HOW CHEMICALS ENTER THE BODY There Are Three Routes of Entry: Ingestion – swallowing the chemical Inhalation – breathing in the chemical Absorption – the chemical soaks through the skin
CHEMICAL HAZARDS Chemicals are the most common and significant health hazards in laboratories Chemicals can be hazardous for numerous reasons and can combine with other chemicals to make new hazards.
CHEMICAL HAZARDS 2 There are 3 things to consider when identifying a chemicals’ hazards: 1.Its physical properties 2.Its toxicity 3.The way it is used and the environment in which it is encountered.
TYPES OF CHEMICAL HAZARDS Physical Hazards Explosives Flammable Gases Flammable Aerosols Gases Under Pressure Flammable Liquids Flammable Solids Self-Reactives Pyrophoric Liquids Pyrophoric Solids Self-Heating Substances Water Reactive Oxidizing Liquids Oxidizing Solids Oxidizing Gases Organic Peroxides Corrosive to Metals
TYPES OF CHEMICAL HAZARDS 2 Health Hazards Acute Toxicity Skin Corrosion/Irritation Serious Eye Damage/Eye Irritation Respiratory or Skin Sensitization Germ Cell Mutagenicity Carcinogenicity Reproductive Toxicology Target Organ Systemic Toxicity - Single Exposure Target Organ Systemic Toxicity - Repeated Exposure Aspiration Toxicity
SAFETY DATA SHEETS These are chemical fact sheets that contain all the information an employee would need to know about a hazardous chemical Each SDS is broken down into 16 universal sections Sections 1 - 11 will be of most concern
SAFETY DATA SHEET SECTIONS 1.Identification 2.Hazard Identifications 3.Composition / Ingredient Information 4.First Aid Measures 5.Fire-Fighting Measures 6.Accidental Release Measures 7.Handling and Storage 8.Exposure Control/Personal Protection 9.Physical and Chemical Properties 10.Stability and Reactivity 11.Toxicological Information 12.Ecological Information 13.Disposal Considerations 14.Transport Information 15.Regulatory Information 16.Other Information
CHEMICAL LABELS There are 2 Different labeling systems GHS compliant labels are used on primary containers received from the manufacturer NFPA labels can be used on secondary containers
GHS LABELS GHS Labels have the following: Pictograms Signal Words Hazard Statement Precautionary Statements Product Identifier Supplier Identification Supplemental Information (as required
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS Sources Bacteria Viruses Insects Plants Birds Animals Humans These sources can cause a variety of health effects ranging from skin irritation and allergies to infections and even.
PROTECTION FROM BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS Wear the appropriate PPE Look for information about the biological hazards that may be present in the workplace. Make sure you receive all the information relevant to your tasks. Identify the sources of biological agents present in the workplaces. Set priorities for action according to the magnitude of the risk, numbers affected, etc. Prevention should follow a hierarchy of measures: Avoid risks
RADIATION HAZARDS There are two ways that an individual can be exposed to radiation Internal exposure –By mouth, nose, eyes, or any open cut –Main concern with alpha and low energy beta External exposure –Energy is passed through the body and/or absorbed by tissues –Main concern with high energy beta, gamma, and neutron radiation
ROUTES OF RADIATION EXPOSURE Internal (alpha, low energy beta) Inhalation Ingestion Injection (wound) Absorption External (high energy beta, gamma, neutron) Penetration
REDUCING RADIATION EXPOSURE Ways to Reduce Exposure Time −Reduce time in areas containing radioactive materials. Distance −Keep your distance from radioactive materials- exposure drops very quickly. Shielding −Use proper shielding to reduce exposure if shielding is necessary. Contamination Control −PPE −Surveys
MINIMIZING PERSONAL HAZARDS When working in a radiation laboratory Observe and obey all radiation signs Do not empty radioactive trash Do not use or service radioactive labeled equipment without authorization from REM radiation staff (see updated “Clean Sheet” on REM’s Forms webpage) –Note that if equipment comes from a radioactive material use lab but does NOT have a radioactive label, then there is no need to have the radiation safety staff perform a survey on that piece of equipment.
COMMON RADIATION SIGNS On doors to labs authorized for radioactive materials. Lists what common practices allowed in lab (eating, drinking, etc.) On hoods, refrigerators, freezers, other large lab equipment On waste bags, areas, liquid containers, drums, and buckets.
RADIATION EMERGENCY PROCEDURES In case of emergency or spill in the area: Call campus police/fire (i.e. 911) if there is a fire or serious accident in the lab. Call REM Rad Staff to let them know of the accident involving radioactive material. If there is anything unusual in laboratory that could possibly be a hazard, report to REM Rad Staff. – Puddles of water around radioactive waste, liquids leaking from radioactive refrigerators, waste spilling out of hoods or containers, etc.
