or rows of vehicles.       (d)   Motorcycles shall not be operated more than two (2) abreast in a single lane.       (e)   Subsections (b) and (c) shall not apply to police officers in the performance of their official duties. WHAT DOES YOUR STATE PERMIT AS FAR AS LANE USE? Entitled to full use of a lane. Can not overtake and pass in the same lane occupied by the vehicle being overtaken. No person shall operate between lanes of traffic or between adjacent lines or rows of vehicles. May not be operated in the same lane with, and along side of or closer than ten feet ahead of, or ten feet behind another motorcycle, moped, or other motor vehicle. This section shall not apply to police officers in the performance of their official duties. T. 23 VSA § Operating motorcycles and mopeds on roadways laned for traffic (a) All motorcycles or mopeds are entitled to full use of a lane and no motor vehicle shall be driven in such a manner as to deprive any motorcycle or moped of the full use of a lane. (b) The operator of a motorcycle or moped shall not overtake and pass in the same lane occupied by the vehicle being overtaken. (c) No person shall operate a motorcycle or moped between lanes of traffic or between adjacent lines or rows of vehicles. (d) No motorcycle or moped may be operated in the same lane with, and along side of or closer than ten feet ahead of, or ten feet behind another motorcycle, moped, or other motor vehicle. (e) Subsections (b) and (c) of this section shall not apply to police officers in the performance of their official duties. (Added 1971, No. 258 (Adj. Sess.), § 3, eff. March 1, 1973; amended 1977, No. 20, § 3.)

81 CLINGING TO VEHICLES DOES YOUR STATE ALLOW CLINGING TO VEHICLES?
T. 23 VSA § Clinging to other vehicles

82 WHEELS ON GROUND Some states prohibit wheelies Front wheel stoppies
What is your state law? Florida recently passed legislation that prohibits wheelies, i.e. two/all wheels must be in contact with road or ground.

83 Wear it everytime you ride – NHTSA PSA
VT GHSP Video – Wear It Everytime You Ride? Motorcyclist Safety VT GHSP Video – Can you see me now? Wear it everytime you ride – NHTSA PSA

84 MODULE 6 DUI DETECTION

85 Detection of DWI Motorcyclists
DUI DETECTION OF MOTORCYCLISTS More skill is required to safely operate a motorcycle than a car. What are examples of unique alcohol-related behavior of motorcyclists? There is a belief among people who drink and ride that law enforcement could not tell if a motorcyclist has been drinking. How do we identify and stop impaired motorcycle operation?

86 DUI PSA PSA VIDEO courtesy of the US ARMY

87 Detection of DWI Motorcyclists

88 Motorcycle DWI Detection Guide
NHTSA has found that the following cues predicted impaired motorcycle operation. Excellent Cues (50% or greater probability) Drifting during turn or curve Trouble with dismount Trouble with balance at a stop Turning problems Inattentive to surroundings Inappropriate or unusual behavior Weaving NHTSA has found that the following cues predicted impaired motorcycle operation. Excellent Cues (50% or greater probability) Drifting during turn or curve Trouble with dismount Trouble with balance at a stop Turning problems (e.g., unsteady, sudden corrections, late braking, improper lean angle) Inattentive to surroundings Inappropriate or unusual behavior (e.g., carrying or dropping object, urinating at roadside, disorderly conduct, etc.) Weaving

89 Motorcycle DWI Detection Guide
NHTSA has found that the following cues predicted impaired motorcycle operation. Good Cues (30 to 50% probability) Erratic movements while going straight Operating without lights at night Recklessness Following too closely Running stop light or sign Evasion Wrong way NHTSA has found that the following cues predicted impaired motorcycle operation. Good Cues (30 to 50% probability) Erratic movements while going straight Operating without lights at night Recklessness Following too closely Running stop light or sign Evasion Wrong way

90 Detection of DWI Motorcyclists
“The percentage with BAC .08 g/dL or above was highest for fatally injured motorcycle riders among two age groups, (41 %) and (41 %), followed by the (36 %) age group.” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS According to the National Safety Council, Motorcycles as a whole group and just the (other vehicle) age group have highest DUI rate. Show DUI Detection video – show clip here of excellent versus good cues. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2008). Traffic safety facts, 2008 data, motorcycles. DOT HS DUI DETECTION VIDEO – SHOW HERE

91 OFFICER & MOTORCYCLIST SAFETY
MODULE 4 OFFICER & MOTORCYCLIST SAFETY Now that you’re familiar with what to look for on the motorcycle…let’s cover officer and motorcycle safety.

92 Officer & Motorcyclist Safety
Motorcycle gangs Stopping Motorcycles Pursuit Discussion Speed Enforcement

93 Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs
A motorcycle club (MC) is a group of people that ride motorcycles in organized activities. They may wear distinctive clothing to identify their club. Their primary activities involve the sport of motorcycling. Many motorcycle clubs are organized, have dues, and enjoy the camaraderie, education, rider training and socialization. Examples: Blue Knights, Red Knights, Harley Owners Group, Gold Wing Road Riders Association, etc. [1] Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education. (2008) Training on the operation of motorcycles; Motorcycle operator profiling awareness; Differences between a motorcycle club and a criminal street gang. Austin, TX: TCLEOSE

94 Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs
Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMGs) in the U.S. OMGs are organizations whose members use their motorcycle clubs as conduits for criminal enterprises. There are more than 300 active OMGs in the United States (U.S.) Ranging in size from single chapters with 5 or 6 members to hundreds of chapters with thousands of members worldwide. (http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/gangunit/about/omgangs.html) Because of their global scope, these OMGs are able to coordinate drug smuggling operations in partnership with major international drug-trafficking organizations.

