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Does it Really Matter Whether the Earth is Old or Young? So what if the earth is billions of years old? What’s the big deal?

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Presentation on theme: "Does it Really Matter Whether the Earth is Old or Young? So what if the earth is billions of years old? What’s the big deal?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Does it Really Matter Whether the Earth is Old or Young? So what if the earth is billions of years old? What’s the big deal?

2 THE CLEAREST STATEMENT OF THE GOSPEL: Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. (1 Cor. 15:1-8) THE CLEAREST STATEMENT OF THE GOSPEL: Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain. For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles. And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. (1 Cor. 15:1-8)

3 Paul’s Defense of The Gospel (1 Cor. 15) Paul’s Defense of The Gospel (1 Cor. 15) Some denied the Future resurrection (v. 12) - the Promise of the Gospel. Paul’s reply (v ) - this removes our Present hope - the Power of the Gospel. Paul’s explanation for why Jesus had to die (v , 45): The fall of Adam in the Past shows the Purpose of the Gospel. For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. (v ) And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit. (v. 45) Some denied the Future resurrection (v. 12) - the Promise of the Gospel. Paul’s reply (v ) - this removes our Present hope - the Power of the Gospel. Paul’s explanation for why Jesus had to die (v , 45): The fall of Adam in the Past shows the Purpose of the Gospel. For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. (v ) And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit. (v. 45) If death was here before man sinned, then Adam was a myth. If the First Adam was a myth, then what do you need a Last Adam for? Jesus died because of something that never happened!

4 EVOLUTION You can’t have it both ways! CREATION Death and struggle led to the existence of man. Man was the direct cause of death and struggle.

5 IF THERE WAS A PRE-ADAMIC RACE, they all died. IF THERE WAS A PRE-ADAMIC RACE, they all died. The Bible would be WRONG in saying “Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men...” (Rom. 5:12) and “For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. “ (1 Cor 15:22). The Bible would be WRONG in saying “Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men...” (Rom. 5:12) and “For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. “ (1 Cor 15:22). Adam could not have brought death into the world. If the FIRST Adam did not bring death into hte world, then the LAST Adam died because of something that never happened!

6 The Bible plainly states that there was no death before Adam. Evolution and the Gap Theory plainly state that there was. If evolution or the Gap Theory are correct, when did God quit lying and start telling the truth? The Bible plainly states that there was no death before Adam. Evolution and the Gap Theory plainly state that there was. If evolution or the Gap Theory are correct, when did God quit lying and start telling the truth?

7 Historical Ideas About the Age of the Earth Ancient Greeks such as Aristotle: Earth is extremely old, may have existed forever. Genesis: Earth is young. 1200s - Thomas Aquinas reverts to Aristotelian logic and old earth. 1700s - Buffon proposes days of Genesis as extended periods of time. Cuvier proposes multiple global catastrophes over millions of years. Hutton rejects catastrophes, proposes uniformitarianism. 1800s - Lyell expands on Hutton’s ideas, says earth millions of years old. Darwin builds his theory on Hutton’s and Lyell’s ideas about uniformitarianism. 1900s – Radioactivity discovered, age of earth revised to billions of years.

8 The Hebrew word for “day” is (YOM). Depending on context, it can mean 1. A 24 hour day, 2. The daylight portion of a day, or 3. An indefinite period of time. Every time throughout the Old Testament that is used with a number (over 350 times outside Genesis Chapter 1) it always means a 24 hour day. This is the way it appears in the Creation account. God obviously intended to say that these were 24 hour days. God obviously intended to say that these were 24 hour days. HOW LONG ARE THE “Days” in Genesis?

9 All Scripture is inspired by God... but this Scripture was written with His own finger. For [in] six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them [is]... (Exod. 20:11)

10 COULD THE “DAYS” HAVE BEEN MILLIONS OF YEARS? COULD THE “DAYS” HAVE BEEN MILLIONS OF YEARS? The sequence of events in Genesis 1: Day 3, plants created. Day 4, sun created. Day 5, insects created. The sequence of events in Genesis 1: Day 3, plants created. Day 4, sun created. Day 5, insects created. How many million years can most plants live without sunlight? How many million years can they live without insects to pollinate them? How many million years can most plants live without sunlight? How many million years can they live without insects to pollinate them?

11 “When Moses writes that God created heaven and earth and whatever is in them in six days, then let this period continue to have been six days, and do not venture to devise any comment according to which six days were one day. “But, if you cannot understand how this could have been done in six days, then grant the Holy Spirit the honor of being more learned that you are.” MARTIN LUTHER ON THE AGE OF THE EARTH

12 “But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female. For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife...” (Mark 10:6-7, quoting Gen. 2:24, the creation of Eve and the origin of marriage). He didn’t say “In the last one millionth of earth’s history.” “... he [the devil] was a murderer from the beginning...” (Jn. 8:44) He didn’t say “he became a murderer after millions of years.” “... the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ: To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly [places] might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God...” (Eph. 3:10). Did God have to wait through 4.5 billion years of evolution before He could accomplish His purposes through the Church? JESUSPAULJESUSPAUL JESUSPAULJESUSPAUL New Testament Clues for a Young Earth

13 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congrega- tion, in the sides of the north: I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. (Isa. 14:12-14) HOW LUCIFER BECAME THE DEVIL WHEN DID THIS HAPPEN? Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty. Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created. Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth... (Ezek 28:12-14) Lucifer was still beautiful when he first went into Eden! Lucifer was still beautiful when he first went into Eden!

