DID YOU KNOW? 80% of motorcycle crashes kill or injure rider. While 20% of car crashes kill or injure a vehicle occupant.
The First Road Traffic Accident! The first recorded Road Traffic Accident was Bridget Driscoll in London, August 17th.1896. The Coroner stated that it was easily avoidable and should never happen again. It Has… Over 25 million times!
What is an Accident? Up until 1650 an accident was seen as either Witchcraft or Gods will. It was then that social science began by recording births, deaths & later marriages.
Traffic Safety Safety is the condition in which the risk of harm or damage is limited to an acceptable level State of mind that make people Thinking, Acting, Behave in such way to minimizing the exposure to danger.
Dampak Kecelakaan Transportasi Darat GLOBALGLOBAL –Korban meninggal dunia rata-rata 1 juta jiwa per tahun (1,200,000 persons per year 10 jumbo jet crashes per day!) –75% terjadi di negara berkembang –Kerugian mencapai 2% GDP (US$ 100 Milyar)
Dampak Kecelakaan Transportasi Darat NASIONAL –Korban meninggal dunia rata-rata 30 jiwa per hari –Kerugian sekitar US$ 3,5 Milyar sekitar 2,17% GDP Indonesia
Crime/Crash Clock CRIME vs. CRASH CLOCK (2002) 1 murder every 32 minutes 1 aggravated assault every 35 seconds 1 violent crime every 22 seconds 1 fatality every 12 minutes 1 injury every 16 seconds 1 crash every 5 seconds
The top 10 leading global burdens 1990 2020 1. Lower respiratory infections 2. Diarrhoeal diseases 3. Perinatal conditions 4. Unipolar major depression 5. Ischaemic heart disease 6. Cerebrovascular disease 7. Tuberculosis 8. Measles 9. Road traffic injuries 10. Congenital Abnormalities 1. Ischaemic heart disease 2. Unipolar major depression 3. Road traffic injuries 4. Cerebrovascular disease 5. Chronic pulmonary disease 6. Lower respiratory infections 7. Tuberculosis 8. War 9. Diarrhoeal diseases 10. HIV
Top 10 Leading Causes of Death taken from Runge’s slide
Fatality Rate 100 Million Passenger-Miles in Transport in the United States ModeRate Autos and Taxis1,90 Motorcycles17,00 Local Transit0,16 Buses0,19 Railroads0,53 Domestic Scheduled Air Carriers0,13 Water TransportNA
Prime Cause of Road Accidents Cause% of Accident Human Factors Alone65 Human + Road25 Human + Vehicle5 Road Factors Alone2 Vehicle Factors Alone2 Human + Road + Vehicle1 TOTAL100
Americans Killed in Combat vs Motor Vehicle Fatalities - Breakdown Americans Killed in Combat vs. Motor Vehicle Fatalities
Americans Killed in Combat vs Motor Vehicle Fatalities – Big picture Americans Killed in Combat vs. Motor Vehicle Fatalities 3,070,1893,070,189 620,219620,219 (225 years)(100 years)
Cars and Weapons! Cars have killed more people since their invention than all the wars and conflicts put together – including both World Wars!
Causes of Traffic accidents in Malaysia Combination of traffic composition Improper intersection design Provision of street lightning High traffic volume Provision of pedestrian crossing Signal light Vehicle speed
Statistical Report Road Accident, Royal Malaysian Police. 2005
Approaches used in Road Safety Programmes Accident Preventions (proactive action) Accident Reduction (reactive action) –Improvement of hazardous location –Motorcycle lane –Paving of road shoulder –Improvement of dangerous curve
Approaches used in Road Safety Programmes –Pedestrian crossing –Overtaking lane –Street lighting –Road Maintenance Road Maintenance Building New Road
Faktor Penyebab Kecelakaan di Indonesia Pengguna Jalan (lengah, mabuk, ngebut, jarak terlalu dekat, penyeberang jalan, hewan) 93,52% Jalan (persimpangan, marka/rambu tidak jelas, permukaan licin) 3,23% Kendaraan (ban pecah, rem blong, kemudi dan lampu tidak berfungsi) 2,76% Lingkungan (mix traffic, pengawasan dan penegakan hukum, cuaca) 0,49%
The Weak Link! Millions of dollars are spent every year on safer car design and car safety systems. Millions of dollars are spent every year on safer road designs Only a few hundred dollars is spent on the most important factor…THE DRIVER!
Age – the younger driver Limited skills Sense of overconfidence Younger drivers tend to drive faster, drive at night, and drive while drunk. After the first year of driving, young drivers have acquired the basic control skills of driving but not the tactical and strategic judgment needed for safe driving.
Age – the older driver Information-processing impairments Slower response time A more restricted field of attention Reduced time-sharing abilities Reduced visual capacity, especially at night Older drivers compensate by driving more slowly and by not driving at night. Older drivers drive less safely at the control level but can compensate with appropriate choices at the tactical and strategic levels.
The Impaired Driver Alcohol –Involved in approximately 50% of fatal highway accidents in the U.S. –With blood alcohol content as low as 0.05%, drivers react more slowly, are poorer at tracking, are less effective at time-sharing, and show impaired information processing. –One of the most effect interventions may be social norming. Fatigue has roughly the same effect as alcohol.