RADIATION OVERVIEW Radioactive material must be secured. −Only authorized individuals should have access to the radioactive material. Material or waste with radiation labels should never be handled by non-authorized individuals. Notify lab director of any work that will be done in lab before starting. Radioactive waste must be segregated from hazardous waste, biological waste, etc. −If a pickup is requested for non-radioactive waste and radioactive materials are stored in same location, REM Rad Staff must perform a survey of the waste prior to pickup.
PHYSICAL HAZARDS 2 The most common types of physical hazards are: −Fire −Explosion −Chemical Reactivity Physical hazards are defined as those type of hazards that can cause harm to a worker from an external source. Other physical hazards include, but are not limited to, slips and falls, exposed machinery because of improper guarding, live electrical circuits or conductors, equipment moving about on site, confined spaces, and falling objects.
ELECTRICAL HAZARDS Some electrical units can cause electric shock and fire hazards Physical harm from shock or burns Danger from fire due to heat and sparks produced. For more detailed information about electrical safety, see the university's Electrical Safety Program Electrical Safety Program
OTHER HAZARDS Cryogenic Materials Hazards −Fire or explosion −Asphyxiation −Pressure buildup −Embrittlement of materials −Tissue damage Preventive measures −Use of appropriate gloves / PPE −Appropriate storage in well-insulated containers. Compressed Gases Hazards −Danger of fire −Explosion −Asphyxiation −Mechanical Injury Preventive measures −Observe proper labeling and storage condition. −Follow correct handling & transport of tanks.
GAS CYLINDER SAFETY All compressed gas cylinders must be secured above the center of gravity by approved supports Cylinders in transit, storage, or not in use are to be capped Only caped cylinders my be “gang chained” together using a single means of support. (In-use cylinders must be supported individually Only move cylinders with an appropriate cylinder cart
SAFE WORK PRACTICES Wash your hands after performing any task, after removing gloves, and always before eating (eating and drinking away from the workplace). Avoid hand-mouth and hand-eye contact, protecting wounds.
UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS: Treat all laboratory specimen/substance as infectious/dangerous. Use a protective barriers These barriers consist of: −Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) −Work Practice Controls
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) Designed to protect employees workplace injuries or illnesses The employer must assess the workplace and determine what hazards may necessitate the use of PPE before assigning PPE to workers. Minimum PPE to enter a lab space includes: safety glasses, long pants, and closed toed shoes
PPE Types of PPE Head – hard hats, bump caps Eye – safety glasses and goggles Face – face shields Hearing – earplugs, earmuffs Respiratory Protection Hands – gloves Foot – safety shoes Clothing – vests
EYE AND FACE PROTECTION Safety Glasses: Primary protectors intended to shield the eyes from a variety of impact hazards Goggles: Primary protectors intended to shield the eyes against flying fragments, objects, large chips, and particles. Face Shields: Secondary protectors intended to protect the entire face against exposure to impact hazards
GLOVE USE GUIDELINES Select gloves which are resistant to the chemicals you may be exposed to. Check gloves (even new ones) for physical damage Wash the external surface of the gloves frequently with water. Some gloves, especially lightweight disposables, may be flammable. Avoid the contaminated exterior contacting the skin. Dispose of contaminated gloves properly. Do not attempt to re-use disposable gloves. Never wear gloves outside of the laboratory or to handle telephones, computer keyboards, etc.
GLOVE CHEMICAL RESISTANCE GUIDE All glove manufactures should provide a Chemical Resistance guide for all gloves they sell. This guide should be consulted before purchasing gloves. This guide gives a rating of each glove’s resistance to a list of common laboratory chemicals. −The rating is commonly from excellent resistance – not recommended (often color coded within the chart as well) The guide takes into account: −Degradation – breakdown of the glove material after chemical contact −Breakthrough Time – time between initial contact of chemical on the outside of the glove to a concentration (0.1mg/m3) of the chemical on the inside −Permeation rate – the flow rate of a chemical from the outside to the inside of the glove
EMERGENCY SHOWER/EYEWASH STATION The location of each safety shower and eye wash should be clearly posted. The area around showers and eye washes must be left unobstructed. Safety showers and eyewashes are tested by REM yearly. Laboratory personnel should inspect and flush eyewashes weekly.