14 YEARS SINCE CREATION (Massoretic Text) ADAM years SETH yrs d ENOSH yrs d KENAN yrs d MAHALALEL yrs d JARED yrs d ENOCH, 365 yrs (walked with God) METHUSALEH yrs, d LAMECH yrs d NOAH yrs d Death of Adam 1656 THE FLOOD Death of Noah SHEM yrs d Arpachshad, d Shelah, d Eber, d Peleg, d Reu, d Serug, d Nahor-- 147, d Terah , d Abraham- 195, d Isaac , d Jacob- 149, d Earth divided Tower of Babel (between 1757 and 1996)

15 ERA PERIODEPOCH Appr. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous 144 million Jurassic 206 million Triassic 248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) Compare this to The Evolutionary Time Scale. Source: Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleontology

16 REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: 1. Belief that it takes millions of years to form a fossil. 2. Radiometric dating. 3. Geologic features (separation of con- tinents, Grand Canyon, etc.) that are supposed to have taken millions of years to form.

17 IF THERE WAS A WORLDWIDE FLOOD, WHAT WOULD WE EXPECT TO FIND? Billions and billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the whole earth, even on top of the highest mountains. WHAT DO WE ACTUALLY FIND? Billions and billions of dead things buried in rock layers laid down by water all over the whole earth, even on top of the highest mountains!

18 HOW DO YOU MAKE A FOSSIL? 1. Bury something quickly so it doesn’t rot. 2. Make sure the right kind of minerals are in the mud or water. 3. Apply lots of heat and pressure. HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE? CHICKEN BONES: ? OIL: ?

19 You may have heard that it takes millions of years to make a fossil. Wrong! Chicken bones have been turned into mineralized fossils in laboratories in 5 to 10 years. Organic garbage (banana peels, etc.) has been turned into crude oil, otherwise known as “fossil fuel,” in as little as 20 minutes. Spark plugs are often used as fishing sinkers in Durban, S. Africa. The water has such a high concentration of minerals that they become coated and look like fossils in just a few years! Courtesy of Joshua Gilbert Spark plugs from Durban harbor

20 OK, so fossils can form quickly. But how can we tell how old they are?

21 ERA PERIODEPOCH Appr. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous 144 million Jurassic 206 million Triassic 248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) The Geologic Column Most of these ages were assigned before radioactivity was even discovered. Most of these ages were assigned before radioactivity was even discovered.

22 WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO “KNOW” SOMETHING? 1. Personal Experience through the five senses. I know a bee sting hurts; I know how to ride a bike. 1. Personal Experience through the five senses. I know a bee sting hurts; I know how to ride a bike. 2. Reliance on Authority. I know the sun is 93 million miles away; Jesus loves me, this I know, for the Bible tells me so. 2. Reliance on Authority. I know the sun is 93 million miles away; Jesus loves me, this I know, for the Bible tells me so. 3. Logic. I know 2 million + 2 million = 4 million, even though I’ve never counted that high. I know I have a brain, even though I’ve never seen it. 3. Logic. I know 2 million + 2 million = 4 million, even though I’ve never counted that high. I know I have a brain, even though I’ve never seen it. 4. Feeling or Intuition. I know she’s the one for me; I know God has called me to the ministry. 4. Feeling or Intuition. I know she’s the one for me; I know God has called me to the ministry. 5. Wishful Thinking (you really want it to be true) I just know I’m going to win the lottery! 5. Wishful Thinking (you really want it to be true) I just know I’m going to win the lottery! 6. Bluffing (lying) - you try to persuade others for an ulterior motive. You should buy these tickets from me because I know this team is going to the Super Bowl this year; I know evolution is a fact! 6. Bluffing (lying) - you try to persuade others for an ulterior motive. You should buy these tickets from me because I know this team is going to the Super Bowl this year; I know evolution is a fact!

23 THE PREHISTORIC PAST: THE PREHISTORIC PAST: 1. No living person has personal experience. 1. No living person has personal experience. 2. There are no eyewitness accounts except the Bible, which is unacceptable to skeptics. 2. There are no eyewitness accounts except the Bible, which is unacceptable to skeptics. SO HOW DO WE “KNOW” ABOUT THE BEGINNING? Through LOGIC ONLY. SO HOW DO WE “KNOW” ABOUT THE BEGINNING? Through LOGIC ONLY.

24 Both sides look at the same evi- dence… Both sides look at the same evi- dence… - We just start with different premises to interpret it. - We just start with different premises to interpret it.

25 BASIC PREMISES OF EVOLUTION AND CREATION LIKE THE POSTULATES OF GEOMETRY, NEITHER SET OF PREMISES CAN BE PROVEN. THEY MUST BE ACCEPTED BY FAITH AS SELF-EVIDENT. 2. Since there could be no other natural processes besides evolution, evolution is the only possibility. 2. God is powerful enough to use any method he chooses, including instantaneous creation. 3. Since evolution has never been seen in human history, it must be very slow. The universe and earth have to be billions of years old. 3. Creation does not automatically require a specific age. a. Recent Creation: The earth is prob- ably less than 10,000 years old. b. Gap Theory & Progressive Creation: Because evolutionists must know what they are talking about, the earth has to be billions of years old. 1. Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes. a. Atheistic evolution: There is no God. b. Theistic evolution: Since the Big Bang, God has had little involvement with nature. 1. A supernatural intelligence created the universe. Though most things are explainable by natural processes, some things may not be. CREATION: EVOLUTION:

26 BASIC PREMISES OF EVOLUTION AND CREATION LIKE THE POSTULATES OF GEOMETRY, NEITHER SET OF PREMISES CAN BE PROVEN. THEY MUST BE ACCEPTED BY FAITH AS SELF-EVIDENT. 4. Because a worldwide flood would cut billions of years off the time needed to produce the fossil record, there can never have been a worldwide flood. 4. The Flood. a. Recent Creation: One worldwide flood. b. Gap Theory: Two worldwide floods. c. Progressive Creation: No worldwide flood. CREATION: EVOLUTION:

27 THE FOUNDATION OF EVOLUTION: Uniformitarianism. THE FOUNDATION OF EVOLUTION: Uniformitarianism. The Bible warns us: First of all you must understand this, that scoffers will come in the last days with scoffing, following their own passions and saying, “Where is the promise of his coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all things have continued as they were from the beginning of creation. They deliberately ignore this fact, that by the word of God heavens existed long ago, and an earth formed out of water and by means of water, through which the world that then existed was deluged with water and perished. (2 Peter 3:3-7 RSV) This is the UNPROVABLE geological doctrine that everything happens by slow, gradual, uniform processes. (“The present is the key to the past.”) There can never have been a worldwide flood. This is the UNPROVABLE geological doctrine that everything happens by slow, gradual, uniform processes. (“The present is the key to the past.”) There can never have been a worldwide flood.