95 Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs
Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMGs) in the U.S. The Hells Angels Motorcycle Club, The Bandidos Motorcycle Club and The Outlaws Motorcycle Club These 3 OMGs conduct the majority of criminal activity linked to OMGs, i.e. especially activity relating to drug-trafficking and, cross-border drug smuggling. Global scope (http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/gangunit/about/omgangs.html) Because of their transnational scope, these OMGs are able to coordinate drug smuggling operations in partnership with major international drug-trafficking organizations.

96 Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs
Motorcycle Operator Profiling Awareness: The motorcycle is a popular primary means of transportation has grown in the past decade. More people are buying and riding motorcycles. Riders represent all facets of society. All races, genders and occupations are represented. There is no such thing as “the typical biker”. Remember that, “Violators” are defined by their actions not how they look. Motorcycle Operator Profiling Awareness: The popularity of the motorcycle as a primary means of transportation has grown in the past decade. More and more people are buying and riding motorcycles and they represent all facets of society. All races, genders and occupations are represented in this area. There is no such thing as “the typical biker” no more so than trying to describe “the typical criminal type” or “the typical Texan”. As an officer, remember that, “Violators” are defined by their actions not how they look. Differences between a Motorcycle Club and a Criminal Street Gang: As mentioned, a motorcycle club is a group of people that ride motorcycles in organized activities. They may wear distinctive clothing to identify their club. Their primary activities involve the sport of motorcycling. Criminal Street Gang (PC 71.01(d)): Three or more persons having a common identifying sign or symbol or an identifiable leadership who continuously or regularly associate in the commission of criminal activities. Common misconceptions and beliefs associated with the motorcycle operator: Sport Bike riders are speeders that ride dangerously. Bikers (general term) use narcotics, drink, raise hell and probably have outstanding warrants. Cruiser Class riders are the “station wagon” set of the motorcycle world. These “mom & pop” riders generally pose no threat. Motorcycle Clubs that “fly their colors” (wear their club jackets) are “outlaw bikers” that are showing their disrespect for law enforcement and are in effect “claiming new turf” by showing the colors. Any biker not wearing a helmet is breaking the law. Bikers are generally lower income to middle class laborers, juvenile delinquents and troublemakers.[1] [1] Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education. (2008) Training on the operation of motorcycles; Motorcycle operator profiling awareness; Differences between a motorcycle club and a criminal street gang. Austin, TX: TCLEOSE

97 Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs
A motorcycle club is a group of people that ride motorcycles in organized activities. They may wear distinctive clothing to identify their club. Their primary activities involve the sport of motorcycling. Differences between a Motorcycle Club and a Criminal Street Gang: As mentioned, a motorcycle club is a group of people that ride motorcycles in organized activities. They may wear distinctive clothing to identify their club. Their primary activities involve the sport of motorcycling. Criminal Street Gang (PC 71.01(d)): Three or more persons having a common identifying sign or symbol or an identifiable leadership who continuously or regularly associate in the commission of criminal activities.* [*] Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education. (2008) Training on the operation of motorcycles; Motorcycle operator profiling awareness; Differences between a motorcycle club and a criminal street gang. Austin, TX: TCLEOSE

98 Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs
Criminal Street Gang: Three or more persons having a common identifying sign or symbol or an identifiable leadership The gang continuously or regularly associate in the commission of criminal activities. Differences between a Motorcycle Club and a Criminal Street Gang: CLUB = As mentioned, a motorcycle club is a group of people that ride motorcycles in organized activities. They may wear distinctive clothing to identify their club. Their primary activities involve the sport of motorcycling. GANG = Criminal Street Gang (PC 71.01(d)): Three or more persons having a common identifying sign or symbol or an identifiable leadership who continuously or regularly associate in the commission of criminal activities.* [*] Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education. (2008) Training on the operation of motorcycles; Motorcycle operator profiling awareness; Differences between a motorcycle club and a criminal street gang. Austin, TX: TCLEOSE

99 Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs
Common misconceptions and beliefs: Sport Bike riders are speeders that ride dangerously. Bikers use narcotics, drink, raise hell and probably have outstanding warrants. Cruiser Class riders are the “station wagon” set of the motorcycle world. These “mom & pop” riders generally pose no threat. Common misconceptions and beliefs associated with the motorcycle operator: Sport Bike riders are speeders that ride dangerously. Bikers (general term) use narcotics, drink, raise hell and probably have outstanding warrants. Cruiser Class riders are the “station wagon” set of the motorcycle world. These “mom & pop” riders generally pose no threat. Motorcycle Clubs that “fly their colors” (wear their club jackets) are “outlaw bikers” that are showing their disrespect for law enforcement and are in effect “claiming new turf” by showing the colors. Any biker not wearing a helmet is breaking the law. Bikers are generally lower income to middle class laborers, juvenile delinquents and troublemakers.[1] [1] Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education. (2008) Training on the operation of motorcycles; Motorcycle operator profiling awareness; Differences between a motorcycle club and a criminal street gang. Austin, TX: TCLEOSE

100 Motorcycle Clubs vs. Gangs
Common misconceptions and beliefs: Motorcycle Clubs that “fly their colors” (wear their club jackets) are “outlaw bikers” Motorcycle Clubs disrespect law enforcement and are in effect “claiming new turf” by showing the colors. Bikers are generally lower income to middle class laborers. Bikers are generally juvenile delinquents and troublemakers. Common misconceptions and beliefs associated with the motorcycle operator: Sport Bike riders are speeders that ride dangerously. Bikers (general term) use narcotics, drink, raise hell and probably have outstanding warrants. Cruiser Class riders are the “station wagon” set of the motorcycle world. These “mom & pop” riders generally pose no threat. Motorcycle Clubs that “fly their colors” (wear their club jackets) are “outlaw bikers” that are showing their disrespect for law enforcement and are in effect “claiming new turf” by showing the colors. Any biker not wearing a helmet is breaking the law. Bikers are generally lower income to middle class laborers, juvenile delinquents and troublemakers.[*] [*] Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education. (2008) Training on the operation of motorcycles; Motorcycle operator profiling awareness; Differences between a motorcycle club and a criminal street gang. Austin, TX: TCLEOSE

