Presentation on theme: "Phonological Effects in Intrasentential Codeswitching ? Sonia Colina and Jeff MacSwan Arizona State University/University of Arizona and Arizona State."— Presentation transcript:
Phonological Effects in Intrasentential Codeswitching ? Sonia Colina and Jeff MacSwan Arizona State University/University of Arizona and Arizona State University
Research Questions How does phonology affect the syntax of codeswitching? What are the restrictions on language mixing within the phonological component of the grammar? Can restrictions on codeswitching be accounted for in terms of architectural (design) considerations?
Codeswitching in Morphophonology We can’t switch before a bound morpheme (Poplack, 1980, 1981) *Estoy eat-iendo *Juan love-ó a Maria (Nonce) borrowing versus word-internal switching Lonchamos con Maria [borrowing] *Lunch-amos con Maria [word-internal codeswitch] ‘Let’s have lunch with Maria’ In fact, we can’t mix phonology within words at all. Spanish: g ---> ƒ between vowels English: o ---> o w [+round] word finally English “ago” as [aƒo w ] in Spanish-English is ill-formed.
Phrasal Affixation English genitive -’s is a phrasal (XP) affix [Tom and Mary]’s house [the man from Nebraska]’s hat Spanish-English (MacSwan, 2004) Su novia’s coche está nuevo ‘His girlfriend’s car is new.’ Mi cuñado’s motorcycle is in the driveway ‘My brother-in-law’s motorcycle is in the driveway.’ Croatian-English (Hlavac, 2003) … imam, moja mamin’s sestra jet u i … sve moj tata’s family je sve u Zagreb … … I have, my brother’s sister is here and … all my dad’s family is all in Zagreb …
Codeswitching in Head Movement Contexts Language Switching in Restructuring Contexts (Italian-French) Si è dato un regalo [Italian] Un regalo si è dato[Italian] Si è donné un cadeau[Italian-French] *Un cadeau si è donné[Italian-French] ‘A gift is given’ Language Switching in Negation Contexts (Spanish-Nahuatl) *No nitekititoc ‘I’m not working’ Amo estoy trabajando ‘I’m not working’
Descriptive Generalization Codeswitching cannot occur word-internally in head movement contexts In other words: Codeswitching cannot occur internally within a head (X 0 ), whether simple or complex. Counter-examples? Finnish-English case morphology Dutch agreement suffix -e on French adjectives Viable counter-examples stimulate further study, leading to theoretical refinements
The PF Disjunction Theorem (MacSwan 1999, 2000) Goals Rule out head-internal codeswitching without positing codeswitching-specific mechanisms. PF Disjunction Theorem i.The PF component consists of rules which must be (partially) ordered with respect to each other, and these orders vary cross-linguistically. ii.Codeswitching entails the union of at least two (lexically- encoded) grammars. iii.Ordering relations are not preserved under union. iv.Therefore, codeswitching within a PF component is not possible. Heads are inputs to phonology. PFDT is an instantiation of Full Interpretation (FI) Words (X 0 s) which contain objects associated with distinct phonological systems lack sensorimotor interpretations at the PF Interface.
Previous Studies in the Phonology/ Phonetics of Codeswitching Recent studies of phonological aspects of codeswitching have focused on phonetic, gradient effects: Grosjean and Miller (1994) Voice Onset Time (VOT) measurements in French/English codeswitches. Lexical switches. Findings: “base language” has no impact on the production of codeswitches for VOT; the shift from one language to the next is total and immediate. Botero et al. (2004) VOT measurements in Spanish/English codeswitches. Sentential switches. Findings: trend towards convergence in the VOT values of voiceless stops in Spanish/English codeswitches; perseverative phonetic effects in codeswitching contexts.
Previous Studies in the Phonology/ Phonetics of Codeswitching Bullock et al. (2004) also focuses on phonetics (phonetic convergence), despite the introduction of allophonic distribution. does not present a theoretical account of the phonological facts. sounds under investigation are switch-internal (vs. at the point of switch). findings: hypothesis (English allophones may be substituted for the Spanish ones and/or vice versa) is not borne out; no allophonic substitution, no convergence at the phonological level of representation; phonetic convergence found instead. acoustic values of [l] in codeswitched bilingual speech are closer to those of an English dark /l/ than those of monolingual Spanish, but still below the threshold level necessary to be perceived as dark. Although subjects show coda neutralization of the l/r contrast in Spanish (lambdacism), no such process was found in codeswitching into English.