28 ERA PERIODEPOCH Appr. Beginning (Years Ago) Cenozoic Quaternary Holocene (Recent)10,000 Pleistocene 1.8 million Tertiary Pliocene 5.3 million Miocene 23.8 million Oligocene 33.7 million Eocene 54.8 million Paleocene 65 million Mesozoic Cretaceous 144 million Jurassic 206 million Triassic 248 million Paleozoic Permian 290 million Pennsylvanian 323 million} CARBON- Mississippian 354 million} IFEROUS Devonian 417 million Silurian 443 million Ordovician 490 million Cambrian 543 million ArchaeozoicPrecambrian 4.5 billion (incl. Ediacaran or Vendian, 650 million) The Geologic Column These ages are based on the assumption that there was never a worldwide flood. These ages are based on the assumption that there was never a worldwide flood.

29 Evolutionists believe that the first living things evolved somewhere around sea level, because they needed to take in energy and atmospheric gases. So how did the “oldest” fossils get all the way down to the bottom of the ocean, then start evolving their way back up toward the surface? The general order of fossils from bottom to top is what we would expect if ecological communities were buried in sequence from the bottom of the ocean toward sea level and beyond.

30 Basic Fossil Predictions of Creation vs. Evolution: CREATION (Complex to Simple) 1. Strata represent ecological communities. There should be a pattern of clearly defined fossil communities around the world. 2. Catastrophism. 3. Many higher taxa (kingdom, phylum, class, order) should appear at the beginning. The number should decrease through time. 4. Sudden appearance of each basic type. 5. Stasis (resistance to basic change). EVOLUTION (Simple to Complex) 1. Strata represent time periods. There should be a continual overlap of life forms with no consistent worldwide patterns. 2. Uniformitarianism. 3. Few higher taxa should be represented in the earliest fossil-bearing rocks. The number should increase through time. 4. Gradual development of new basic types. 5. Continual gradual change.

31 SUITES OF FOSSILS Rather than using radioactive dating, geologists identify each rock layer (Cambrian, Ordivician, Devonian, etc.) by a clearly defined community or suite of fossils that is essentially the same no matter where in the world we find it. If evolution occurred, different types from amoebas to humans would have had to evolve at different rates in different places at different times. There should be no worldwide pattern of clearly defined communities of fossils. Yet this is precisely how we identify rocks. EVOLUTION IS CLEARLY WRONG.

32 PROBLEMS IN THE GEOLOGIC COLUMN In general, the earth’s rock layers contain fossils that seem to increase in complexity from bottom to top. However, there are hundreds of exceptions where individual fossils or entire strata are in the wrong order. CREATION SAYS: Suites of fossils represent ecological communities which fit their environment. Those near the bottom of the ocean have shapes appropriate to their habitat and only appear simpler. Misplaced fossils and strata are probably the result of hydraulic flood action moving them out of their normal habitat, or deformation while the sediment was still soft. EVOLUTION SAYS: Suites of fossils represent time periods. Those near the bottom look simpler because they evolved first and are simpler. Misplaced fossils and strata are the result of geologic processes such as faulting and overthrusting, millions of years after the rocks had fully hardened.

33 Deformation of Sedimentary Layers Which makes more sense? Evolutionists believe that bending of rocks occurred millions of years after the sedi- ment hardened into rock. Creationists believe the sedi- ments were bent while still soft. Evolutionists believe that bending of rocks occurred millions of years after the sedi- ment hardened into rock. Creationists believe the sedi- ments were bent while still soft. Photos by the author Right: Meteor Cra- ter in Arizona. Evo- lutionists believe the meteor blasted through hardened rock; creationists note that the crater looks very much like the impact of a bullet in soft mud. Above and right: Deformed strata in the Swartberg Mountains of S. Africa.

34 South of Cuba are the Grand Cayman islands, where four distinct ecological communities thrive at the same time and place ft: The Reef. Thousands of typical shallow water species: Coral, barracuda, stingray, eels, etc ft: The Wall. “Sponge belt.” Lots of various types of sponges. Worms, crustaceans ft: The Haystacks. (Lots of de- bris broken off from above.) Sharks, star- fish, sea whip corals, sea urchins, etc ft: The Deep. (Totally dark.) Cookie- cutter shark, coffin fish, tripod fish, spidery- armed jellyfish, sea cucumbers, etc. The Grand Cayman Islands: A Natural Demonstration Project If we could instantly freeze the area, it would look just like the suites of fossils in the fossil record.

35 Ecological Communities Around the World Animals and plants live in interdependent communities, or biomes. These vary with climate, elevation above or below sea level, etc. Shown are two of the ecosystems found in Colorado. The same is true worldwide. (Denver Museum of Natural History – photos by the author)

36 HOW EVOLUTIONISTS DATE ROCKS ASSUME EVOLUTION IS CORRECT ASSUME EVOLUTION IS CORRECT C I R C U L A R C I R C U L A R E A S O N I N G R E A S O N I N G Fossils must show pro- gression from simple to complex Arrange strata on a chart in “correct” order Explain away out-of-order fossils and strata Look for “tie-points” where radio- metric ages match previous- ly assigned age; reject ages that don’t fit (almost all!) Geologic timetable and “correct” order of strata verified - Evolution Proved!