101 Motorist awareness– Courtesy of Texas PSA
Motorist awareness PSA – Texas Motorcyclist are your neighbors… Motorist awareness– Courtesy of Texas PSA

102 STRATEGIES FOR STOPPING
What are safe strategies for stopping motorcycles? [1] NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts 2007 Data, Motorcycles DOT

103 STRATEGIES FOR STOPPING
Before engaging in the stop… Get registration plate number If you can, make sure the plate number matches vehicle description. Get full description of motorcycle, i.e. make, model, color, etc. Description of motorcyclist Utilize your in cruiser camera Strategies for stopping motorcycles

104 STRATEGIES FOR STOPPING
What’s your department policy on traffic stops? Stopping motorcycles for a traffic violation What’s your Department Policy? We will have a discussion pursuit policy in a moment. What’s your discretion?

105 Stopping Motorcycle Operators
Reason for the stop What is the violation of the law? Instruct the rider to dismount the motorcycle Some have the rider remain astride the motorcycle with the kickstand up. Remain professional Deal with the violation Concepts for stopping Motorcycle Operators: Be sure that the reason for the stop is an identified violation of the law and not due to stereotype. Have the rider dismount their motorcycle or in some cases department policy asks to have the rider remain astride his motorcycle with the kickstand up. The suggested practice here keeps the operator occupied with balancing the motorcycle and reduces the possibility of attempting anything with the officer). Remain professional and deal with the violation and not the appearance of the operator or perceived prejudices or attitudes.[1] [1] Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education. (2008) Training on the operation of motorcycles; Motorcycle operator profiling awareness; Differences between a motorcycle club and a criminal street gang. Austin, TX: TCLEOSE

106 Stopping Motorcycle Operators
Motorcycle paperwork Registration paper and proof of insurance certificates stored on motorcycles. Under the seat Side compartments Saddlebags

107 STRATEGIES FOR STOPPING
DISCUSSION: What are your options if a motorcycle rider decides to run? Stopping motorcycles for a traffic violation: Evading police is a more serious offense. Can the motorcyclist out run the radio or helicopter? Assisting with pursuit and search? Many motorcycle pursuits end in the cyclist going down with significant injury. What is your policy on bumping or ramming? What is your policy on use of spike strips? What is your policy on shooting at motorcyclist? Letting them get away…the motorcyclist will end looking over their shoulder wondering if their registration plate and description was noted and it’s only a matter of time….

108 DISCUSSION on PURSUIT Discuss concerns of motorcycle pursuits.
Sport bike performance compared to cruiser. Does your department have a helicopter or fixed wing aircraft to aid in speed enforcement? Motorcycle Safety Checkpoints and the use of aerial speed enforcement to discourage pursuits and attempting to elude police. Evading police is a more serious offense. Can the motorcyclist out run the radio or helicopter? Assisting with pursuit and search? Many motorcycle pursuits end in the cyclist going down with significant injury. What is your policy on bumping or ramming? What is your policy on use of spike strips? What is your policy on shooting at motorcyclist? Letting them get away…the motorcyclist will end looking over their shoulder wondering if their registration plate and description was noted and it’s only a matter of time…. There are insurance studies indicating that sport bikes have a 4 time greater chance of being in a crash compared to other motorcycle cruiser style bikes. (Insurance Institute for Highway Safety)

109 PURSUIT OPTIONS Motorcycle Pursuit Video – “Motorcycle Pursuit Story on KOMO” courtesy of Washington State Patrol “Motorcycle Pursuit Story on KOMO” courtesy Washington SP

