Presentation on theme: "Arctic Operations Tribal & Cultural Engagement"— Presentation transcript:
1 Arctic Operations Tribal & Cultural Engagement 4/12/2017Arctic Operations Tribal & Cultural EngagementThe purpose of this presentation is to provide information on National and CG drivers for Arctic engagement, as well as history of CG involvement in Arctic and with Alaska Natives, to personnel, air crews, and CG cutters operating in the Alaska Arctic.This training covers a short explanation of the laws leading up to mandates for Government-to-Government Consultation with Alaska Native Tribes, as well as issues of concern to Tribes and Alaska Natives, and potential impacts of CG operations.This presentation also covers cross-cultural values and characteristics and differences in world perception/functional outlook, and particular community characteristics in specific communities.The intention is to give easy-to-understand overview and practical information for all units and personnel operating in the Arctic in support of Arctic Shield.Sudie HargisD17 Tribal LiaisonVersion AS-13 v-38/1/13
2 CG Arctic Mission Why do we conduct missions in the arctic? 4/12/2017CG Arctic MissionWhy do we conduct missions in the arctic?Related MissionsEnvironmental ProtectionMaritime CommerceSearch & RescueLaw EnforcementNational SecurityResearch/National Policy IssuesExpansion of All MissionsEngagement & OutreachWhat do they mean?A Short Historical Perspective…Why are we conducting missions in the Arctic?In 2013, we plan to focus missions in the Bering Strait region.Mission Drivers:National Drivers – changing environment and thawing of ice means traditional CG missions extend further northward.CG Drivers – All key CG missions are increasingly relevant in arctic.We do community outreach missions to “bring something to the table” and build relationships, show our sincerity in engaging in this region, as well as test our units and equipment (such as CG small boats), and learn about the environment and culture we are extending operations into. This is a unique environment and culture, and very different from our traditional operating areas in the lower 48 and even other parts of Alaska.Outreach: To reach out into the communities we are working with.Engagement: To actively give and take to learn issues and concerns – LISTENING is a key component of engagement, particularly with Alaska Native Tribes and local governments and organizations.
3 Major Alaska Native Ethnic Groups 4/12/2017Major Alaska Native Ethnic GroupsEleven Distinct CulturesInupiaq/St Lawrence YupikYup’ik/Cup’ikUnangax (Aleut)/AlutiiqAthabascanEyak/Tlingit/Haida/TsimshianOver 22 Indigenous DialectsDifferences in Continental/Ethnic OriginsDifferences in Regions/Subsistence Methods229 Federally Recognized Tribes (1934 Indian Reorganization Act)Note the map of the historical range of Alaska Native Cultures. More than 20 distinct indigenous languages are spoken in Alaska, with five major distinct Alaska Native ethnic groups, each with very different environmental and cultural characteristics.There are 229 Federally Recognized Tribes in Alaska each of whom the CG has a responsibility to engage with and formally consult with regarding CG operations and potential impacts.More specifics on this issue is provided later in the training.
4 4/12/2017The Coast Guard Mission in Alaska: A Legacy and Part of Alaskan HistoryCorwin and BearIce Rescue:: Overland Relief Expedition -- Eight whaling ships caught in arctic ice: 382 reindeer with sled dogs miles through blizzards to Pt. Barrow (3½ months)The CG has been in Alaska since the 1800’s, so Arctic engagement is not a new mission, although it may seem like one.We started with the Revenue Cutter Service and law enforcement in the new “wild” territory.Engagement included humanitarian aid with distribution of reindeer in 1892 during famine period to help supply a stable food supply.The Overland Relief Expeditions to help rescue survivors from 8 whaling ships caught in ice.Also Fur Seal treaty enforcement in the Pribilof Islands.Note that all of our efforts impacted the local residents, including impacts to local power structures and politics due to re-distribution of reindeer stock.All-in-all, the CG mission is a part of Alaska history, and has brought both positive and negative impacts, including saving lives, helping communities, and our more difficult history, which includes as an example the bombing of the community of Angoon by the US Navy over 100 years ago, but was done from a CG Cutter.Humanitarian Aid:Reindeer imported from Siberia to Alaska 1892 (Capt Mike Healy): Herds grew to 500K by stable food supply **Impact of seal & whale huntingFederal Presence in Alaska:Revenue Cutter Service was “Judge, Doctor, Policeman”Note our history/reputation is mixed!