37 RADIOMETRIC “TIE-POINTS” IF stratigraphic ages are really correct, and IF radiometric dating is reliable, Then we should be able to find a multitude of “tie-points” -- igneous (volcanic) rocks that match the assigned stratigraphic ages of each sedimentary layer containing fossils. However, evolutionists do not depend on tie-points because there are so few of them. A search of the literature reveals that In the entire world, only a hundred or so individual rocks (tie-points) have been found that match their assigned ages. The thousands of others (the vast majority) that don’t match the age that evolution says they should be are DISCARDED. Instead of discarding the theory when it doesn’t match the data, evolutionists DISCARD THE DATA because it doesn’t match the theory!

38 HOW AGES WERE ORIGINALLY ASSIGNED 1. If a new fossil was previously unknown, it would be compared to the rocks where it was found to see if they contained a known suite of fossils (Cambrian, Devonian, etc.). If so, the new one was assigned the same age as that suite. 2. Even if there was not a full suite, the discoverer would look for individual fossils found nearby. If any of them were defined as “index fossils,” he simply used their previously assigned age for the new type. 3. If none of the other fossils had been assigned an age, he would decide how highly evolved the new organism was and assign an age based on the assumption that evolution had taken billions of years. 4. Finally, if the new fossil was found in only one suite, then it could be used as an index fossil and its assigned age used anywhere that suite was found. Any new fossils found in the same layer would automatically be assigned the same age.

39 What About Radioactive Dating? Electrons (-) are in or- bitals around the nucleus, which is composed of protons (+) and neutrons (neutral, shown in blue). Number of neutrons deter- mines the isotope of the element. Number of protons is the atomic number. This determines what element the atom is Number of protons plus number of neutrons deter- mines the mass number of the element. - Since protons are positively charged, they repel each other. Thus, every atom in the universe that has more than one proton should fly apart. However, if certain numbers of neutrons are present, the protons stay together. Scientists call the force that keeps them together the “Strong Nuclear Force,” but have no idea why it exists. Since protons are positively charged, they repel each other. Thus, every atom in the universe that has more than one proton should fly apart. However, if certain numbers of neutrons are present, the protons stay together. Scientists call the force that keeps them together the “Strong Nuclear Force,” but have no idea why it exists.

40 WHAT IS RADIOACTIVITY? An atom with an unstable nucleus (too many or too few neu- trons for the number of protons) tries to re- lease excess poten- tial energy by emit- ting various parti- cles, or releasing gamma radiation. The radioactive atom starts out as one element called the parent and decays into a different element called the radiogenic daughter. The daughter may or may not be radioactive. If the daughter is radioactive, it may in turn become the parent element of another radiogenic daughter. The radioactive atom starts out as one element called the parent and decays into a different element called the radiogenic daughter. The daughter may or may not be radioactive. If the daughter is radioactive, it may in turn become the parent element of another radiogenic daughter. In Alpha (  ) decay, the nucleus ejects two pro- tons and two neutrons at the same time. This lowers the atomic number by two and the mass number by four. In Beta (  ) decay, one of the neutrons in the nu- cleus breaks apart. It ejects a high-energy electron, leaving a proton in place of the neutron. This actually increases the atomic number by one, but leaves the mass number unchanged.

41 RADIOACTIVE DECAY RATES Some radioactive “parents” decay into their final “daughter” in one step, e.g. Carbon- 14 to Nitrogen-14. Others go through many intermedi- ates, e.g. Uranium- 238 goes through 14 steps as it turns into Lead-206. However, we do not know what causes one atom to decay while the one next to it does not, so we cannot predict which individual atoms will decay. To measure decay rates we average together large numbers of atoms in a statistical analysis called a “half-life,” the amount of time it takes for half of a sample to decay. After one half-life 1/2 remains; after two half-lives, 1/4; after three, 1/8; after four, 1/16, and so forth.

42 RADIOACTIVE DECAY RATES COMMONLY USED RADIOACTIVE DATING METHODS Half-lives range from microseconds to (supposedly) billions of years. Since radioactivity was only discovered about a century ago, there is no way to verify these long half-lives. Half-lives range from microseconds to (supposedly) billions of years. Since radioactivity was only discovered about a century ago, there is no way to verify these long half-lives. PARENT DAUGHTER HALF-LIFE Carbon-14 Nitrogen years Potassium-40 Argon billion years Uranium-235 Lead million years Uranium-238 Lead billion years Rubidium-87 Strontium-8747 billion years

43 Since we can’t be sure of any of these for any “clock” in nature, we should use many different methods to determine a maximum possible age. Out of all the dating methods, less than 10% point toward a maximum of billions of years. The rest point toward millions or even thousands. Since we can’t be sure of any of these for any “clock” in nature, we should use many different methods to determine a maximum possible age. Out of all the dating methods, less than 10% point toward a maximum of billions of years. The rest point toward millions or even thousands. Characteristics of an Accurate Clock 1. Initial conditions known. What time did the clock say when it was wound up? 2. Known rate of change. The clock need not always run at the same rate, but if it changes we must know when and by how much. 3. Closed system. The clock must not have been reset or tampered with.

44 Conditions for Accurate Radiometric Dating 1. Initial percentage of parent and daughter in the rock must be known. We have no way to know this. The radioactive parents came from somewhere. According to evolution, the daughters could have been present to use as building blocks in making the parents in the first place. There would automatically have been a mix of daughter and parent from the beginning of the earth. We have no way to know what that mix was. This renders radioactive dating unreliable. Most rocks contain a mixture of elements. Many include a radioactive “parent” and a radiogenic “daughter.”