110 Do you have a department policy on the pursuit of motorcycles?
PURSUIT POLICY Do you have a department policy on the pursuit of motorcycles? CALEA Standard Ref: , I. PURPOSE: The purpose of this policy is to establish guidelines for making decisions with regard to vehicular pursuit. II. POLICY: Vehicular pursuit of fleeing suspects can present a danger to the lives of the public, officers, and suspects involved in the pursuit. It is the responsibility of the agency to assist officers in the safe performance of their duties. To fulfill these obligations, it shall be the policy of this law enforcement agency to regulate the manner in which vehicular pursuits are undertaken and performed. III. DEFINITIONS: Vehicular Pursuit: An active attempt by an officer in an authorized emergency vehicle to apprehend a fleeing suspect who is actively attempting to elude the police. Model Policy VEHICULAR PURSUIT Effective Date Number October 1996 Subject Vehicular Pursuit Reference Special Instructions Distribution Reevaluation Date No. Pages 3 NOTE: This is the official IACP "Sample Policy on Vehicular Pursuit," voted on and approved at the 1996 IACP Annual Conference. Pursuit Submitted by: Highway Safety Committee AHS018.a96 WHEREAS, police pursuits have become an increased focus of attention for public safety officials, the news media and the public at large; and WHEREAS, an acceptable balance must be obtained between the capture of fleeing suspects and the responsibility of law enforcement to protect the general public from unnecessary risks; and WHEREAS, there is no uniform reporting criteria or system in place to accurately account for all pursuits; and WHEREAS, many agencies have excellent comprehensive policies in place while others have minimal or no policies at all dealing with pursuits; and WHEREAS, some states have enacted serious penalties for consciously attempting to elude the police while others have not; and WHEREAS, there is a need to adopt a generic "sample" policy that can serve as a minimum guideline for all agencies involved with pursuits; now, therefore, be it RESOLVED, that the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), duly assembled at its 103rd annual conference in Phoenix, Arizona, encourages all agencies to adopt written policies governing pursuits, and that these policies contain at a minimum all the elements put forth in the IACP "sample" policy and that all members of the agency receive familiarization training in the policy; and be it FURTHER RESOLVED, that the IACP and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) develop a uniform pursuit reporting criteria and form to accurately document pursuit involvements and results nationwide; and be it FURTHER RESOLVED, that the IACP and NHTSA encourage the state legislatures to make it a criminal offense with severe punishments to evade arrest by intentionally failing to comply with the lawful order of a police officer to stop a motor vehicle; and be it FURTHER RESOLVED, that the IACP, NHTSA and the National Association of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers work together to apply technology that will disable fleeing vehicles and minimize the need for pursuits; and be it FURTHER RESOLVED, that the IACP adopt the attached pursuit policy as its sample and that it be made a part of the Manual of Model Police Traffic Services Policies and Procedures maintained by the Highway Safety Committee, and that this policy replace and rescind all prior IACP policies on this subject. Authorized emergency vehicle: A vehicle of this agency equipped with operable emergency equipment as designated by state law. Primary unit: The police unit, which initiates a pursuit or any unit, which assumes control of the pursuit. Secondary unit: Any police vehicle, which becomes involved as a backup to the primary unit and follows the primary unit at a safe distance. IV. PROCEDURES: A. Initiation of pursuit: 1. The decision to initiate pursuit must be based on the pursuing officer's conclusion that the immediate danger to the officer and the public created by the pursuit is less than the immediate or potential danger to the public should the suspect remain at large. 2. Any law enforcement officer in an authorized emergency vehicle may initiate a vehicular pursuit when the suspect exhibits the intention to avoid apprehension by refusing to stop when properly directed to do so. Pursuit may also be justified if the officer reasonably believes that the suspect, if allowed to flee, would present a danger to human life or cause serious injury. 3. In deciding whether to initiate pursuit, the officer shall take into consideration: a. road, weather and environmental conditions; b. population density and vehicular and pedestrian traffic; c. The relative performance capabilities of the pursuit vehicle and the vehicle being pursued; d. The seriousness of the offense; and f. The presence of other persons in the police vehicle. B. Pursuit Operations: 1. All emergency vehicle operations shall be conducted in strict conformity with applicable traffic laws and regulations. 2. Upon engaging in a pursuit, the pursuing vehicle shall activate appropriate warning equipment. 3. Upon engaging in pursuit, the officer shall notify communications of the location, direction and speed of the pursuit, the description of the pursued vehicle and the initial purpose of the stop. The officer shall keep communications updated on the pursuit. Communications personnel shall notify any available supervisor of the pursuit, clear the radio channel of nonemergency traffic, and relay necessary information to other officers and jurisdictions. 4. When engaged in pursuit, officers shall not drive with reckless disregard for the safety of other road users. 5. Unless circumstances dictate otherwise, a pursuit shall consist of no more than two police vehicles, a primary and a secondary unit. All other personnel shall stay clear of the pursuit unless instructed to participate by a supervisor. 6. The primary pursuit unit shall become secondary when the fleeing vehicle comes under air surveillance or when another unit has been assigned primary responsibility. C. Supervisory Responsibilities: 1. When made aware of a vehicular pursuit, the appropriate supervisor shall monitor incoming information, coordinate and direct activities as needed to ensure that proper procedures are used, and shall have the discretion to terminate the pursuit. 2. Where possible, a supervisory officer shall respond to the location where a vehicle has been stopped following a pursuit. D. Pursuit Tactics: 1. Officers shall not normally follow the pursuit on parallel streets unless authorized by a supervisor or when it is possible to conduct such an operation without unreasonable hazard to other vehicular or pedestrian traffic. 2. When feasible, available patrol units having the most prominent markings and emergency lights shall be used to pursue, particularly as the primary unit. When a pursuit is initiated by other than a marked patrol unit, such unit shall disengage when a marked unit becomes available. 3. Motorcycles may be used for pursuit in exigent circumstances and when weather and related conditions allow. They shall disengage when support from marked patrol units becomes available. 4. All intervention tactics short of deadly force such as spike strips, low speed tactical intervention techniques, and low speed channeling (with appropriate advance warning) should be used when it is possible to do so in safety and when the officers utilizing them have received appropriate training in their use. 5. Decisions to discharge firearms at or from a moving vehicle, or to use roadblocks, shall be governed by this agency's use of force policy, and are prohibited if they present an unreasonable risk to others. They should first be authorized, whenever possible, by a supervisor. 6. Once the pursued vehicle is stopped, officers shall utilize appropriate officer safety tactics and shall be aware of the necessity to utilize only reasonable and necessary force to take suspects into custody. 2 E. Termination of the Pursuit: 1. The primary pursuing unit shall continually reevaluate and assess the pursuit situation including all of the initiating factors and terminate the pursuit whenever he or she reasonably believes the risks associated with continued pursuit are greater than the public safety benefit of making an immediate apprehension. 2. The pursuit may be terminated by the primary pursuit unit at any time. 3. A supervisor may order the termination of a pursuit at any time. 4. A pursuit may be terminated if the suspect's identity has been determined, immediate apprehension is not necessary to protect the public or officers, and apprehension at a later time is feasible. F. Interjurisdictional Pursuits: 1. The pursuing officer shall notify communications when it is likely that a pursuit will continue into a neighboring jurisdiction or across the county or state line. 2. Pursuit into a bordering state shall conform with the law of both states and any applicable inter-jurisdictional agreements. 3. When a pursuit enters this jurisdiction, the action of officers shall be governed by the policy of the officers' own agency, specific interlocal agreements and state law as applicable. G. After-Action Reporting. 1. Whenever an officer engages in a pursuit, the officer shall file a written report on the appropriate form detailing the circumstances. This report shall be critiqued by the appropriate supervisor or supervisors to determine if policy has been complied with and to detect and correct any training deficiencies. 2. The department shall periodically analyze police pursuit activity and identify any additions, deletions or modifications warranted in departmental pursuit procedures. H.Training: Officers who drive police vehicles shall be given initial and periodic update training in the agency's pursuit policy and in safe driving tactics. NOTE: This sample policy is intended to serve as a guide for the police executive who is interested in formulating a written procedure to govern vehicular pursuit. IACP recognizes that staffing, equipment, legal, and geographical considerations and contemporary community standards vary greatly among jurisdictions, and that no single policy will be appropriate for every jurisdiction. We have, however, attempted to outline the most critical factors that should be present in every pursuit policy, including the need for training, guidelines for initiating and terminating pursuits, the regulation of pursuit tactics, supervisory review or intervention, and reporting and critique of all pursuits. Approved at the 103rd. IACP Annual Conference, Phoenix, Arizona, October 30, 1996 3 This project was supported by Grant No. 95-DD-BX-K014 awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. The Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice Programs, coordinates the activities of the following program offices and bureaus: the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Institute of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and the Office of Victims of Crime. Points of view or opinions in this document are those of the author and do not represent the official position or policies of the United States Department of Justice or the International Association of Chiefs of Police. Every effort has been made by the IACP National Law Enforcement Policy Center staff and advisory board to ensure that this model policy incorporates the most current information and contemporary professional judgment on this issue. However, law enforcement administrators should be cautioned that no “model” policy can meet all the needs of any given law enforcement agency. Each law enforcement agency operates in a unique environment of federal court rulings, state laws, local ordinances, regulations, judicial and administrative decisions, and collective bargaining agreements that must be considered. In addition, the formulation of specific agency policies must take into account local political and community perspectives and customs, prerogatives and demands; often divergent law enforcement strategies and philosophies; and the impact of varied agency resource capabilities, among other factors. © Copyright International Association of Chiefs of Police, Alexandria, Virginia U.S.A. All rights reserved under both international and Pan-American copyright conventions. No reproduction of any part of this material may be made without prior written consent of the copyright holder. Vehicular Pursuit Model Policy Thursday, July 22, 2004 PDF: Vehicular Pursuit Model Policy IACP provides the Vehicular Pursuit Model Policy (10/96) to the law enforcement community without charge. Please visit the National Law Enforcement Policy Center page noted below or contact the policy center for additional information at retrieved

