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1 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I ECE 495 - INTEGRATED SYSTEMS I Engineering Project Planning Timothy Burg.

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Presentation on theme: "1 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I ECE 495 - INTEGRATED SYSTEMS I Engineering Project Planning Timothy Burg."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I ECE INTEGRATED SYSTEMS I Engineering Project Planning Timothy Burg

2 2 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Career Note – The Five Things Job Recruiters Want From You Now Recruiters are looking for people with strong records of accomplishment who stand out from others – Expertise - What special skills do you have? – Success stories - Explain the value you've provided in the past and can offer in the future. – Recommendations – Colleagues that can explain your concrete contributions and value to specific projects – Work samples - Examples of what you've done are far more effective than just talking about what you've done, e.g., websites or pictures. – A consistent message. Your résumé, cover letter, website, LinkedIn profile and interview remarks should all promote a consistent message – From BMW : Good Grades with practical experience (“grease under your finger nails”), Coop experience What can you do to strengthen your resume?

3 3 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Career Note – The Five Things Job Recruiters Want From You Now A few suggestions – (taking the recommended classes is the minimum you can do to get your degree) – Join a research project (Faculty Research, Creative Inquiry, Robotics Team, ME Battle Bot Team, etc.) Success stories, Recommendations, Work Samples – Take extra classes Expertise, Success stories (if the course has a large project) – Do well in ECE495, make a good website Expertise, Success stories, Recommendations – Do well in your remaining courses Show a positive slope in your grades, you are on an increasing trajectory – Summer Research Project (REU) Success stories, flexibility No magic solutions, make a plan to improve your resume.

4 4 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Career Note – The Five Things Job Recruiters Want From You Now Get to know a faulty member.

5 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Note about Personality Profiles HW Computer Programmer Electrical Engineer Lawyer Artist Social Worker Spring 2013

6 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Note about Personality Profiles HW Extraversion48iNtuition51Thinking64Judging83 Introversion52Sensing49Feeling36Perceiving17 Your group probably has a similar distribution, work to incorporate everyone’s talents

7 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Design Example: Airbus A350 A six-month delay in the launch of Airbus’s A350XWB jet cost parent company EADS (European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company) NV $273-million in the third quarter of Scheduling is a critical part of any design project.

8 8 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Generic Design Process All activities in the design process should be planned. Identify Need Research Requirements Concepts Design Prototype Testing Retire Maintain Use by Customer(s) Distribute and Sell Manufacture

9 9 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Engineering Project Management If you fail to plan, then you plan to fail. Industrial Scheduling Tools – Work Breakdown Schedule (WBS) – GANTT Chart Illustration of the WBS through a visual display of project task durations – Network Diagram Illustration of the WBS through a visual display of a task dependencies

10 10 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Work Breakdown Schedule (WBS) Activity = Task + Deliverable – Tasks are actions that accomplish a job – Deliverables are the outcome of the task WBS describes – Work to be done – Time frame for completion – Resources needed – Responsible person – Predecessors or dependencies – Checkpoints For planning, you need to know: What has to be done? Who will do it? When will they finish? Design a timing circuit

11 11 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example: Design a Robotic Arm for an Underwater Vehicle High-level view of “Work to be done”

12 12 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example: Design a Robotic Arm for an Underwater Vehicle More Details of “Work to be done” Define Deliverables Deliverable

13 13 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example: Design a Robotic Arm for an Underwater Vehicle Time frame for completion Resources needed Predecessors or dependencies Constraints limiting when an activity can begin (weather, resources,..) Can’t start some activities until others finish Must complete WBS for the entire project

14 14 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Work Breakdown Schedule (WBS) Estimating time and resources is a difficult task Routine tasks are well known and quantified – Solder 16 wire cable to a connector – Replace fan motor New tasks are more difficult to estimate. How long does it take to perform the following tasks? – Design a small user interface with 3 data fields and 4 buttons? – Write a 10 line C++ function? – Purchase a socket wrench

15 15 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Work Breakdown Schedule (WBS) US Navy developed probability model to estimate the duration of a task: t a = most optimistic t m = most realistic t b =most pessimistic How long did it take your group to install Simulink and C++ and then perform the first analog loopback?

16 16 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Work Breakdown Schedule (WBS) The WBS alone is not very “user friendly” It would be difficult to manage a team working on a complex project based on this table alone.

