Presentation on theme: "Road Safety and Health David L. Wiesenthal"— Presentation transcript:
1Road Safety and Health David L. Wiesenthal firstname.lastname@example.org 1
2Road Safety Statistics World Health Organization (2005)1.2 million die in road traffic crashes each yearApproximately 50 million are injured or disabled by collisions each yearEvery day 3,500 die in a road crashSpeed contributes to at least 30% of crashes and deathsFor every 1 km/hr reduction in average speed, there’s a 2% reduction in crashesThe United Nations has declared as the Decade of Action for Road Safety
3Road Safety Statistics 90% of road casualties are from developing countries1.9 million road deaths forecast for 2020Traffic injuries are the #1 cause of death for young people worldwideEconomic cost to developing countries approx. $100 billion/yr.By 2015, traffic injuries will be the leading health burden for children over 5 yrs.
4Road Safety Statistics Unless action is taken, by 2020, traffic injuries are predicted to be the 3rd leading health issues ahead of malaria, TB, and HIV/AIDSEconomic costs:High income countries US$518 billionLow & middle income countries US$65 billionSource: Peden, M. & Sminkey, L. (2004). World Health Organization dedicates World Health Day to road safety. Injury Prevention, 10, 67.
5Road Safety Statistics 2,425 fatalities (2008)Speeding was a contributing factor in 23% of the incidents9.1% decrease in collisions from 200712.2% decrease in fatalities from 20077.9% decrease in injuriesIn 2007, accidents and suicide ranked first and second respectively, as leading cause of death for the young people aged 15 to 34, a trend observed since 2000Source:http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/ x/ /hl-fs-eng.htmTransport Canada (2008)
10Road Safety Statistics Motor vehicle-related injuries are the leading cause of death among children and young adultsMore than 41,000 die in motor vehicle crashes each year3.5 million suffer non-fatal injuriesMotor vehicle deaths & injuries cost $230 billion each year$61 billion in lost productivity$33 billion in medical expensesAlcohol related crashes are estimated to cost $51 billion (2000)National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
12Pedestrian InjuryPedestrian-vehicle crashes responsible for > 1/3 of injuries & fatalities worldwide (Crandall, Bhalla, & Madeley, 2002)Lower limb trauma is most common injury, head injury leading cause of death (Crandall, Bhalla, & Madeley, 2002)
13Pedestrian Injuries in Canada (1992-2001) Average of 416 fatalities/yr and decreased 24.1% over this periodInjuries averaged 14, 252/yr and decreased 10.2%Males represented 61% of injuries, females 39%65+ age group males = 27%, females = 39% male decrease = 12.7%, female decrease = 30.4%95% of injuries occurred in urban areas69.5% of fatalities occurred in urban areasSource:
14Prevention Strategies for Pedestrians Education of road users, especially childrenVehicle design changesRoad/street modifications for better visibilityUse of reflective clothingProhibit play in driveways, streets, parking lots, etc.Enforcement of traffic laws
15Motorcycle Injuries & Fatalities Total US traffic deaths increased by only 2% ( ), motorcycle deaths doubled (from 1995)Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcyclists are about 35 more likely to die in a crash than passenger car occupantsTouring motorcycles (>1000 cc engines) have lower fatality rates than sport bikes with smaller enginesData based on US Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)Source:Source: Padmanaban, J. & Eyges (2009)
17Cycling Injuries & Fatalities in Canada Estimated 7,500 seriously injured each year40-70 fatalities per year1,361 bicyclists hospitalized in Ontario (2002, Ontario Trauma Registry)1,268 hospitalized in British Columbia≈950 cyclists received ambulance calls in MontrealTransport Canada (2005)Source: Cyclingincities, UBC,
18Cycling/Pedestrian Injuries & Fatalities in Canada 28 children aged 5-14 died from pedestrian injuries (2001)13 aged 5-14 died from cycling injuries (2001)1,681 children aged 5-14 were injured as a result of cycling crashes and 632 suffered injuries as pedestrians ( )Bicycle injuries are the most common cause of children’s brain injuriesHelmets reduce serious injuries but are not mandatory in all provinces
19Cycling Injuries & Fatalities in the USA 500,000 emergency rooms visits due to bicycle-related injuries700+ deathsChildren 15 yrs. & younger accounted for 59% of all bicycle- related injuriesSource: Centers for Disease Control and PreventionNational Center for Injury Prevention and Control
20Cycling Injuries & Fatalities in Canada Injury risk is greater for Canadian cyclists than EuropeansCyclists are 7-70 times more likely to be injured/trip or per kilometer traveled than car occupantsCyclists in North America are 2 times more likely to be killed and 8 times more likely to be seriously injured than German cyclists3 times more likely to be killed and 30 times more likely to be seriously injured than Dutch cyclists