45 1 2 HYDROGEN HELIUM LITHIUM BERYLLIUM BORON CARBON NITROGEN OXYGEN FLUORINE NEON SODIUM MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM SILICON PHOSPHOROUS SULPHUR CHLORINE ARGON POTASSIUM CALCIUM SCANDIUM TITANIUM VANADIUM CHROMIUM MANGANESE IRON COBALT NICKEL COPPER ZINC GALLIUM GERMANIUM ARSENIC SELENIUM BROMINE KRYPTON RUBIDIUM STRONTIUM YTTRIUM ZIRCONIUM NIOBIUM MOLYBDENUM TECHNETIUM RUTHENIUM RHODIUM PALLADIUM SILVER CADMIUM INDIUM TIN ANTIMONY TELLURIUM IODINE XENON CESIUM BARIUM HAFNIUM TANTALUM TUNGSTEN RHENIUM OSMIUM IRIDIUM PLATINUM GOLD MERCURY THALLIUM LEAD BISMUTH POLONIUM ASTATINE RADON FRANCIUM RADIUM RUTHERFORD- DUBNIUM SEABORGIUM BOHRIUM HASSIUM MEITNERIUM IUM Periodic Table of the Elements H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt etc. Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho E Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr CERIUM PRASEODYM- NEODYMIUM PROMETHEUM SAMARIUM EUROPIUM GADOLINIUM TERBIUM DYSPROSIUM HOLMIUM ERBIUM THULIUM YTTERBIUM LUTETIUM 140 IUM THORIUM PROTACTIN- URANIUM NEPTUNIUM PLUTONIUM AMERICIUM CURIUM BERKELIUM CALIFORNIUM EINSTEINIUM FERMIUM MENDELEV- NOBELIUM LAWRENCIUM 232 IUM IUM LANTHANUM ACTINIUM 227 La Ac La-Lu Ac-Lr La-Lu Ac-Lr elements are known to occur on earth. Elements 43, 61, and 93 and above (shown in red) are known only in artificially manufactured form, though #43 is seen in some stars. According to evolution, the 90 naturally occurring elements (shown in white) must have come from lighter “building blocks.” 90 elements are known to occur on earth. Elements 43, 61, and 93 and above (shown in red) are known only in artificially manufactured form, though #43 is seen in some stars. According to evolution, the 90 naturally occurring elements (shown in white) must have come from lighter “building blocks.”

46 Conditions for Accurate Radiometric Dating 1. Initial percentage of parent and daughter in the rock must be known. We have no way to know this. 2. Rate of change must have been constant the entire time. We’ve been watching for less than 100 years, but we have seen half-lives change by up to a billion times as fast. Most rocks contain a mixture of elements. Many include a radioactive “parent” and a radiogenic “daughter.”

47 Changes in Radioactive Decay Rates Published decay rates are averages of experimental values. Some are a little lower, some are a little higher. Decay rates have been determined over less than 100 years but are applied to 4.5 billion years! This is like watching a jet fly past for one second then guessing how fast it has been flying for the last 522 days. Many believe the decay of individual atoms is purely random, but others believe there is some as-yet-unknown cause such as neutrino density. Experiments have produced changes in decay rates of at least 14 different elements. Under plasma conditions (all electrons removed), decay rates have been accelerated up to a billion times as fast. Evolutionists (and some creationists) believe the earth began in plasma conditions. This would render radiometric dating totally unreliable. Evolutionists (and some creationists) believe the earth began in plasma conditions. This would render radiometric dating totally unreliable.

48 Changes in Radioactive Decay Rates Recent studies at Purdue and Stanford Universities have revealed several anomalies in radioactive decay rates that seem to depend on the sun. The sun seems to be doing something that affects decay rates – perhaps by producing an as yet undetected particle that makes nuclei decay faster. 1. The decay rates go through a 33 day cycle from fastest to slowest – believed to be the rotation rate of the sun’s core. 2. Decay rates speed up slightly in the winter when we are closer to the sun, and slow down slightly in the summer when we are farther away. 3. Decay rates slow down just before solar flares. Whatever the cause, we can say with certainty that radioactive decay rates do change. This renders radiometric dating unreliable. Whatever the cause, we can say with certainty that radioactive decay rates do change. This renders radiometric dating unreliable. Source:

49 Conditions for Accurate Radiometric Dating Most rocks contain a mixture of elements. Many include a radioactive “parent” and a radiogenic “daughter.” 3. None of the parent or daughter can have been added or removed the entire time. Is there any rock that has never gotten wet? 2. Rate of change must have been constant the entire time. We’ve been watching for less than 100 years, but we have seen half-lives change by up to a billion times as fast. 1. Initial percentage of parent and daughter in the rock must be known. We have no way to know this. There is no way to be sure of any of these factors, let alone all of them. There is no way to be sure of any of these factors, let alone all of them.

50 HOW ABOUT CARBON DATING? 1. Cosmic radiation in the upper atmosphere strikes Nitrogen-14, turning it into the unstable isotope Carbon Plants use the C-12 and C-14 in the air to build up their cell structures. 3. The carbon becomes part of the animals that eat the plants. 4. When a plant or animal dies it stops taking in carbon. The C-12 does not change but the C-14 decays back to N-14 (with a half-life of 5730 years). By measuring the ratio of C-14 to C-12 in the carcass as com- pared to the atmosphere, we estimate how long ago it died.

51 PROBLEMS WITH CARBON DATING 1. The carbon in many fossils has been replaced by other minerals. You can’t carbon date something that doesn’t contain carbon. 2. If the animal or plant’s environment was low in C-14 it will give a false reading much higher than the real age. This happens frequently in sea creatures. 3. The ratio of C-14 to C-12 in the atmosphere keeps increasing. The older something is, the less C-14 was available and the less reliable the carbon date is. “Old” dates need to be adjusted accordingly. 4. Because of its short half-life, carbon dating works for ages of only a few thousand years. Since most fossils are supposed to be millions of years old, evolutionists don’t even try to carbon date them. 5. External factors can add or remove carbon or nitrogen. 6. Some plants are able to exclude C-14 from their structures. They, or anything that eats them, would automatically show a false age.

52 Reasons Fossils are not Dated by Other Radiometric Methods 1. A good size sample of radioactive material is needed to perform radiometric dating tests. The particles in most sediments are too finely divided for reliable testing. 2. The only kind of radioactive material that can be directly dated is igneous (volcanic) rock. It would have been so hot when it was laid down that it would have destroyed any living thing in its path, rather than preserving it as a fossil.