17 17 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Gantt Chart Graphically represents the Work Breakdown Schedule and the Timeline Bars show length of task Connections show dependencies between tasks. Software: VISIO, MS Project, OpenGantt

18 18 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example: Design a Robotic Arm for an Underwater Vehicle Start of activity Dependency: can’t start this task until three others finish Tasks and milestones from WBS Insight”: any change in 3 rd task affects the 4 th task Time (hours, days, years) Length of activity Insight: Could delay the start of the 1 st task or take longer without affecting the 4 th task

19 19 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Network Diagram Graphically represents the Work Breakdown Schedule A directed graph representation of activities and dependencies Task ID Duration Task Flow

20 20 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Network Diagram Critical path : – The series of tasks that must be completed on schedule for a project to finish on schedule. – Minimum time to complete the schedule – Any delay in the critical path will delay the project. 14 days 15 days

21 21 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Network Diagram Example Critical path (d=day) 20d 8d 15d 16d 19d 1.1 3d d 2.3 1d 3.1 3d 3.2 4d 3.3 5d 3.4 6d d 2.1 6d 15d Insight: Need to carefully manage the red path because it will directly delay the project

22 22 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example: Design a Robotic Arm for an Underwater Vehicle Red boxes and lines indicate the Critical Path to Identify Need The surveys and Market Analysis could take longer without extending the projects.

23 23 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Example: Design a Robotic Arm for an Underwater Vehicle “Slack” or “Float” is the maximum delay in activity before it affects the critical path.

24 24 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Summary Time Management Tools – Work Breakdown Schedule – Gantt Chart – Network Diagram Project management is another important element of the design process. These are very similar and most software let you switch between views

25 25 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Project 6 WBS

26 26 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Project 6 WBS

27 27 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Project 6 WBS

28 28 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Project 6 Gantt Chart

29 29 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I ECE495 Webpage All equipment manuals Project details Individual Assignments

30 30 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Project 1 – Laser Cut Part Laser Cutter Process – Download Template – Draw interesting pattern in 4” square – Submit to Ran by Friday – Meet TA in 403 Rhodes to use cutter

31 31 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Project 1 Configure hardware Test analog loopback Test other loopbacks Test incremental (Q4 only counts increments from the point it is switched “on”) quadrature encoder input Report due on next Friday

32 32 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I HIL in the loop Model of a DC Motor Control Algorithm Simulink Program Target Computer Analog Out Encoder In DC Motor AmplifierQ4 Simulation HIL Simulation

33 33 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Real-time Control

34 34 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) System Can’t model all of the subsystems to build a complete simulation Physical Computer simulation of a system containing connected subsystem models Input Signals A complex physical subsystem that can’t be effectively modeled Convert A/D, Buffer Convert D/A, Buffer Input Signals Simulated HIL Simulation is a hybrid simulation that incorporates real components

35 35 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) System Example To determine which ABS module would be best without actually building a car and testing each different module, simulate the car’s dynamics, test different controllers, and analyze simulated response of the car to real ABS braking signals. HIL Card Braking Signals Computer simulation of a car including vehicle dynamics, tire models, driver models, etc. Anti-Lock Brake Module Car State Signals (speed, driver command) A complex physical system that can’t be effectively modeled Need hardware and software

36 36 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Open-loop Control System Open-loop control: Input designed to move the system to a desired state based on current conditions and model of the system. Example: Fill a water tank to a specified level based on flow-rate and time. If some of the water evaporates during filling then the level will be wrong If flow rate is not exactly as expected then the level will be wrong. Inaccurate time will lead to the wrong level Desired level Actual level No correction for errors

37 37 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Closed-Loop Control System Closed-loop control: Input changes as the error, difference between the desired output and the measured output, changes. Example – fill a tank to a specified level based on measuring the tank level and turning flow “on” or “off” to reach the desired level. Anything that prevents the tank from being filled to the desired level will be compensated. Desired level = Actual level System Output Feedback Desired level + _ Input Error = Desired Level – Measured Measurement

38 38 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Real-time (RT) System Computer-based execution of a program loop: Instructions or algorithm System Speed and predictability of execution times distinguish RT and non- RT systems Real-time system: the correctness of the system behavior depends not only on the logical results of the computations, but also on the physical instant at which these results are produced. input output τ, response time

39 39 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation Amplifier Motor If you were using closed-loop control on the position of the motor, you would want the motor to stop at a certain shaft angle. HIL Card Motor Position (encoder) Control Algorithm (like you are learning in ECE409) Voltage Physical Simulated

40 40 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 System Output Feedback + _ Input Target PC xPC OS from Mathworks Q4 HIL Board Simulation A/D,D/A, Buffer

41 41 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 System Output Feedback + _ Input Target PC xPC OS from Mathworks Q4 HIL Board Host MATLAB with Simulink C++ Programming Interface to Target PC User Interface Execute High-level Programs