Goals of the Present Study 1. Contribute to the literature on the phonology of codeswitching by examining phonological, categorical phenomena. 2. Determine empirically whether in mixed-language contexts there is a “base-language effect” in the postlexical phonological component or a sudden switch in phonological systems 3. Refine/reformulate the PF Disjunction Theorem using insights from Optimality Theory. Here we report on initial efforts with 1 and 2 will not address 3 for the moment.
The Relevance of Optimality Theory to the Present Study Crosslinguistic variation (language typology) is the result of language- specific rankings of universal constraints. Two languages may have opposite rankings of the same constraints: e.g., languages with consonant epenthesis have ONSET >> DEP, but those without it have the ranking DEP >> ONSET. Ranking paradoxes (opposite rankings of the same universal constraints) are not permitted. Conflating phonological systems in bilingual codeswitching could result in a ranking paradox. OT predictions: In the case of a ranking paradox, since only one ranking is possible, there must be a sudden switch in phonology (from the “base” to the “receptor language”) at the point of switch. When no conflicting rankings are involved, the facts could be different. A feature in the receptor language could serve as a trigger for a process in the base language.
Two Experiments Experiment 1 Intervocalic allophones of /b, d, g/ Conflicting rankings in English and Spanish. Switches between a Spanish trigger and an English lexical item test whether Spanish phonology persists into the English lexical item. Experiment 2 Voicing of syllable-final /s/ in Spanish. No conflicting rankings involved. Switches between an English trigger and a Spanish lexical item test whether English phonology persists into the Spanish lexical item.
Experiment 1: Spanish Approximants (Fricatives) /b, d, g/ are realized as [-continuants] when following a stop or a pause (or /l/ in the case of /d/): cuando[ku9an5do]‘when’ tengo [te go]‘I have’ cambio [kambi9o]‘change’ caldo [kal5do]‘broth’ All Spanish dialects with [+continuant] allophones of the voiced stops have a [+ continuant, -vocalic] segment in intervocalic contexts (Lipski, 1994): haba[aBa]‘bean’ hada[aDa] ‘fairy’ haga[a a]‘do-SUBJ.3SG’ In English, by contrast, intervocalic allophones of /b, d, g/ are always [-continuant].
Relevant Constraints AGREE (stricture): Adjacent segments must agree in degree of stricture (Díaz-Campos & Colina, 2004; Steriade, 1993) IDENT-IO (continuant): Corresponding segments are identical with regard to their [+/- continuant] specification (i.e., [+/- continuant] specification in the output must match that of the input and vice versa). IDENT-IO (sonorant): Corresponding segments are identical with regard to their [+/- sonorant] specification (i.e., [+/- sonorant] specification in the output must match that of the input and vice versa).
Other Relevant Constraints FAITHFULNESS: Any segment present in the input must also be present in the output (MAX-IO); any segment present in the output must have a correspondent in the input (DEP- IO). Stricture theory (cf. Steriade, 1993) A 0 : maximal stricture (non-continuants, stops, nasals and laterals) A f : medium aperture (fricatives) A MAX : minimal stricture (approximants and vowels)
Constraint Ranking Differences Spanish AGREE (stricture)>> IDENT-IO (continuant), IDENT-IO (sonorant) English IDENT-IO (continuant), IDENT-IO (sonorant) >> AGREE (stricture) Note: this process affects only voiced obstruents in Spanish (not voiceless). An undominated constraint against voiceless approximants is responsible for the exclusion of the voiceless counterparts.