111 SPEED ENFORCEMENT According to NHTSA, in 2008, 35 percent of all motorcycle crash fatalities involved speeding as a factor. Traffic enforcement efforts Target the speeding violator Traffic enforcement efforts Target the speeding violator

112 SPEED ENFORCEMENT Video – Sport bike and speed – sport bike reaches 171 mph on secondary roads. Concern the sport bikes have an off-the-showroom floor speed capability of up to 170 mph. Some sport bikes with minor modifications can go faster. This is a concern for enforcement efforts, an obvious officer awareness and educational issue. Video – Sport bikes and speeds off the showroom floor

113 MODULE 7 MOTORCYCLE HELMETS

114 Recommended Motorcycle Personal Protective Gear:
Motorcycle helmets that meet DOT Standard Proper clothing (preferably retro-reflective), including: gloves, boots, long pants, and a durable long-sleeved jacket; and eye and face protection.

115 All The Gear All The Time!
VIDEO – All the gear all the time – video PSA courtesy of the Vermont Governor’s Highway Safety Program VIDEO – All The Gear All the Time – courtesy of VT GHSP

116 Motorcycle Helmets Next, we will cover the specifics of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcyle Helmets AKA: 49 CFR What do you look for to determine the difference between a non-compliant helmet and a compliant helmet? United State Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Use one term to refer to non-compliant helmets throughout the curriculum. It should be mentioned that helmets are referred to also as fake of novelty helmets along with other terms used to illustrate a non-complaint helmets, i.e., brain bucket or paint chip with straps.

117 FMVSS No. 218 The FMVSS No. 218 requirements included the following:
impact attenuation, penetration resistance, retention, labeling, projections, peripheral vision. On March 1, 1974, the agency amended Part 571 of Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (38 FR 22391) to add FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle Helmets, which established minimum performance requirements for helmets designed for use by motorcyclists and other motor vehicle users. The requirements of FMVSS No. 218 were mainly adopted from the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Z titled “American National Standard for Protective Headgear – for Motor Vehicular Users – Specifications.”

118 FMVSS No. 218 49 CFR 571.218 Must be DOT Approved
Symbol Affixed to Outside Helmet Labeling On March 1, 1974, the agency amended Part 571 of Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (38 FR 22391) to add FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle Helmets, which established minimum performance requirements for helmets designed for use by motorcyclists and other motor vehicle users. The requirements of FMVSS No. 218 were mainly adopted from the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Z titled “American National Standard for Protective Headgear – for Motor Vehicular Users – Specifications.”