PERSONAL CONTAMINATION Flush contaminated area with water Remove contaminated clothing Rinse with water for 15 minutes Seek medical attention if irritation persists
CHEMICAL IN THE EYE(S) Flush eyeballs and inner eyelids Forcibly hold eyes open Irrigate for at least 15 minutes Seek medical attention immediately
SPILLS AND RELEASES Spills and releases of hazardous materials, exposure to hazardous materials, or incidents involving fire or explosion. Emergency Instructions 1.Cease all activities 2.Evacuate the spill area 3.Pull fire alarm if building evacuation is required 4.Call 911 5.Seek immediate medical attention, if necessary 6.If possible call REM at 40121 7.Keep people out of the spill area 8.Do not re-enter the area, until emergency responders say it is safe to do so 9.Account for all employees and report missing persons to emergency personnel
FIRE RESPONSE If you become aware of a fire and/or smoke, notify the fire department immediately by going to the nearest safe location and activating the fire alarm If possible call 911 after exiting the building and give the following information −Name of the building −Location of the fire within the building −A description of the fire and how it started (if known) If you the fire alarm is activated in your location, evacuate the building immediately in accordance with the Building Emergency Plan
ACCIDENT DOCUMENTATION AND INVESTIGATION Any accidents involving personal injures, even minor ones, should be reported immediately to a supervisor. First report of injury: −Information of the employer and the injured person −Time and place −Cause −Nature of the injury
AND SAFETY GUIDELINES MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL SPECIAL PROCEDURES
EMPLOYEE’S RESPONSIBILITIES: Be familiar and comply with the established laboratory work safety methods. Give prompt notification of unsafe conditions or practices to the immediate supervisor. Engage in the conduct of safe work practices and use of personal protective equipment PPE.
PROCEDURES FOR WORKING IN LABORATORY Notify laboratory personnel in advance of work. Make laboratory personnel aware of any potential equipment that needs to be removed prior to work. Wear the appropriate PPE for the job task based on the hazard assessment. Do not perform work in areas with open chemical containers or if laboratory equipment is in the way. Contact your supervisor if laboratory staff is not cooperative or is unwilling to move equipment.
PROCEDURES FOR WORKING IN LABORATORY 2 Have MSDSs available for any chemicals or products introduced into the area as part of the work/project. When work is complete and no hazards are present, remove your PPE and dispose of it if it is single use. If it is of multi-use variety, decontaminate your PPE. If potential biological contamination is present, dispose of PPE in a biohazard bag. Do not drink, eat, or chew gum in the laboratory.
FUME HOOD TASKS Fan Repairs: −blades −motor −housing Electrical Repairs: −lights −alarm −controls −circuits Plumbing Repairs: −water −sinks −gas Replacing ductwork Running ductwork for new hoods Repairs from explosions Repairs from fire Sash repair or replacement Retro fitting controls
CONTROLS PPE −Eye protection −Gloves −Long sleeves −Coveralls −N95 dust mask −Respirators Lockout/Tagout Removal Dilution Cleaning Work techniques Personal hygiene practices
INDIVIDUAL ACTIONS Follow the university’s Safe Operating Procedures for Servicing Laboratory Exhaust Systems Use appropriate tools Wear PPE Be prepared for emergency response More fume hood information is available on the REM Chemical Fume Hood PageREM Chemical Fume Hood Page
FUME HOODS SAFETY GUIDELINES Notify laboratory personnel in advance of work. If performing work remote from the fume hood, such as working on roof mounted blower/motor: –Confirm that no active experimentation or open chemical containers are present in the hood. –Fully close and lock out the sash if possible (be sure not to alter or modify the structure of the sash). –Affix a sign to the sash indicating that the “Hood is Out of Service for Maintenance Purposes”. If laboratory staff is uncooperative, notify your supervisor.
FUME HOODS SAFETY GUIDELINES CONT. Have MSDSs available for any chemicals or products introduced into the area as part of the work/project. Wear the appropriate PPE for the job task based on the hazard assessment When work is complete and no hazards are present, remove your PPE and dispose of it if it is single use. If it is of multi-use variety, decontaminate your PPE. When work is complete, notify lab personnel that the hood is operational.
DISMANTLING FUME HOOD EXHAUST DUCTS This procedure is for standard fume hoods. Perchloric Acid fume hoods require special procedures: contact REM at 494-6371 for further information. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment. Flush the exhaust duct with a 5% sodium bicarbonate in water solution collecting the effluent. Test the effluent for pH. If the effluent is less than 5.5 or greater than 9.0, continue flushing with the bicarbonate solution, continuing to collect the effluent. This effluent is considered hazardous waste and must be identified accordingly. Once the pH is between 5.5 and 9.0, the effluent can be discharged in the city sewer system and the duct is ready for dismantling. Wet the inside and outside of the duct and cut into small section that can easily be handled. Dispose of duct in appropriate trash bin and send to landfill.
DISMANTLING SINK TRAPS Wear appropriate personal protective equipment Have a 20 l bucket for each trap. Flush the trap for a minimum of 15minutes. The recommended cutting tool is a pipe cutter and if required a hack saw. Wet the outside of the trap and dismantle at junction or cut on the sink side, 6 inches above and 6 inches below the bottom of the p-trap taking care no to spill the contents of the trap. Place the entire trap and contents into the 20 liter bucket and label it, identify on the outside of the bucket the building name and the location the trap came from. Seal the bucket and notify REM that all traps and tanks have been removed.
QUESTIONS AND CONCERNS If you have any questions or concerns about safety on campus please contact the REM department: Phone:(765) 494-6371 Fax: (765) 494-7403 Web:www.purdue.edu/remwww.purdue.edu/rem