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L/O/G/O Women and the Technologies of Agriculture and Horticulture.

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Presentation on theme: "L/O/G/O Women and the Technologies of Agriculture and Horticulture."— Presentation transcript:

1 L/O/G/O Women and the Technologies of Agriculture and Horticulture

2 Team Super Women Shari Wright Joyce Suk Yin Chan Sarah Gutierrez Kelley Gee Elvia Castro

3 What is food? By formal definition, food is any substance that can be metabolized by an animal to give energy and build tissue. Food (which includes many types of drinks) is made up of nutrients.

4 What is Food? Cont. In other words food is fuel! Yet food has taken on many other informal definitions in our society. Food for some is nutrition but it also provides emotional support, gratitude, and or a social climate amongst many other things.

5 What is Food? Cont.

6 What is Food?

7 What is Food Processing? Milling Blanching Fermentation Storage Cooking Frying Freezing Boiling Detoxing Preserving Increasing Consistencies Examples…

8 Why Process Food? Make food safe To provide products of the highest quality To make foods into forms that are convenient

9 Cooking History Prehistoric agePossibly tasted the flesh of an animal killed in a forest fire 9000 B.C.Plant cultivation began in the Fertile Crescent region of the Middle East 4000 B.CEgyptians use yeast as a leavening agent in bread 3000 B.C. -- 1000 B.C Farmers of Mesopotamia were growing crops and possibly breeding ducks. Chinese discover medicinal properties of herbs. Start of an agriculture revolution; food development was active in the Roman Empire 1621First thanksgiving after a devastating winter. Pilgrims grew crops from Indian seeds 1742“The Complete Housewife” is the first American cookbook published by Eliza Smith.

10 Processes and Inventors Food ProcessTechnologyInventors PasteurizationPasteurizer Louis Pasteur MillingFood Mill Extraction Removal of ToxinsWater Purifier Food Irradiation Taylor V. Luaghtner Based on Louis Pasteur CookingToll House Cookies FreezingFrozen Pizza Vacuumed-Packed /Canning Paper-bag maker

11 Inventions Food Mill –designed to grind, mash, or puree foods –Usually comes with a selection of discs varying sizes Extraction –The process of taking out ingredients to have a better or edible product. Dishwasher (1886) –First working one created by Josephine Cochran –Wasn’t popular at first. Toll House Cookies (1930) –Accidentally invented by Ruth Wakefield –Semi-sweet Nestle chocolate pieces fell into her cookie dough

12 Inventions Frozen Pizza –Created by Rose Totino –Inventor of the first pizza dough suitable for freezing and subsequent baking. Kellogg’s Corn Flakes (1906) –Accidentally invented by John Harvey and Will Keith Kellogg Didn’t want to waste wheat so they made thin dough and toasted it. Result were flakes. They were a big hit. Kellogg founded the Kellogg’s company without Harvey. Coffee –Goat farmer noticed his goats acting energetically after eating bright red berries (coffee beans). –Verified mood shift by also eating the berries. Beer –At some point in time, somehow a piece of bread or grain was wet and then left to ferment. –a drink that is recorded as having made people feel "exhilarated, wonderful and blissful!

13 Inventors Sybilla Masters Cleansing, curing, and refining Indian corn and invented straw weaving for hats. The world’s first recognized inventor Madeline M. Turner (1916) Turner’s fruit express Invented the world’s first juicer.

14 Inventors Louis Pasteur –Developed Pasteurization Process 1. Public health aspect 2. Keeping quality aspect Rose Totino –Frozen Pizza Ruth Wakefield –Toll House Cookies

15 Inventors Margret Knight –Received over 20 patents and conceived almost 100 different inventions like rotary engine, shoe-cutting machine and a dress and skirt shield –Paper bag maker –Almost had her idea stolen by Charles Annan

16 Forms of Food Processing

17 Removal of Toxins Irradiation Cooking food destroys: –Bacteria/Parasites –Micro-Organisms –Poisons

18 Forms of Food Processing Cont.


20 Fermentation in Action: Processing Beer

21 Forms of Food Processing Cont.

22 Example: Laura Scudder of Monterey Park, California, made and sold potato chips. She is also credited as being a pioneer of the “snack” industry. She is responsible for the innovation that is so widely and conveniently enjoyed…the potato chip bag!

23 Forms of Food Processing Cont.


25 Baker putting bread into an oven with a peel, 1568

26 Forms of Food Processing Cont.

27 Accidental Discoveries! Ice Cream Cones Rhubarb Oyster Sauce Worcestershire Sauce Brandy Tofu Chocolate Iceberg Lettuce Chocolate chip cookies Cheese Raisins Saccharin Sourdough Popsicles Potato Chips Wheaties Sandwiches

28 Food Politics By formal definition, Food Politics are the political aspects of the production, control, regulation, inspection and distribution of food. Basically what and who influences what, how, how often and even where we eat!

29 Examples if Food Politics Food Politics are affected by culture, ethics, environment, science and technology. Ever wonder why there are hardly any grocery stores in economically depressed neighborhoods but yet there is a fast food restaurant on every corner?

30 Food Politics: Culture Traditionally cooking has been innovation by women. However this culture changed over time as the cultivation and preparation of food. Grew from a domestic task to a large scale operation. It became less of a preparation of meals and more of a management of workers, equipment, wealth and power. Men began to take over the politics of food because traditionally only men had power and women did not have power

31 Culture Examples Jean Slutsky Nidetch invented Weight Watchers Why are the majority of meals that are served in the home prepared by women but yet the majority of professional chefs are men?

32 Food Politics: Ethics Unfair patent practice against women inventors in 19 th century. Women were not allowed to hold patents, and in order to patent something, had to proxy it though a male. Example: Eldress Emeline Hart invented a revolving oven. However, this oven was patented by a man named Shakers

33 Food Ethics Developing and managing techniques involved with animal husbandry raises many questions. Is it alright to feed animals by-products of foods? Tagging, tracking, transporting, trading, and processing; Is it “humane” to treat animals in such a way?

34 Ethics Examples Who dictates what the “healthy choices” that schools serve for lunch will be?

35 Food Politics: Environment Environmental changes over times also affect production, safety and distribution of food. Example: Lady Ann Vavasour, inventor of Woodcroft, says that she came up the idea of making Woodcroft by the observation Italian vineyard workers breaking up the soil around the vines with their long, bent forks.

36 Food Politics: Science Example: Barbara J. Bruce and Thomas H. Freaser devised a bovine growth hormone that can increases milk production. Example: Mary-Dell Chilton developed the first method for introducing foreign genes into plant cells and reliably producing normal fertile plants.

37 Technology Through technology, women invented different products to enhance production food. Example: Rebecca Johnson made her hens an incubator, a warm house, where she kept them all day in to cold winter in order to increase chicken production and baby chicks.

38 Women invented 14 types of Stock- raising equipment in the 20 th century: Technology

39 Women also patented 35 items of “Dairy supplies and equipment” of 20 types in the 20 th century

40 L/O/G/O

41 Quiz Time! 1.Soil is usually a contaminant in foods except for the two cultures that deliberately use it in food preparation. Name the two cultures. 2.What was Laura Scudder known for? 3.Name 3 foods that were created on accident. 4.Name 2 reasons to process food. 5.Women invented how many types of Stock- raising equipment in the 20 th century?

42 Congratulate Yourself! …Because we’re finished! No more questions, we Promise!

43 Thanks for Watching!

44 Bibliography

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