119 FMVSS No. 218 HELMET LABELING
Helmet Labeled with the following: Manufacturer's name or identification. Precise model designation. Size. Month and year of manufacture. This may be spelled out or abbreviated. June 2010 6/10 The symbol DOT sticker. Instructions to the purchaser. S5.6.1 Each helmet shall be labeled permanently and legibly, in a manner such that the label(s) can be read easily without removing padding or any other permanent part, with the following: (a) Manufacturer's name or identification. (b) Precise model designation. (c) Size. (d) Month and year of manufacture. This may be spelled out (for example, June 1988), or expressed in numerals (for example, 6/88). (e) The symbol DOT, constituting the manufacturer's certification that the helmet conforms to the applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards. This symbol shall appear on the outer surface, in a color that contrasts with the background, in letters at least \3/8\ inch (1 cm) high, centered laterally with the horizontal centerline of the symbol located a minimum of 1\1/8\ inches (2.9 cm) and a maximum of 1\3/ 8\ inches (3.5 cm) from the bottom edge of the posterior portion of the helmet. (f) Instructions to the purchaser as follows: (1) ``Shell and liner constructed of (identify type(s) of materials). (2) ``Helmet can be seriously damaged by some common substances without damage being visible to the user. Apply only the following: (Recommended cleaning agents, paints, adhesives, etc., as appropriate). (3) ``Make no modifications. Fasten helmet securely. If helmet experiences a severe blow, return it to the manufacturer for inspection, or destroy it and replace it.'' (4) Any additional relevant safety information should be applied at the time of purchase by means of an attached tag, brochure, or other suitable means.

120 FMVSS No. 218 S5.5 Projections:
A helmet shall not have any rigid projections inside its shell. Rigid projections outside any helmet's shell shall be limited to those required for operation of essential accessories, and shall not protrude more than 0.20 inch (5 mm).

121 HELMETS VIDEO – How to choose the right helmet?

122 Compliant and Non-Compliant Helmets
How do you determine is a motorcycle helmet is compliant with FMVSS 218? Check for fake DOT symbols affixed to exterior of helmet. Check for labels stating “this is a novelty item.” Check exterior label meets U.S. DOT standard Sticker/symbol details size Location Contrasting color Sticker can easily be made by anyone Check for labels affixed by the manufacturer to interior of motorcycle helmet. “DOT” Stickers sold at swap meets = Doing Our Thing Importance of wearing a compliant helmet and other protective gear.

123 Compliant and Non-Compliant Helmets
Why is it important for LE officers to know and care whether a helmet is compliant? Motorcycle riders forfeit protection if counterfeit sticker. Knowingly Unknowingly Motorcycle fatality and injury prevention. Ability to enforce the law properly. “DOT” Stickers sold at swap meets = Doing Our Thing Importance of wearing a compliant helmet and other protective gear.

124 Novelty and Certified Helmets
Novelty Helmets Helmets Certified to AKA: Non-compliant helmets FMVSS No. 218 Photo source: NHTSA

125 CRASH INVESTIGATION Pointers…
Next up, CRASH INVESTIGATION Pointers…

126 MODULE 5 CRASH INVESTIGATION

127 Crash Data “Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcyclists are about 37 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a traffic crash.” Reminder on the statistic of motorcyclists involved in a crash.

128 Crash Response Response Establish Crash Scene Safety
Treatment of Victims Thorough Search of Area for a passenger at every accident scene Sidecars become detached or passenger thrown Due to a head injury, a rider may not remember having a passenger Crash Scene Safety/Traffic Control Response Establish Crash Scene Safety Rescuer Protection & Safety Treatment of victims (rider, passenger, and/or other motorists) Thorough search of area (head injury concerns and passengers) Motorcycle Accident Scene Training (MAST) [Crash scene pointers courtesy of MAST] Search for a passenger at every accident scene Sidecars become detached or passenger thrown Due to a head injury, a rider may not remember having a passenger Evaluate the style of motorcycle, the style contributes to the types of injuries The Motorcycle as a Mechanism of Injury Execute: Protect-Prevent-Access-Call-Treat Motorcycle Trauma-Injuries

129 Crash Investigation Factors
What are some motorcycle crash investigation procedures and unique motorcycle operational considerations for crash investigators?

130 Crash Investigation Factors
What are some motorcycle crash investigation procedures to consider for crash investigators? Crash Investigations pointers: Motorcycle Specific Awareness DISCUSSION: What are some specific investigation procedures to consider for motorcycle crashes? How do motorcyclists’ attitudes and behavior affect crash involvement? What can police do with information gained in this course about safety issues to create programs that reduce dangerous behavior and reinforce safe behavior? How important is the data collected by law enforcement personnel in a uniform traffic crash report? Does your state have standardized data gathering and reporting for motorcycle crashes?

131 Crash Investigation Factors
Examine Crash Pre-Crash maneuvers Crash maneuvers Post-Crash maneuvers Motorcycle pre-crash motions vs. Other vehicle pre-crash motions Motorcycle crash motions Skid marks in motorcycle accidents tend to be more visible and distinct because the lack of anti-lock breaks on most models. Skid marks allow the investigator to determine the speed and direction of the motorcycle more easily. Post-crash motions Associate vehicle injury sources Contribution of design or maintenance defects to crash or injury causation Vehicle speed for motorcycle and other vehicle Motorcycle lighting; headlamps, running lights, etc. Crash fire causes and burn injuries

132 Crash Investigation Factors
Data Collected On-Scene: Vehicle Data Crash scene, environment Human factors Data Collected On-Scene: Three sources of information to consider Vehicle data Crash Scene / Environment Human factors

133 Crash Investigation Factors
Vehicle Data VIN, Make, Model, motor size – cc Mechanical factors Check tires What is condition of other vehicles? Data Collected On-Scene: Vehicle data Vehicle Identification Number (VIN), manufacturer, model, and cubic displacement Mechanical factors data Does the motorcycle have the required safety features, mirrors, turn signals, reflectors, etc? Check the tires – a number of motorcycle crashes are caused by under-inflated tires. Determine if the tires were deflated before or after the crash. Check to make sure they have proper tread and are the proper tire for the motorcycle Condition of other vehicles involved?

