Presentation on theme: "DO ANIMALS HAVE EMOTIONS? kPw."— Presentation transcript:
DO ANIMALS HAVE EMOTIONS? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nGeKSiCQ kPw
Clues From Primate Studies on Emotions as Inherited Jane Goodall’s Chimp Observations Chimp society based on aggression and sex Aggression relates to social hierarchies Aggression in chimps linked to serotonin levels. Same for humans Chimps appear to be emotional—and to share same basic emotions as humans. Jane Goodall: “Emotional states of chimps are so obviously similar to ours that even an inexperienced observer can interpret the behavior”.
From Reflexes to Emotion a. Reflexes b. Patterns of action c. Innate releaser/sign stimulus/cue d. Emotions
Emotions and Problem Solving Emotions draw attention to problems Emotions keep attention on problems, until problems are solved. Different emotions are keyed to different kinds of problems EMOTION “PROBLEM” “SOLUTION” Guilt Betrayal of another Restore bonds Fear Threat to self Self Protection
Universality of Emotions Emotional expression evident among blind, deaf Emotion expression common across literate cultures Ekman study Izard study Emotional expression common between pre-literate cultures and literate culture (USA). Ekman: South Fore of New Guinea Heiders: Dani’
Researching Culture and Emotion 1. Cross time within a society 2. Between regions within larger society 3. Between separate societies
Emotional Differences Between Cultures Represent Adaptations Constraints favor some emotions, some emotional expressions, and disfavor others. Cultures differ in constraints (i.e., challenges, and opportunities) that they face. Emotions are adapted to the problems people face in different places and different times.
Emotions During the Enlightenment 1. Reason and rationality great equalizers 2. Darwin: emotions associated with more primitive animals. 3. Spinoza: Spiritual freedom gained by controlling the “passive” emotions 4. Emotions associated with the irrational, the untamed, the feminine, the weak, the insane. 5.Embracing of science industrial revolution, command over nature
Romanticism and Emotions 1. Reaction to the hyper-rationality of the Enlightenment 2. Philosophical spokesman: Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1755) “The heart has its reasons the reason cannot know” 3. Themes of Romanticism a. Nature is basically benign b. Good life lived in harmony with nature—inner and outer c. Notion of “noble savage” d. Dangers of ignoring nature: warped wonks Frankenstein: Science run amok
Emotion vs. Reason in American Identity Pro-Reason: Balance of power Dedication to science, public education Pro-Emotion: People are “endowed with inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
American Ambivalence Towards Emotions Anti Emotionality 1. 1960’s time of hedonistic chaos 2. When the going gets tough, the tough get going. 3. Political ruin of Ed Muskie and Thomas Eagleton 4. Clint Eastwood, John Wayne as icons Pro Emotionality 1. 1950’s time of stultifying emotional repression 2. Go with your feelings 3. Bill Clinton: “I feel your pain” 4. Tom Hanks, Dustin Hoffman as icons
Different Constraints Within a Culture North vs. South United States and the “Culture of Honor” Dov Cohen and Richard Nisbett
Differences in Violence, North vs. South Homicide in Cumberland Mtns: 10 times national rate, twice as high as inner cities during 1980s Violent past-times: Purring, no holds bar fights, toss-rock-at-head game Laws lenient re. honor-related violence Killing unfaithful wife and lover justified in Texas Jury acquits man who shoots name-callers
Percent Who Approve of Punching a Drunk Who Bumps into One's Wife, Non-South vs. South
Percent Who Would Be Angry with Friend for a Month Following a Fist-Fight or an Insult, Mid-West vs. South
Homicide Rates Related to Insults in Cities of Less than 200,000 North vs. South
Cohen and Nisbett Motorcycle Shop Study 1.Employment request letters sent to cycle shops in North and in South 2.“Applicant” is highly qualified motorcycle mechanic 3.BUT, applicant has a criminal past a. Applicant stole money, went to prison b. Applicant caught another man with his wife, thrashed the man, went to prison. 4. Who hires Applicant?
Offer Job to Convict, Convicted of Stealing or Honor-Motivated Manslaughter, North Vs. South NORTHSOUTH THIEFLowLow REVENGINGLowHigh HUSBAND
Sequence in Cohen and Nisbett Insult Studies 1.Subjects: white males, non-Hispanic and non-Jewish 2.Subjects are from the North or the South 3. Subject told to walk down narrow corridor, drop off form and return 4. S encounters/doesn’t encounter guy working a file cabinet. 5. Filer first grumpily makes way for S 6. When S returns filer bumps him and calls him “asshole”
Results of Insult Experiments 1.Insult Study 1: Emotions expressed after insult * South: Anger * North: Amusement 2.Insult Study 2: Stress and aggression hormone activation * Cortisol: Higher among insulted Southerners * Testosterone: Higher among insulted Southerners 3. Insult Study 3: Behavioral measures a. Handshake b. Dominance vs. Submission posture
Distance (in feet) Before Avoiding Fred the Bouncer in “Chicken Game”, After No Insult or After Insult North vs. South
Conclusions from Culture of Honor Studies 1.Culture shapes meaning of events, and therefore emotional reactions. 2.Culture shapes how people act on emotions 3.Implications for policy: change social conditions that support need to project toughness.
Cross-Cultural Analysis of Emotion Different societies face different environments, histories, and current challenges The factors influence emotional emphases Hypercognized: Emphasized, have special names, objects of discussion Hypocognized: Underemphasized, not conceptualized. Example: Anger vs contentment
Cultures Factors US vs. Japan U.S.A.Japan Environ. Wide open continentSmall Island History Settled by rebels, 1000 yrs, little immigration people willing to break ties Values Distrust authorityRespect authority Independence Collectiveness “I” self“We” self InnovationTradition
Emotions, US vs. Japan Amae: Japanese positive emotion Comfort in another’s complete acceptance No US equivalent Anger: Japan – OK between groups, not within group US – OK to show anger to close others Infant toy study: Baby approaches toy when mom shows joy, fear, or anger, Japan vs. US
Saying “No” in US and Japan USAJapan I don’t think this will work No, we cannot do that Are you out of your %$##% mind??? That is interesting We would like to think about that We may have a problem
Moral Emotions: Shame vs. Guilt Asian vs. Western Cultures Young-Hoon Kim & Dov Cohen, under review Individualistic Cultures (USA/W. European) Self is audience to own actions Motive is personal dignity Constraining emotions = Guilt Collectivist Cultures (Asia) Others are audience to own actions Motive is saving face Constraining emotion = Shame
Kim & Cohen Experimental Method (Abridged) Participants: 205 non-Hispanic Euro-Americans, 181 Asian Americans Moral Transgression Survey: Number of times that you: ____ Lied to parents ____ Talked about friend behind his/her back Complete Survey from perspective of own self, OR significant others Outcome measure: Thanks for being in this study. You get a free gift. ___ Handiwipes ___ Pencil
Moral Emotions: Shame vs. Guilt Asian vs. Western Cultures Young-Hoon Kim & Dov Cohen, under review
Emotions of the Ifaluk 1. Ker = self-centered happiness, draw attn. to self, rowdiness 2. Maluwelu : gentle, quiet, calm pleasantness 3. Song : Dissatisfaction with another’s break of social decorum 4. Fago : Compassionate love/sadness. Most valued emotion