2Objectives1.) Identify the key terms for the unit. 2.) Identify common hand and power tools used in agricultural mechanics. 3.) Select hand tools needed for a particular job. 4.) Determine the cost of acquiring each tool.
3termsBlade Balance- a device used to balance a lawn mower blade to prevent excess vibration during operation.Board Foot- Circular Saw- a motor- driven power hand saw with round blade.Circular Saw- a motor- driven power hand saw with round blade.Common Nail- A kind of nail with a flat head that is used in general construction.Concave Bevel- a bevel, which is hollowed or curved inward.Convex Bevel- A bevel which is raised or curved outwardCrosscut- to cut across the grain of woodCrosscut Hand Saw- A saw with small teeth (more teeth per inch) for cutting across the grain of wood.Dado- A square or rectangular groove in the face of the board
4TermsDouble Inclined Plane- A plane made by two bevels creating a point similar to that of an axeFinishing Nail- A slender nail with a small head used for interior trim workHigh Speed Drill- Twist drill made tempered specially to drill holes in steelHollow Ground- A single inclined plane which is concave groundHone- the process of finely sharpening a cutting edge with a bench stone or hand stoneKerf- Opening in board made by the cutting of a saw blade; also referred to as saw kerfKickback- A safety hazard that results when a saw blade binds in the material being cut resulting in uncontrollable throwing of the material or sawRabbet- A cut or groove at the end of a board made to receive another board and form a joint
5Terms Rip- To cut along the grain of wood Rip Hand Saw- A saw with larger teeth (fewer teeth per inch) for cutting with the grain of woodRevolutions Per Minute (RPM)- the number of times a rotating shaft or blade turns or rotates in sixty (60) secondsSingle Incline Plane- A type of bevel with one edge; used on wood chisels and plane ironsTwist Drill- Common drill bit used for making round holes in wood and metal
6Hammers ($5-$60) Carpenter Hammer Used to drive or pull nails Can have either a curved or straight claw
7hammers Machinist Hammer Used to work with metal or around machinery Distiguished by a variable- shaped peenBall peen hammers are made in different weights usually 4,6,8, and 12 ounces and 1, 1 ½, and 2 pounds.
8Wrenches ($20-$300) Open-end Solid, adjustable wrench with openings in one or both endsUsually come in sets ranging for 5/16’’ to 1 inch.Handles are usually straight but may be curved.
9wrenches Box Wrench Less likely to slip off the work. Most likely to have 12 points6-8 points used for heavy12 points used for medium16 points used for light dutyDisadvantage of this wrench is loss of time
10WrenchCombination WrenchHas both an open- end and a box end.
11wrench Adjustable open-end wrench An open- end wrench with an adjustable opening.Can fit variety of different sized nuts and bolts
12wrenchPipe WrenchAn adjustable wrench with curved jaws used to grip pipe or round stock.Come in variety of different sizes.
13wrenchSocket WrenchCylindrical wrench attached to a breaker bar, ratchet, or air wrench.Offers secure fast and speedy operation.Sized by the millimeter or by inches and fractions of an inchSets come in different sizes based on the size of the driver.Common sizes: ¼”, ½”, ¾”, and 1”.
14Screwdriver ($5- $20) Philips Screwdriver Named after Henry F. PhillipsUsed with the most popular screw, which is referred to as a Philips screw.
15Ratchet off-set screwdriver Manual screwdriver that has a ratcheting action.
16screwdriver Standard screwdriver Also known as a “flat head” Has a single blade
17Rulers/ tapes ($10-$30) Measure in Inches or Centimeters Used for wood work or metal work
18Squares ($10-$30) Carpenter’s Square Usually 12 in X 8 in, 24 in X 16 in, or 24 inX 18 in.Flat sides of the blade and the tonged are graduated in inches and fractions of an inchUsed for laying out and squaring up large patterns
19SquaresTry SquareConsists of two parts at the right angles to each other
20square Sliding T Bevel Adjustable with a slotted beveled blade Primary use is laying out angles other than right angles
21square Combination Square Is equipped with moveable heads called square head, protractor head, and center head.