24Main FindingsTrait X State stress interaction: congestion does not affect everyone the same since high trait stress drivers reacted more strongly to high congestion situationsNo gender differencesNo difference in coping responses across congestion conditionsDrivers preferred direct coping responses, but used both direct and indirect behaviours equallyCompared to other responses, aggressive behaviours dramatically increased as traffic congestion increased
26Frequency of Individual Violent Driving Behaviours (Hennessy, Ph Frequency of Individual Violent Driving Behaviours (Hennessy, Ph. D dissertation)Behaviour FrequencyChasing another driver/vehicle 40% (58)Verbal roadside confrontation 23% (33)Vandalizing another vehicle 14% (20)Throwing objects at another vehicle 11% (16)Physical roadside confrontation % (10)Purposeful contact with another vehicle 4% (6)Drive-by shootings % (2)
28Suggestions for Reducing Stress & Highway Aggression Tension reduction strategies:Use cell phones to inform others of delaysListen to traffic reports and use alternative routes where possibleListen to self-selected music, books-on-tape in cars while drivingUse deep breathing exercisesPhysical exerciseAnger managementScreen all driversWhen a given demerit point level is reached, provide anger management workshopsEnforcement of Highway Traffic ActTailgatingSignaling of lane changesUse of left lane as passing lane
29Suggestions for Reducing Stress & Highway Aggression Promotion of mass transportationDeindividuation reduction:Paint driver’s names/towns on doors and backs of vehiclesBan deep tintsPromote vanity licence plates
30Safety/Health Promoting Interventions Mandated safety equipment in vehicles (ESC standard in 2011 Canadian automobiles)Graduated licencingImproved driver trainingBetter designed highways/clear signageMandatory bicycle & motorcycle helmets for all cyclists (not just children)Encouragement of carpooling & mass transportation
31Psychological Strategies for Reducing Mishaps: Behaviour Modification To discourage one behaviour, encourage anotherExamine the rewards and costs of engaging in various behaviours
32Encouraging & Discouraging Behaviours: Examples Provision of free nonalcoholic beverages and pub food to designated driverFree public transportation all night during celebration eveningsFree pub buses from university residencesCoupon distribution for taxi ridesPromotion of coffee houses rather than alcohol culture on campusWe need to consider the role of alcohol in society, particularly its effect upon young males.We need to examine the marketing of an alcohol culture that equates alcohol with fun, companionship, pleasure, sexuality, etc.
33Psychological Strategies for Reducing Mishaps Complex behaviour may have a variety of motivating factors, so no approach targeting a single factor is likely to eliminate all forms of risky driver behaviour.Changing the balance between rewards and costs in risky driving. What is the value of risk for those drivers?
34Risky Driving Rewards: Fun, excitement, exhilaration Self definition as an adventurous personDisplay of competence
35Risky Driving Costs: Injury, death Arrest/punishment--the perception of the likelihood of apprehension rather than the severity of penalties may be more of a deterrentProperty damageHigher insurance costsLoss of driver licenceSeizure of vehicle
36Psychological Strategies for Reducing Mishaps Change attitudes towards unsafe and aggressive drivingEncourage stress reduction techniquestowards unacceptable behaviourRole of the media in the modelling of both positive and negative drivingBroaden the notion of the “problem driver”
37Intervention Strategies Varied response may be necessaryCommunity level approachIdentify nature and extent of the problemInterventions based upon the assessment of the problemEvaluate costs & benefits of the intervention strategyDesign a programme evaluation prior to implementation
38Intervention Strategies & Evaluation Research Analysis of the exact nature of the problemDevelopment of interventions/initiativesCommunity involvement in the processDefining the assessment measuresCost/benefit analysis of the interventionPublicizing the results of the interventionDocumenting the intervention
39Enhanced Enforcement of Highway Traffic Act Stricter alcohol bans/reduction in BAC levelsYear ‘round enforcement of alcohol checks
40Discourage Media Glorification of Speed Speeding vehicles are commonly depicted in both automobile commercials & advertisements with dominance and intimidation as themesFrequent depictions of car chases and illegal racing in recent motion pictures. Hero is often portrayed as initiating the chases, engaging in reckless driving or pursuing othersEver since Bullitt (1968), the car chase has become a Hollywood standardWill public opinion influence the media?Ontario’s new stunt driving legislation with harsh penalties for excessive speed
41Media Effects on Driver Behaviour Media might emphasize the role of alcohol in the causation of collisions and the failure to wear seatbeltsMedia has the power to influence attitudes and make drunk driving socially unacceptableBulllitt, the French Connection, Gone in 60 Seconds, Fast and Furious