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**Measuring Motion Motion of an object Average Speed Velocity**

Acceleration

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**Objects move in relation to a reference point.**

The tree is the reference point since it stays in place.

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Motion When an object changes position over time relative to a reference point, the object is in motion. When the motorcycle changes position over time relative to the tree, the motorcycle is in motion.

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**You can describe the direction of the object’s motion with the reference direction…**

North, south, east, west, up, or down.

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**In your compbook, describe the motorcycle’s motion:**

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**Speed S = distance/time (S = d/t)**

The speed of an object is the distance traveled by an object divided by the time taken to travel that distance. S = distance/time (S = d/t)

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**What is the speed of the motorcycle?**

If the motorcycle traveled 10 meters and it took it 2 seconds, how fast is the motorcycle traveling? S = d/t S = 10 meters/ 2 seconds S = 5 m/s Don’t forget units!

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Average Speed Think to yourself about how you walk class to class….is it at a constant pace? Most often, objects do not travel at a constant speed, so we need to calculate the average speed. Average speed = total distance/total time

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You try… Mr. Summers swims a distance from one end of a 50 m pool to the other end in a time of 25 s. What is Mr. Summer’s average speed? S = d/t S = 50 m/ 25 s S = 2 m/s

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**Copy this table into your compbook…**

Distance (m) Time (s) 5 1 10 2 15 3 20 4 Create a graph of this data. Label your y-axis as “distance” and your x-axis as “time”.

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**What does the line on your graph represent?**

Distance (m) Speed of object Time (s) Since the graph is comparing distance to time, then the line represents SPEED! S = d/t

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**Think about this… Picture two birds leaving a tree at the same time.**

They both fly at 10 km/h for 5 min. Why don’ they end up at the same place? They went in different directions!

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Speed in a Direction The speed of an object in a particular direction is called velocity. The speeds of the birds were the same , but they had different velocities.

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Which is correct? Which is the correct way to describe the velocity of a car traveling on I-5? “A car’s velocity is 60 m/h” “A car’s velocity is 60 m/h south.”

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**Picture sitting in a car at a stop light, when it turns green what happens to the car?**

“Speeding up” is commonly described by using the word acceleration. However, in science it means much more…

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Acceleration! Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes over time….. So velocity changes when speed changes, direction changes, or both.

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Examples: A car accelerates when it increases it’s speed from 25 to 35 m/h. A car accelerates when it turns a corner. A car accelerates when it puts it’s brakes on for a stop sign.

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**Positive acceleration – increase in velocity.**

Negative acceleration – decrease in velocity (also called deceleration) List two examples of each in your compbook. Share with your neighbor.

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**Faster and faster Acceleration is also how fast velocity changes. …**

The faster the velocity changes, the faster the acceleration.

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**How to calculate acceleration?**

Since acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes over time….. Acceleration = final velocity – starting velocity time it takes to change velocity A = Vf – Vi t

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**A = 5 m/s – 1 m/s = 1 m/s/s South 4 s**

Mrs. Rhoades is riding her bike south downhill. At the top of the hill she is going 1 m/s south and at the bottom she is going 5 m/s south . It took her 4 sec to go travel the entire hill. What was Mrs. Rhoades acceleration down the hill? A = Vf – Vi t A = 5 m/s – 1 m/s = 1 m/s/s South 4 s

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You try! A plane passes over point A at a velocity of 240 m/s north. 40 seconds later, it passes point B at a velocity of 260 m/s north. What is the plane's average acceleration? A = Vf – Vi t A = 260 m/s – 240 m/s = 0.5 m/s/s north 40 s

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**Copy this table into your compbook…**

Velocity (m/s) Time (s) 5 1 2 3 4 Create a graph of this data. Label your y-axis as “Velocity” and your x-axis as “time”.

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**What does the line on your graph represent?**

Velocity (m/s) Acceleration of object Time (s) Since the graph is comparing velocity to time, then the line represents acceleration! A = Vf – Vi t

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I’m getting dizzy! Think about a person spinning around on their feet… are they accelerating? Yes! An object traveling in a circular motion is always changing its direction, therefore always changing velocity. So its accelerating!

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**The acceleration that occurs in a circular motion is called centripetal acceleration!**

Centripetal acceleration happens on a Ferris wheel or as the moon orbits the earth.

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Do Now Describe your position in the classroom using a reference point and a set of reference directions. Record your response in your science journal.

Do Now Describe your position in the classroom using a reference point and a set of reference directions. Record your response in your science journal.

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