22Hand saw ($10-$20) Cross cut Back saw Key hold saw This saw has a steel blade with a handle at one endThe blade is narrower at the end opposite the handleThe major difference between ripsaw and crosscut is the shape of the teeth.Back sawIs a crosscut saw designed for sawing a perfectly straight lineKey hold sawHas a long narrow, tapering ripsaw, used to cut from the bored hold
23Chisels ($10-$20) Cold chisels Tools that can be used for chipping or cutting metal or woodThey only cut metal that is softer than the metal they are made ofClassified according to the shape of their heads and the width of the cutting edgeMatch hammer to the chisel
25Files ($5- $20)Files are graded according to their degree of fineness and whether they have single or double- cut teeth.Files remove small amount of metal, plastic, or wood.Used for tooth sharpeningFiles come in different shapes
26Pliers ($14-$30) Made in many styles and sizes Used for cutting purposes as well as holding and gripping small articles.Major types:Slip- jointVice gripWater pumpSlide cutterDiagonal pliersNeedle- nose pliers
27Hand drill ($100-$500)The hand drill is used to drill holes into different material.Made in various sizes and vary in power from light to heavy and in speeds from slow to fast.
28Belt sander ($50-$200)Used to sand down wood and other material for finishing purposes.
29Grinder ($30-$150)Used for cutting, grinding, and polishingUsed for removal of excess material from a job or cutting into.
30Portable Circular Saw ($200- $400) Can be used for crosscutting, ripping, mitering, beveling, chamfering, rabbeting, cove cutting, tapering, shaping, and molding cutting.Used in situations where the work cannot be moved to the shop or in a shop where table saws are not available.Circular saws come in a variety of blade sizes ranging from 6 1/4” to 8 ½”.
31Jig Saw ($30-$200)A tool used for cutting arbitrary curves into wood, metal, or other material.Used for artistic fashion than other saws.
32Chop Saw ($200- $900)Used to cut hard materials, such as metalsTypically 14 inch in diameter and 7/64 inch thick.
33Drill Press ($40-$400)Is a fixed drill that may be mounted on a stand or bolted to the floor.Can be used for drilling holes, sanding, honing, and polishing
34Table Saw ($200-$700)Woodworking tool consisting of a circular saw blade.The higher the blade protrudes above the table the deeper the cut that is made into the wood.
35Radial Arm Saw ($200- $600)Cutting machine consisting of a circular saw mounted on a sliding horizontal armUsed for making length cuts and can be configured with a dado blade to create cuts for dado, rabbet, and half lap joints
36Compound Miter ($200-$600)Has a rotating vertical pivot allowing the cutter head and blade to be tilted sideways in addition to the horizontal rotation table.It allows vertical and horizontal angled cuts as well as cuts angled in both planes.
37Band Saw ($120- $500)Blade consists of continuous band of metal with teeth along one edge to cut various workspaces.Used for woodworking, metalworking, or for cutting variety of other materials.Useful for cutting irregular or curved shapes but also cut straight cuts as well.
38Oxy- Acetylene ($200- $5000)Used for both welding and cutting metal.Has two cylinders- Oxygen and Acetylene
39MIG Welder ($200- $5000)1. The wire acts as an electrode and is also the source of the filler metal 2. Combines an inert gas shielding with a continuously fed consumable wire electrode. 3. Fast, portable, vertical process
40Arc Welder ($200- $5000) Used to join pieces of metal together The arc is formed between the actual work and an electrode (stick or wire) that is manually or mechanically guided along the joint.
41Plasma Cutter ($1000)1.Used to cut steel and other metals of different thickness. 2. Uses a plasma torch 3. An inert gas is blown at high speed out of a nozzle; an electrical arc is formed through the gas from the nozzle to the surface being cut turning some of the gas to plasma.