53 Examples of Erroneous Radiometric Dates Checkurovka Mammoth: Hair carbon dated at 26,000 years, but soil dated only 5,600 years. Living Nevada snails carbon dated at 27,000 years. Living mollusk dated by carbon-14 at over 2,300 years. Two different C-14 ages 15,000 years apart from same block of peat in New Zealand Dried seal carcasses less than 30 years old carbon dated as old as 4,600 years. Blood of seal freshly killed at McMurdo Sound in Antarctic carbon dated at 1,300 years Rocks containing “Nutcracker Man” potassium-argon dated at 1.75 million years. Bones found lower (should be older) carbon dated at 10,000 years. Lava rocks from Hualalei in Hawaii potassium-argon dated at almost 3 billion years. Rocks less than 200 years old - formed when volcano erupted in Other new Hawaiian rocks from eruption of Kilauea potassium-argon dated at 22 million years. Moon rocks dated by various techniques show inconsistent ages ranging from 700 million to 28 billion years. (Moon supposed to be 4.5 billion years old.)

54 RECENT CARBON DATING RESULTS Recently developed tests for Carbon-14 using accelerator mass spectrometry are able to detect the presence of C-14 at 100,000 times lower concentration than previous methods. Out of thousands of supposedly multimillion year samples tested, all but two contained measurable amounts of C-14. Radioactive elements disappear within about 10 half-lives. Even if we are generous and stretch the limit out to 40 half-lives, within about 250,000 years all the C-14 should be gone. IT IS NOT. The “multimillion year” fossils must be less than 250,000 years old! In fact, in most cases, they point to something less than 90,000 years (before correction for lower atmospheric C-14 in the past).

55 The Cardeñas Basalt at the bottom of the Grand Canyon is supposed to be about a billion years old. The Uinkaret Plateau at the top is only sup- posed to be about a million. Rubidium-Strontium dating showed an age of about 1.07 billion years for the Cardeñas, as expected. Exactly the same technique was applied to the Uinkaret, which showed an age of 1.34 billion years -- a thousand times too old, and 270 million years older than the rocks at the bottom. Isochron Dating and the Grand Canyon EIther the technique is faulty, or else the Grand Canyon is upside down!

56 We’ve seen that the first two are not reliable. Now let’s look at some arguments based on geology. REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: 1.Belief that it takes millions of years to form a fossil. 2. Radiometric dating. 3. Geologic features (separation of con- tinents, Grand Canyon, etc.) that are supposed to have taken millions of years to form.

57 FOSSIL PREDICTIONS OF CREATION AND EVOLUTION FOSSIL PREDICTIONS OF CREATION AND EVOLUTION EVOLUTION: Uniformitarianism. “The present is the key to the past” -- a doctrinal statement accepted without proof. Presently observed processes should be sufficient to explain the earth’s geologic record. There has never been a worldwide flood. CREATION: Catastrophism. Everyday processes do not have nearly so much effect on the earth as catastrophic events (volcanos, hurricanes, earthquakes, etc.) The present is NOT the key to the past. There should be evidence in the geologic record pointing toward past catastrophic events.

58 PLATE TECTONICS Genesis 1:9-10 says that there was originally one landmass. On this, evolutionists agree. (They call it Pangaea.) Evolution- ists believe it broke up over hundreds of millions of years. By contrast, young- earth creationists believe the split took place rapidly, during and after Noah’s Flood. Animation from Univ. of Calif. Museum of Paleon- tology website Geologists around the world use a computer program called “Terra” to model the motion of the continental plates. Few realize that it was written by a young-earth creationist geophysicist, Dr. John Baumgardner. The program works much better if the continents were moving rapidly for a short time rather than slowly for millions of years. Geologists around the world use a computer program called “Terra” to model the motion of the continental plates. Few realize that it was written by a young-earth creationist geophysicist, Dr. John Baumgardner. The program works much better if the continents were moving rapidly for a short time rather than slowly for millions of years.

59 THE GRAND CANYON The Grand Canyon is a mile deep, eight miles across, and over 200 miles long. Evolutionists claim that the Colorado River would have taken millions of years to erode the Canyon. Is there any evidence that the assumption of uniformitarianism is wrong, and that large scale erosion can occur quickly? The Grand Canyon is a mile deep, eight miles across, and over 200 miles long. Evolutionists claim that the Colorado River would have taken millions of years to erode the Canyon. Is there any evidence that the assumption of uniformitarianism is wrong, and that large scale erosion can occur quickly?

60 Mount St. Helens A classic snow-capped mountain in southwest Washington State, before its eruption in 1980 Photo courtesy of Raymond Fleshman (www.creationism.org/sthelens/fleshman/index.htm)

61 The View From Spirit Lake U.S. Geologic Survey photos from Mount St. Helens before Mount St. Helens after

62 Effects of the Volcano on Trees Millions of trees were knocked down by the initial steam blast. 1/8 of a cubic mile of rock from the top of the volcano crashed into Spirit Lake, creating a wave hundreds of feet high that swept down millions more trees. Shown above are not islands, but floating log rafts. (Photo courtesy of Raymond Fleshman) USGS Photo

63 Mount St. Helens During the Eruption Ash from Mt. St. Helens completely circled the globe. Energy released from this medium-sized volcano was estimated to be the equivalent of one Hiroshima-size atomic bomb per second for nine hours. U.S. Geologic Survey photos from

64 Mount St. Helens and the Toutle River The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980 deposited hundreds of feet of finely laminated sediment into the North Fork of the Toutle River in just a few days. The sediment was so hot that it quickly turned into rock, damming up the river. 20 months later, a new mudflow broke through the new rocks and carved out a canyon about 1/35 as deep as the Grand Canyon in ONE DAY. The Toutle River didn’t carve the canyon; it just drains it. (Just like the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon!) The Toutle River didn’t carve the canyon; it just drains it. (Just like the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon!)

