Presentation on theme: "Emotional Intelligence predicts individual differences in social exchange reasoning D. Reis, M. Brackett, N. Shamosh, K. Kiehl, P. Salovey & J. Gray."— Presentation transcript:
Emotional Intelligence predicts individual differences in social exchange reasoning D. Reis, M. Brackett, N. Shamosh, K. Kiehl, P. Salovey & J. Gray
Introduction Emotional Intelligence (EI) The ability to monitor one’s own and others’ emotions and to use the information to guide thinking and actions (Salovey and Mayer, 1990) Correlated with interpersonal social competence (Brackett et al., 2006) The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEI) Basic information processing mechanisms?
Introduction Social exchange reasoning Reasoning about the mutually beneficial exchange of goods or benefits between individuals Require the ability to discern others’ motives and intentions Evolutionary Different from precautionary reasoning? Correlated with Harm Avoidance (HA)? (threat sensitivity)
Hypothesis Higher EI would be associated with better performance and the recruitment of brain areas thought to be important for social reasoning.
Experimental Task Wason Card Selection Task (Wason, 1968) Given a rule “if P then have to Q,” and 4 cards depicting different situations (P, not-P, Q, not- Q) “definitely turn over” or “no need to turn over” e.g. “if you borrow my motorcycle, then you have to wash it” (P= borrow motor cycle, Q=wash it) Borrowed the motorcycle Did not borrow motorcycle Washed the motorcycle Did not wash the motorcycle
“if you borrow my motorcycle, then you have to wash it” (P= borrow motor cycle, Q=wash it) Borrowed the motorcycle Did not borrow motorcycle Washed the motorcycle Did not wash the motorcycle
Wason Card Selection Task 3 variations of problems: Social exchange “If you borrow my car, then you have to fill up the tank with gas.” Precautionary “If you surf in cold water, then you have to wear a wetsuit Descriptive “If the soda is diet, then it has to be in a purple container
Methods Behavioral study N=48 1. Brief tutorial on the Wason task 2. Administer MSCEIT 3. HA assessed from the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger et al., 1994) 4. 30 problems of Wason task (20s to read, 4s to respond) fMRI study N=16 1. fMRI acquisition: four run of 12 reasoning problems 2. fMRI analysis: reasoning vs. baseline (fixation) 3. Region-of-interest analyses using prefrontal and temporal Brodmann areas
Result: Behavioral Study Higher EI predicted faster RT on social exchange problems (pr(42)=-0.39, p=0.0008) Higher score on HA test predicted faster RT on precautionary reasoning problems (pr(42)=-0.32, p=0. 036)
Behavioral Study- cont ’ d Faster RT and higher accuracy for reasoning problems related to social exchange and precautions than descriptive problems
Result: Neuroimaging Study EI predicted neural activity during social reasoning in 2 key areas Left frontal polar region Left temporal cortex EI negatively correlated with activation during social reasoning
Neuroimaging Study- cont ’ d Social Reasoning Right medial frontal gyrus Temporal lobe Some parts of occipital cortex Frontal cortex Precautionary Reasoning Posterior cingulate cortex Anterior cingulate cortex Parahippocampal gyrus Neural mechanisms in social vs. precautionary reasoning
Discussion EI is more related to social exchange reasoning than precautionary reasoning Distinct patterns of hemodynamic activity Behavioral patterns Left frontal polar and temporal cortices are necessary for successful social exchange reasoning Cooperation, working memory, executive control and emotion-cognition interactions
Strengths and Limitations Definite conclusions Response times assessed Repeated-measures Baseline condition for comparison (fixation) Small imaging sample size