Impairment interactions A combination of fatigue, alcohol, and age can combine to degrade driving performance The presence of passengers may be distracting and encourage risky behavior. A young person driving with friends at night and after drinking is an extremely dangerous combination.
DISTRACTED DRIVING Does Cause Crashes –No Reliable info on degree of involvement Cell Phones –The worst –Hands free is no better DVD Players –Portable and mounted –Rapidly growing issue All the old standbys –Not as bad as above
Education “The raising awareness of hazards and how to avoid them” Child car seats Green Cross Code Induction training Subliminal Advertising Incentive schemes Accident Investigations
Training and selection Tests of static visual acuity have very little relevance for driving. Driver's Education class may not help. Behind the wheel navigation in a vehicle may not be the best test. Simulators for training and for testing can be helpful and cost effective.
Driver adaptation and risk calibration People do not respond rapidly to the unexpected. Since most people have not been in an accident, their expectancy is set at zero. Risk homeostasis - people tend to maintain their risk even with added safety features.
Engineering “ Altering the environment to reduce risk and chance taking” Safer car design Road design Separating vehicles and pedestrians Traffic management systems Emergency response
Driving Safety Improvements Driver characteristics –Training and selection –Driver adaptation and risk calibration –Regulatory compliance Vehicle characteristics –Sensing and warnings Protective devices
Driver adaptation and risk calibration The design of vehicle performance improvements, such as antilock brakes, may make the driver adjust the driving speed to maintain the same perceived risk (risk homeostatis). The design of protection features, such as widening highways from 2 to 4 lanes, has a positive effect on safety.
Sensing and warnings High-mounted brake lights Some direct sensors of the rate of closure with the leading car
Protective devices Failure to use shoulder/lap seat belts is associated with a 40% increase in fatalities. Air bags have a similar protective value. The most critical factor contributing to driver survival after a crash is the time from the crash scene to an emergency room.
Road design Define engineer’s role in designing, operating, and maintaining safe intersections.
Engineer’s Role Challenges –Safety vs. efficiency –Uniformity vs. flexibility in design & operation –Proactive vs. reactive in addressing safety –Global vs. local scope of solution
Engineering For Safety Problem Identification Special users: older drivers, trucks, peds
Enforcement The formal sanctions to deter risk – taking behaviour” “The formal sanctions to deter risk – taking behaviour” Fines & imprisonmentFines & imprisonment InsuranceInsurance Minimum safety standardsMinimum safety standards Name & shameName & shame Driver Improvement SchemeDriver Improvement Scheme
Regulatory compliance Tickets and warnings Photo radar (controversial) When the highway speed limit was increased to 65 mph, the number of fatalities increased 10 to 16%. Police randomly rewarding seat-belt use by drivers with cash and coupons
General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in Indonesia Geometry Junctions Signal Controlled Junctions Signs and Markings Pedestrian Crossing
General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in Indonesia Geometry –Bus Stops/Vehicle Parking, stopping on main carriageway –Landscaping, plants grow to traffic sign –Road surfacing, polishing effect
General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in Indonesia Junctions –Geometry of major junctions, wide junction with wide approach –Side road junctions, scene of conflicts –Right turn maneuvers on the route, serious problem
General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in Indonesia Signal Controlled Junctions –Incorrect arrangement, object obstructing signal heads, inadequate inter-green. –Access to signal-controlled junctions, uncontrolled-road access to signal controlled junctions observed –Pedestrian facilities, high number of pedestrian fatalities –Placement of signal posts, sited in the walking path.
General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in Indonesia Signs and Markings –Inconsistent signing, leads to confusion and indecision –Advance traffic sign and local directions, early and advance traffic signing –Sign facings, too small size of letter. –Carriageway markings, badly design and poorly laid out.
General Observations of Road Safety Engineering Issues in Indonesia Pedestrian Crossing –Lack of advance warning, result in more serious injury –Lack of conspicuity –Width of pedestrian, too narrow
Upaya Meminimalkan Kecelakaan Pembatasan Usia dalam pemberian SIM Pembatasan lama waktu mengemudi tanpa istirahat (2-4 jam) Ujian pengemudi Penggunaan sabuk pengaman Penyuluhan dan kampanye keselamatan lalulintas
Surat Ijin Mengemudi (SIM) SIM-D usia 16 tahun, kecepatan sepeda motor < 40 kpj SIM-C usia 16 tahun, kecepatan sepeda motor > 40 kpj SIM-A usia 17 tahun, berat kendaraan < 3.500kg SIM-B1 berat kendaraan > 3.500kg, punya SIM-A > 12bln SIM-B2 kendaraan dengan gandengan, punya SIM-B1 > 12bln
Generic Measures Beneficial to Specific Road Safety Issues Road Safety Issues Classes of Initiatives Better Enforcement Public Education Lower Speeds Safer Roads Occupant Protection Safer Modes of Travel Planning a Safer System Drink- driving Speeding No Seat Belt Driver Fatigue Drugs
Generic Measures Beneficial to Specific Road Safety Issues Road Safety Issues Classes of Initiatives Better Enforcement Public Education Lower Speeds Safer Roads Occupant Protection Safer Modes of Travel Planning a Safer System Young Drivers Older Drivers Motor- cycles Bicycles Pedes- trians H. Veh.
They are NEVER to young to learn about Traffic Safety
Final Thought When I die, I want to die like my grandfather – who died peacefully in his sleep. Not screaming like all the passengers in his car. - Author Unknown