65 Sediment Deposits at Mount St. Helens Photos courtesy of Raymond Fleshman The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in 1980 deposited hundreds of feet of finely laminated sediment into the North Fork of the Toutle River in just a few days.

66 Soft Rock Erosion at Mount St. Helens A second eruption in January 1982 sent more superheated mud blasting through the new sedimentary rock, forming a network of canyons up to 160 feet deep (1/35 as deep as the Grand Canyon) in one day. The Toutle didn’t carve the canyons -- it just drains them. Photo by the author -- viewed from two miles away The 1980 eruption filled the Toutle River valley with hundreds of feet of superheated mud, which rapidly hardened into rock.

67 Hard Rock Erosion at Mount St. Helens Hard rock erosion is thought to take thousands of years, at least. Yet the steam blast during the eruption of Mt. St. Helens carved out a 700 foot deep canyon through the solid granite of the “Goat Rocks” in less than one afternoon. Photo by the author -- viewed from three miles away

68 Back to the Grand Canyon – could it be the Result of Slow Erosion? Back to the Grand Canyon – could it be the Result of Slow Erosion? In order for the Colorado River to have carved the Canyon, it would have had to flow a mile uphill for millions of years. The Grand Canyon is a mile deep, 8 mile wide, 216 mile long gash through an uplifted area of the Colorado Plateau in north Arizona. The Kaibab Monocline, a mile- high upwarped formation at the east end of the Grand Canyon U.S. government satellite image Impossible. Gravity works in Arizona just like anywhere else!

69 The Grand Canyon is missing over 1000 cubic miles of sediment, enough to make a good size mountain range. Yet it has a normal- size delta composed of soft, relatively recent sediment. NASA satellite photo of the Colorado River delta at the Gulf of California THE MISSING DELTA If the Colorado River carved the Canyon over millions of years, where is the sediment? If the Colorado River carved the Canyon over millions of years, where is the sediment?

70 The Colorado River: Not Enough Water! Throughout the Grand Canyon are many mesas and buttes where the Colorado River does not flow. There had to be a much larger quantity of water at some time in the past in order to scour them out. Photo by the author

71 Nautiloid Mass Burial at Grand Canyon Uniformi- tarian geo- logy says the Redwall Limestone was depos- ited slowly over hun- dreds of millions of years. In 2002, geologist Dr. Steve Austin stunned the Geological Society of America with the discovery of billions of nautiloid fossils preserved in a 2- meter thick layer of the Redwall Limestone. Nautiloids have soft bodies inside a shell. The bodies decay quickly. The shells all point in the same direction. This indicates that they were deposited by a massive sediment flow over a few days, not millions of years. Grand Canyon photo by the author; Nautiloid photos by USGS The Redwall Limestone is a layer of the Grand Canyon several hundred feet thick, spread over thousands of square miles.

72 THE PETRIFIED FOREST Not far from the Grand Canyon -- not really a forest, but tens of thousands of trees and tree fragments lying on the ground, stripped of roots and limbs. Most geologists believe they are allochthonous – that is, they floated into the area from someplace else. That’s a lot of water!

73 The Grand Canyon and the Flood The Grand Canyon and the Flood The Kaibab Monocline would have served as a natural dam holding back four states worth of water at the end of the Flood, until something caused a split. The Colorado didn’t carve the Canyon; it just drains it. The Colorado Plateau east of the Grand Canyon includes many parts of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico higher than the Kaibab Monocline. (U.S. government satellite image)

74 The Failure of Uniformitarianism Uniformitarianism is based on the belief that “The Present is the Key to the Past.” Even according to evolution, though, many things have obviously not always happened in the same way and at the same rate. Uniformitarianism is based on the belief that “The Present is the Key to the Past.” Even according to evolution, though, many things have obviously not always happened in the same way and at the same rate. The hypothetical “big bang” Initial formation of the earth and solar system Initial separation of the continents Supposed reversal of motion of the continental plates Well-known catastrophes such as Washington Scab- lands, meteor impacts, major volcanic eruptions Reversals of the earth’s magnetic field Clearly defined boundaries between strata worldwide (e.g., K-T Boundary) Enormous fossil graveyards Many other examples “Methodological uniformitarianism was useful only when science was debating the status of the supernatural in its realm.” - Evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould “Methodological uniformitarianism was useful only when science was debating the status of the supernatural in its realm.” - Evolutionist Stephen Jay Gould

75 REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: REASONS PEOPLE BELIEVE THE EARTH IS OLD: 1.Belief that it takes millions of years to form a fossil. 2. Radiometric dating. 3. Geologic features (separation of con- tinents, Grand Canyon, etc.) that are supposed to have taken millions of years to form. None of these is a compelling argument. None of these is a compelling argument.

76 So far, this is just showing what’s wrong with the evolutionary time scale. Are there any positive indications that the earth might be much younger than billions of years old? So far, this is just showing what’s wrong with the evolutionary time scale. Are there any positive indications that the earth might be much younger than billions of years old?

77 Maximum Ages Given by a Number of “Clocks” Maximum Ages Given by a Number of “Clocks” INDICATOR MAX. AGE 1. Recession of the Moon1,370,000, Breakup of Galaxy Clusters1,000,000, Spiral Galaxies1,000,000, Influx of salt (NaCl) to the oceans 100,000, Thickness and temperature gradient of earth’s crust 45,000, Atmospheric helium 4,000, Instability of Saturn’s rings 1,000, Volcanic activity on Io1,000, Poynting-Robertson Effect on space dust200, High pressure oil & gas wells100, Thickness of Nile sediment30, Atmospheric C-1430, Influx of salt to the Dead Sea13, Short-period comets10, Decay in strength of earth’s magnetic field10, Influx of Uranium to the oceans10,000 and many others. The true age could be anything less.