134 Crash Investigation Factors
Crash scene / environment Roadway Traffic and controls / traffic control devices Weather View obstructions Roadway conditions and defects Evidence from the motorcycle / vehicles Crash scene, environment - Crash scene data Legal Responsibility Motorcycle crashes tend to be larger in area. Debris and evidence are usually spread out in a larger area. The investigator must expand the scope of the investigation. Roadway motorcycle and/or other vehicle was traveling Check the road conditions leading to the crash site. What road hazards exist if any? How could the road conditions affect motorcycle operator/operation? Traffic and controls Verify crash configuration Preview crash cause factors Evidence from the Roadway Evidence from the Motorcycle Motorcycle Formulas Tire Performance Equipment Regulations Causation Analysis Contribution of weather, view obstructions, roadway conditions and defects to cause of collision.

135 Crash Investigation Factors
Human factors, injury causation Rider background data Rider training and licensing Rider motorcycle experience, street and off-highway Collision avoidance performance Human factors, injury causation Rider background data Driving and Riding experience Rider training and licensing Motorcycle Orientation Types and Operation of Motorcycles Motorcycle Dynamics Rider motorcycle experience, street and off-highway Following Distance Lane Position Blind Spots Intersections Passing and Being Passed Counter Steering Collision avoidance performance Turning Movements and Crashes Braking Abilities and Performance Obstacle or Hazard Avoidance Drag Factor Considerations

136 Crash Investigation Factors
Human factors, injury causation (continued) Other vehicle driver background data Passenger contribution to crash causation Carrying cargo Alcohol and drug involvement Detailed helmet analysis Witnesses Human factors, injury causation Other vehicle driver background data Sharing the Road Passenger contribution to crash causation Carrying Cargo—vehicle balance issues Alcohol and drug involvement Detailed helmet analysis – see helmet inspection slide coming up in a moment. Motorcycle Helmet inspections Witnesses Witness statements are important and due to fewer motorcycles compared to cars they stand out on the road, thus catching the witness’ eye. The hope is that such witnesses may be able to provide a good description of the crash, if they are available. Witnesses disappear if asked to reconstruct crash scene so get contact information and scene description upon initial investigation.

137 Crash Investigation Factors
Crash or injury related cause factors Protection Vulnerability The body of the rider gives many clues. Check the helmet for damage, contact markings Type of markings on rider can help determine speed. Airborne Direction Crash or injury related cause factors Protection Vulnerability The body of the person riding the motorcycle gives many clues. The type of markings on the individual can help determine speed, if the rider went airborne and the direction the person traveled during the crash.

138 Crash Investigation Factors
Helmet Examination Helmet’s Function Types of Helmets and Their Components Unapproved Helmets Helmet Evolution Why Inspect the Helmet? Motorcycle Helmet Inspection Process Internal Inspection of Disassembled Helmet Detailed helmet analysis Motorcycle Helmet inspections Check to make sure that the helmet is a compliant helmet. Note is it a full face, three quarter style or half helmet. Check the helmet for damage, contact markings that can aide in the investigation. The helmet should be transported with the rider and/or passenger. In the event of a fatality, some medical examiners want to see the helmet with the transported with the body(s). Some states are starting to require this. Take pictures of the helmet.

139 Crash Investigation Factors
Handling & maneuverability unique to M/C Counter Steering - Understanding the concept of “counter steering”. Turns/Cornering – pressing lean Following Distance Braking Ability Lane Position Blind Spots Passing and Being Passed Intersections Handling and maneuverability issues unique to motorcycles Counter Steering - Understanding the concept of “counter steering”. Definition--Countersteering is the technique used by single-track vehicle operators, cyclists and motorcyclists, to initiate a turn toward a given direction by first steering counter to the desired direction ("steer left to turn right"). In order to negotiate a turn successfully, the combined center of mass of the rider and the single-track vehicle must first be leaned in the direction of the turn, and steering momentarily in the opposite direction causes that lean. Turns/Cornering - Failure to negotiate a curve is a common cause of crashes, and not easily or always understood by the crash investigator. Following Distance – motorcycles stopping distance – motorcycles can stop much faster than a automobile, so allow greater distance. Braking Ability – can down shift to slow, plus brake application(s) Lane Position –Dynamic changes allow more visibility / 3 portions of the lane Blind Spots – due to size – many more than a automobile or truck. Passing and Being Passed Intersections – right of way incursions

140 Crash Investigation Factors
Motorcycle Investigation Tips Document/photograph crash scene erasure marks flat spots on the tires Sprockets Examine type of gouge marks on ground High speed wobble alternating “eyebrow” like tire marks generally last for 10 to 15 feet before the bike goes down. Physical evidence on the motorcycle itself Motorcycle Investigation Tips Document/photograph erasure marks and/or flat spots on the tires in an effort to determine front, rear or full braking. If sprockets are involved, need to count teeth on both front and rear to determine speed based on gear ratios. Compare the type of gouge marks on ground to wear on pegs/panels for determining how motorcycle landed and/or lost control. High speed wobble – be careful not to misinterpret tire scuff marks made by the front wheel as it skids. Clues for high speed wobble are alternating “eyebrow” like tire marks that generally last for 10 to 15 feet before the bike goes down. Supporting physical evidence on the motorcycle itself would be damage by the violent flopping, or wobbling of the handle bars back and forth. This usually occurs at speeds in excess of 80 mph.[1] [1] Motorcycle Investigations Tips are courtesy of the New York State Police Crash Response Unit, dated 1/30/09.