42 42 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 MATLAB/SIMULINK have a toolbox called xPC Target

43 43 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 Design a Simulink model on the host PC Program is downloaded to target for real-time execution Boot CD installs a real- time kernel on target Build the Simulink model Host and target coordinate for downloading programs Some parameters can be changed on host. This change is communicated to target. Host Computer Target Computer Workflow

44 44 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 4 x 14 bit Analog Inputs 4 x 12 bit D/A Outputs 4 Quadrature Encoder Inputs 16 Programmable Digital IO Channels 2 x 32 bit dedicated Counter/ Timers 2 External Interrupt sources 32 bit, 33MHz PCI Bus Interface Quanser Q4 card in the Target PC Terminal board

45 45 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Implementing Closed-Loop Control as a RT, HIL Simulation in ECE495 Analog Out (D/A) Channels Ext Interrupt and Signal Pins (PWM,Watchdog) Analog In (A/D) Channels Encoder Channels Digital I/O Ports From Q4 board Q4 Terminal Board

46 46 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Why MATLAB/SIMULINK over C++? MATLAB is a huge collection of C/C++ libraries for system prototyping and hardware interfacing. No need to reinvent the wheel! Would you rather spend weeks writing device drivers and libraries for the Q4 than test your system in a few hours? Prototyping ideas is easy and fast. Visualization of data is easy.

47 47 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Final Note - Response to comment EEs believe these are "computer" projects. This could not be much further from the truth; we use high-level tools like Simulink so that it does NOT become a computer project. There is a local culture that EEs don't program. In almost every industrial, military, financial, civil, medical, political … endeavor, the automated gathering, processing, and use of data have created significant breakthroughs. For example, the conservative field of power generation and distribution has become a "computer" problem in the sense that "A smart grid is an electrical grid that uses information and communications technology to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity. [Wikipedia]“ My hope is that you appreciate that automation tools (like the image processing functions in MATLAB) can enable you to apply your expertise in power systems, communications, robotics, electronics, electromagnetics, etc. to create new solutions.

48 48 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Extra Slides

49 49 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Real-time Closed-loop Control Typical response times and the applications which need them … Seconds : Temperature, pressure, and flow control; aircraft control Milliseconds (control with < 1 kHz): Productions lines, motor control, robot control Microseconds : High speed test stands, fast digital controllers, control with 5 kHz – 500 kHz

50 50 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I How is a Real-time System formulated? More generally, to Relate Theory to Application Continuous Process Digital System Model of Continuous Process 1. Want to measure or control this process 2. Use engineering tools to model the process using continuous or fixed sample time discrete models (For example ECE409, ECE 467) 3. Formulate interaction algorithms based on the models (For example ECE409, ECE 467) 4. Execute algorithms (assume a continuous system can be approximated by a “fast” digital system) Design Error if execution timing doesn’t match assumptions in model and algorithms - results are not predictable.

51 51 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Classification of Real-time Systems Real-time System SoftHard Dynamic Static System must remain synchronous with the state of the environment. Degraded operation in a rarely occurring peak load can be tolerated. Timing parameters for the system are set during compilation. Timing parameters and the priority for tasks is modified at run-time.

52 52 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Hard Real-time System Soft Real-time System Example: Produce a sinusoid output D/A Error in output waveform Error in execution time Classification of Real-time Systems

53 53 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Examples of Real-time Systems QUARC from Quanser Soft Real-time System using PC with Windows QUARC from Quanser Hard Real-time System using QNX

54 54 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Which system would you use in ECE 495? Real-time System SoftHard Dynamic Static Systems Non-Real-time System Speed and predictability are both critical Response to input has to come at a precise time System timing parameters are known before execution In ECE 495, we use a Static, Hard Real-Time System

55 55 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I A final thought … The Q4 cards being used for data acquisition and control are very useful… and very expensive. Read the manuals for voltage limitations and proper use.

56 56 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I The utility of MATLAB Simulink MATLAB/Simulink are used to prototype, simulate and visualize performance of systems. Math model of system MATLAB Simulink Model Visualization: Plots, Scopes, etc.

57 57 ECE 495 – Integrated System Design I Using C/C++ Code in MATLAB MATLAB allows the use of user defined C/C++ executables (MEX files) to augment functionality. Computationally expensive tasks can be carried out using C and data can be sent to MATLAB. E.g. Camera interfacing for image processing. Specific manipulation of data can be programmed into a user defined function (called the S-function) in Simulink. S- functions are C-code snippets embedded in the Simulink environment.


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