78 THE MISSING HELIUM THE MISSING HELIUM Several radio- active decay series release alpha particles, or Helium-4 nuclei. These quickly capture two elec- trons from their surroundings and become Helium atoms. If every bit of the helium in the atmosphere came only from the radioactive decay we are aware of, there is less than 4 million years accumulation. There is no way known for helium-4 to escape from the atmosphere. 1. If there was any helium at the beginning, or 2. If there is more radioactivity than we know of, or 3. If there is another helium source besides radioactivity (there is!), The atmosphere could be any age less. There is no way known for helium-4 to escape from the atmosphere. 1. If there was any helium at the beginning, or 2. If there is more radioactivity than we know of, or 3. If there is another helium source besides radioactivity (there is!), The atmosphere could be any age less.

79 CARBON-14 DECAY Cosmic radiation strikes Nitrogen-14 in the upper atmosphere, turning it into C-14. The C-14 begins to turn back to N-14. Direct measurements show C-14 forming 20% to 30% faster than it is decaying. This indicates that C-14 has been forming for less than 20,000 years. Starting from zero, the amount of C-14 would build up until it was decaying as fast as it formed. At present rates, it would take less than 20,000 years to reach equilibrium. The atmosphere must have been in its present condition for less than 20,000 years.

80 THE MISSING METEORITES Each year, a few meteorites make it through the atmos- phere and land on the earth without burning up. Fossil-bearing rocks are sup- posed to have been forming for at least 530 million years. In this time, at least several billion meteorites should have become embedded one by one in the fossil-bearing rocks. Yet not one meteorite has ever been discovered preserved in any “ancient” rock layer under the surface, despite the discovery of perhaps hundreds of billions of fossils. Either this is an astonishing coincidence, or else the rocks were NOT laid down over hundreds of millions of years.

81 METEOR CRATER The meteor that caused Meteor Crater in Arizona went through multiple strata, but did not fracture them. Instead, the crater looks like the impact pattern of a bullet fired into soft mud. All the layers must have still been soft when the meteor crashed through. They must not have been millions of years old.

82 PLEOCHROIC HALOES If a large number of radioactive atoms decay inside a molten rock, no traces are left after the rock cools. However, if the rock is solid when the atoms decay, they leave tiny spherical “scorch marks” known as pleochroic haloes. We can tell what produced the haloes by their diameter and what’s left at the center. SHELLS DUE TO: Po-214 (half-life 164 microseconds) Po-218 (half-life 3.1 minutes) Po-210 (half-life 138 days) U-238 “parent” (4.5 billion years) No Uranium “Parent” “Parentless” Po-210 haloes can only form in rocks that are solid within a few years, Po-218 within a few minutes, and Po-214 within a few thousandths of a second. Thousands of known haloes are from fast-decaying isotopes of Polonium. In order for them to leave haloes at all, the rocks must have solidified within a few half-lives of Polonium. For Po-214, the rocks had to harden within seconds! Thousands of known haloes are from fast-decaying isotopes of Polonium. In order for them to leave haloes at all, the rocks must have solidified within a few half-lives of Polonium. For Po-214, the rocks had to harden within seconds!

83 Implications of Pleochroic Haloes Pleochroic haloes do not prove that the earth is young. However, they show that rocks con- taining them had to solidify in a matter of sec- onds rather than hundreds of millions of years. Whenever the basement rocks were formed, they were formed fast. No one has ever successfully rebutted Dr. Robert Gentry’s contention that the haloes point strongly toward instantaneous creation.

84 HELIUM IN THE ROCKS Many radioactive decay series produce helium. Even though the helium starts out inside a rock, helium molecules are so small that they can gradually work their way through the molecules of the rock until they escape. At the measured rate of diffusion, the escape time has been calculated to be on the order of a few tens of thousands of years. Many rocks supposed to be hundreds of millions of years old have been split open and found to contain significant amounts of helium. The rocks cannot be more than a few tens of thousands of years old, NOT millions of years.

85 DOES THIS PROVE THE EARTH IS YOUNG? NO. BUT IT SHOWS THAT IT COULD BE, AND THAT THERE IS NO COMPELLING SCIENTIFIC REASON THAT IT HAS TO BE BILLIONS OF YEARS OLD. DOES THIS PROVE THE EARTH IS YOUNG? NO. BUT IT SHOWS THAT IT COULD BE, AND THAT THERE IS NO COMPELLING SCIENTIFIC REASON THAT IT HAS TO BE BILLIONS OF YEARS OLD.

86 EVERYTHING must be explainable by PURELY NATURAL PROCESSES. (If something is a physical phenomenon, then it must have a physical cause.) EVERYTHING must be explainable by PURELY NATURAL PROCESSES. (If something is a physical phenomenon, then it must have a physical cause.) THE FUNDAMENTAL PREMISE OF EVOLUTION: But what if evolutionists find something that is NOT explainable by natural processes? But what if evolutionists find something that is NOT explainable by natural processes? Sure it is -- they just make up an explanation! And since they are smart enough to make up a clever story, therefore their story must be true. Sure it is -- they just make up an explanation! And since they are smart enough to make up a clever story, therefore their story must be true.

87 Since evolutionsts are determined that absolutely EVERYTHING must be explainable by purely natural processes, all it takes is ONE THING that’s not to falsify all of evolution. Since evolutionsts are determined that absolutely EVERYTHING must be explainable by purely natural processes, all it takes is ONE THING that’s not to falsify all of evolution. THE CREATIONIST’S ADVANTAGE: All we have to do is disprove ONE evolu- tionary claim, but they have to be right about EVERY SINGLE ONE. If even one evolutionary story is wrong, the whole thing falls apart! All we have to do is disprove ONE evolu- tionary claim, but they have to be right about EVERY SINGLE ONE. If even one evolutionary story is wrong, the whole thing falls apart! No wonder they don’t want students to hear about Intelligent Design in schools! No wonder they don’t want students to hear about Intelligent Design in schools!

88 For copies of all materials, go to For copies of all materials, go to


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