141 Crash Investigation Factors
Motorcycle Investigation Tips Conspicuity is always a concern with motorcycles. Filament lamp exam. Since 1978, motorcycles have had automatic headlamps Headlamp check to determine if working Note what gear the motorcycle was in Note the radius of the bike’s tires Motorcycle Investigation Tips, continued… Filament lamp exam – the very nature of motorcycle design and its construction generally causes premature age sag downward of the light filaments. This is most prevalent in the brake and tail lights. When an examination is done, special note must be taken of the bulb position to determine if the stretching of the filament is in the direction of the force, or the result of age sag. New motorcycles sold in the USA since 1978 have the headlamps on automatically when running. There are studies that show a motorcycle with its headlamp on during the day is twice as likely to be noticed. Conspicuity is always a concern with motorcycles. Headlamps must be examined in every case to determine if it was working. They are always supposed to be turned “ON” feature and some have an automatic feature. Don’t make an assumption. It is important to note what gear the motorcycle was in during the impact and the radius of the bike’s rear wheel. Calculate speeds from the gear-ration information and the ranges of RPM (revolutions per minute) values for each gear. You will find this information from the manufacturer’s data. Gear Position – gear that the motorcycle transmission is in may indicate whether operator was accelerating, traveling at a constant speed or decelerating. Radius of Tires – necessary to determine “lean” (turning) ability of the motorcycle and to identify manufacturer modifications.

142 What are the statistics?
According to NHTSA, the number of motorcyclists injured in crashes have increased each year since 1998, representing a 110 % increase from 1998 to In 2008, 5,290 motorcyclists were killed – an increase of 2 percent over the 5,174 motorcyclists killed in There were 96,000 motorcyclists injured during 2008. The same year (2008), 2,554 (47%) of all motorcycles involved in fatal crashes collided with another type of motor vehicle in transport. In two-vehicle crashes, 77 percent of the motorcycles involved were impacted in the front. Only 7 percent were struck in the rear. Motorcycles are more likely to be involved in a fatal collision with a fixed object than are other vehicles. In 2008, Motorcycles in fatal crashes had the highest proportion of collisions with fixed objects at 25 percent, compared to 19 percent for passenger cars, 14 percent for light trucks, and large trucks in fatal crashes had the lowest proportion, 4 percent. In 2008, there were 2,387 two-vehicle fatal crashes involving a motorcycle and another type of vehicle. In 41 percent (985) of these crashes the other vehicle was turning left while the motorcycle was going straight, passing, or overtaking the vehicle. Both vehicles were going straight in 666 crashes (28%). NHTSA considers a crash to be speeding-related if the driver was charged with a speeding-related offense or if an officer indicated that racing, driving too fast for conditions, or exceeding the posted speed limit was a contributing factor in the crash. In 2008, 35 percent of all motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes were speeding, compared to 23 percent for passenger car drivers, 19 percent for light-truck drivers, and 8 percent for large-truck drivers.[1] [1] NHTSA Traffic Safety Facts 2008 Data, Motorcycles DOT

143 Reported Causes Of Crashes
Speeding Failing to negotiate a corner Inattentiveness Perception failure on the part of the other vehicle (Left turns, not seeing the motorcyclist) Riding under the influence Inexperience The challenge: What can we as law enforcement do to prevent crashes? What research is out there to determine motorcycle crashes causes? Covered in next slides…

144 Motorcycle Fatality Optional video produced by the US Army on motorcycle

145 PUBLIC EDUCATION EFFORTS & STAKEHOLDERS
MODULE 8 PUBLIC EDUCATION EFFORTS & STAKEHOLDERS

146 What every officer should know?
National Agenda for Motorcycle Safety recommendations include: Rider education programs; Increase motorcyclists properly licensed; Reduce riders operating while impaired; Increase motorcyclists’ visibility; Increase helmet usage; Increase motorists’ awareness of motorcyclists. Point out that the web link for NAMS is at bottom of slide.

147 PUBLIC EDUCATION What can we do?
Best practices Motorcycle Training Rider Education Programs Enforcement Education Motorcyclist properly licensed Increased helmet usage No tolerance for Fake Helmets Counterfeit DOT Sticker enforcement

148 PUBLIC EDUCATION What can we do?
Enforcement MV Stops Warning/Ticket Grounding of Vehicle

149 Rider Education Programs
PUBLIC EDUCATION Rider Education Programs

150 PUBLIC EDUCATION What can we do?
DUI Enforcement Red Yellow Green campaign Storage containers Sharing Safety messages Public Service Announcements “PSAs” Motorcyclist visibility Motorcyclist PPE - All The Gear All The Time “ATGATT” Motorist developing motorcyclist awareness

151 Motorist Awareness NHTSA MTC DUI prevention PSA

152 Motorcycle Awareness Washington State Patrol Enforcement Campaigns

153 Motorist Awareness VIDEO – DRIVER’s EDUCATION
SHOW TEXAS – DRIVER ED CAMPAIGN – VIDEO LOOK, LEARN, LIVE VIDEO – DRIVER’s EDUCATION

154 Motorcycle Safety Checkpoints
How do you set up the safety checkpoint and what are some guidelines to consider for working at a motorcycle safety checkpoint? New York State Police safety checkpoint program Copy of checkpoint manual on instructor disk.

155 Motorcycle Safety Checkpoints
Policy examples Safety considerations Set up Officer briefings Checklist for safety inspections

156 Motorcycle Safety & Enforcement
Motorcycle safety statistics Motorcycle types & characteristics Safety laws Officer & rider safety Crash investigation pointers DUI detection Motorcycle helmets Public education Today we’ve covered the following information. Motorcycle Law Enforcement is critical to reducing fatalities and injuries. Your participation in that effort by taking this course is noteworthy.

157 NHTSA Law Enforcement Liaison
QUESTIONS ? Bill Sullivan NHTSA Law Enforcement Liaison QUESTIONS ? Presenter Name & Contact Information

158 Motorcycle Safety & Enforcement Training
THANK YOU THANK YOU for attending. We hope you enjoyed the training!

159 BE SAFE! THANK YOU for attending.


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