Tableaux Monolingual English /eigoust/ [ ei9gou9st ] ‘a ghost’
Methods Participants: 5 simultaneous Spanish-English bilinguals from Central Arizona (students at Arizona State University). Task: Participants were asked to pronounce 27 sentences three times each in non-sequential order using Presentation, a stimulus-delivery software package, in a sound booth. Items: Items involved codeswitches from Spanish into English (voiced stop-initial English noun at the onset of the switch, preceded by a vowel-final Spanish determiner). E.g., Hablamos de mi ghost yesterday ‘We talked about my ghost yesterday’ Hablamos de mi disk yesterday ‘We talked about my disk yesterday’ Hablamos de mi book yesterday ‘We talked about my book yesterday’
Methods The sentences were recorded, transcribed and subjected to spectrographic analysis (using Praat) to determine the continuancy (stop versus approximant) of /b, d, g/. The codeswitched samples were compared to monolingual Spanish intervocalic contexts to rule out convergence towards English in participants’ Spanish phonology.
Results *Note: S4 excluded based on monolingual Spanish results. Figure 1: Results for Spanish-English bilingual speech sample
Results Figure 2: Results for monolingual Spanish speech sample
Bar Graph Representation of Results for Spanish-English Bilingual Speech Sample
Experiment 2: /s/-voicing in Spanish In Spanish /s/ is realized as [z] when followed by a voiced consonant desde [dez D e]‘from’ mismo[mizmo]‘same’ las dos [laz D os]‘the two’ tres manos [trezmanos]‘three hands’ tres osos [tresosos]‘three bears’ Note: This process is postlexical and therefore not obligatory. However, the presence of at least some /s/-voicing in a codeswitching context, in particular when /s/ is followed by an English word that starts with a voiced consonant, would indicate that the feature [+voice] can serve as a trigger for the /s/ voicing, independendently of the fact that [+voice] belongs to an English lexical item.
Relevant Constraints AGREE (voice): Adjacent segments must agree voicing IDENT-IO Coda (voice): Corresponding coda segments are identical with regard to their [+/- voice] specification. (i.e., [+/-voice] specification in the output must match that of the input and viceversa). IDENT-IO Onset (voice): Corresponding onset segments are identical with regard to their [+/- voice] specification. (i.e., [+/-voice] specification in the output must match that of the input and viceversa).
Methods Participants: 5 simultaneous Spanish-English bilinguals from Central Arizona (students at Arizona State University). Task: Participants were asked to pronounce 9 sentences three times each in non-sequential order using Presentation, a stimulus-delivery software package, in a sound booth. Items: Items involved codeswitches from Spanish into English (voiced stop-initial English noun at the onset of the switch, preceded by a s- final Spanish determiner). E.g., Hablamos de mis ghosts yesterday ‘We talked about my ghosts yesterday’ Hablamos de mis disks yesterday ‘We talked about my disks yesterday’ Hablamos de mis books yesterday ‘We talked about my books yesterday’
Methods The sentences were recorded, transcribed and subjected to spectrographic analysis (using Praat) to determine voicing of /s/. The codeswitched samples were compared to monolingual Spanish contexts to rule out convergence towards English in participants’ Spanish phonology.
Results Figure 3: Results for Spanish-English bilingual speech sample
Bar Graph Representation of Results for Spanish-English Bilingual Speech Sample
Conclusions The presence of the relevant structural description does not always trigger application of Spanish phonology across word boundaries. The data reveal that simultaneous Spanish- English bilinguals shift suddenly from Spanish to English phonology between word boundaries when there are conflicting rankings (/b,d,g/).
Conclusions An English segment may serve as a trigger for Spanish phonology across word boundaries in a Spanish lexical item when no conflicting rankings are involved. These results are consistent with the theory that phonological systems may be switched at word boundaries but not within words (heads). The defining characteristics of the switch (sudden or not) will depend on the specific processes involved as well as the theoretical account used to explain them.
Further Research Another experiment needs to be done to test the opposite directionality in /s/-voicing. In other words, is the English contrast between /s/ and /z/ affected by contact with a [+voice] C in a Spanish lexical item, E.g, price de ‘price of,’ [praisDe] or [praizDe]? This study seeks to contribute to a model of bilingual codeswitching in which grammaticality facts are substantially explained by conditions on the syntax- phonology interface.
Acknowledgments Funding This research was funded by a grant from the National Academy of Education with funding from the Spencer Foundation. Participants We thank the several bilingual students at ASU who participated in the study. Graduate Assistants Kara McAlister and Peter Sayer assisted in this research.
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