5 Alaska Territorial Guard “Eskimo Scouts” 4/12/2017Alaska Territorial Guard “Eskimo Scouts”Organized WWII in response to Hawaii/JapanComponent of US ArmyMissions:Detected Japanese IncursionsPlaced & Maintained Survival CachesSafeguarded PlatinumSecured Lend-Lease US/USSR air routeUS sent over $11 Billion in supplies to RussiaSupplies by air, boat, dog team107 Communities/20,000 Personnel (Ages 12-80)Aleut, Athabascan, Inupiaq, Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian, & YupikKey to integration of US militaryRecognized in 2000 as U.S. Military VeteransAlaska Natives are proud veterans!Additionally, the Alaska Territorial Guard (ATG), “Eskimo Scouts,” or “Muktuk Marsten’s Army” are proud veterans, and were officially recognized as US Military veterans in 2000.Alaska Natives came from every ethnic group and included more than 20,000 men and women, and served in key roles in WWII.Note that Alaska Natives have the highest percentage rate of service of any ethnic group.Note MANY Alaska Native elders are military veterans and very proud of it. Many younger Alaska Natives have served in Iraq, the Gulf War, and other recent conflicts, and have a very high rate of service in the Alaska National Guard.
6 4/12/2017Alaska “The Great Land” Resource Extraction = Driver for CG/Federal PresenceAlaska Purchase: 1867U.S. Laws not extended to Alaska purchase.American Indian Law not applied to Alaska NativesAlaska: Military DistrictGold Discovery: 1880Alaska Seafood: 1885$$$ Trillions in minerals, oil, and gas2011: Alaska = 209 Million barrels (10% of total U.S.)USRC Rush, Sitka, AKAlaska has rich resources, which are a focus for “extraction”:In Alaska since the 1800’s, there has been a western/outsider focus on obtaining Alaska’s rich resources, starting with whaling, the fur trade, fisheries, gold, other precious minerals, and petroleum products.Resource extraction is a key driver in CG missions in the arctic, including protecting the environment and the public as well as the national interest in commerce and access to these vital resources.There are currently over 3 Trillion $$ in estimated resources in Alaska, including oil, platinum, zinc, and now off-shore oil.
7 Federal Indian Policy/Philosophy 4/12/2017Federal Indian Policy/PhilosophyTreaty Making Era>20 Treaties = Recognition of SovereigntyThe Removal EraThe Reservation EraAllotments – AssimilationU.S. CitizenshipIndian Reorganization Act 1934The Termination EraThe Self-Determination Era 1968-PresentMandate for Federal G-2-G 2000-Present“Domestic Dependent Nations”Federal Indian policy/philosophy has developed and changed over time:Starting with making treaties with Indian governments we encounteredDisplaced tribes and Indians, and attempted to assimilate them into US cultureRecognized Indians/Alaska Natives as US citizens (1924)Recognized distinct tribes as Federally Recognized Tribes in 1934 (550 Tribes – 229 in Alaska)Reversed back to a philosophy of attempting to eliminate native rights/sovereigntyMoved into the current era of Self-Determination era recognizing Tribal sovereigntyExecutive Orders from each president starting in 2000 mandating and re-affirming Government-to-Government Consultation with tribes. The CG must abide by this and following directives.This is just an overview to understand how Indian policy/philosophy has changed in the U.S. over time.
8 Key Alaska Native Legislation 4/12/2017Key Alaska Native Legislation1906: Alaska Native Allotment ActAuthorizes Land Parcels for Alaska Natives up to 160 acres/person1924: American CitizenshipAmerican Indians and Alaska Natives1934: Indian Reorganization Act (IRA)Recognizes aboriginal land rights for American Indians and Alaska Natives.Establishes Federally recognized tribes1935: Jurisdictional ActAllows Indians and Alaska Natives to file court claims for aboriginal land.Tlingit & Haida Tribes claimed all of Southeast AlaskaOrganic Act (1884) – Constitution and federal laws extended to Alaska Territory – but not to Alaska Natives. Unlike Indians in lower 48, there was no concept of aboriginal title for Alaska Natives – only lands within their possession or use.Alaska Native Allotment Act (1906) had consequences/impacts to Alaska Native culture:Society was Matriarchal not Patriarchal – the Act reversed traditional roles, as land was given to males onlyImpact to Men’s role as hunters and warriors – transition from more nomadic/seasonal movements to property/land “anchors.”Impact to Women’s role as land caretakers and value to tribal society (now land “belonged” to the men)Impacts resulted in fractures in Tribal societyCreated a mechanism that forced American Indians into assimilation into western cultural patterns and away from subsistence-based culture.In 1926, Secretary of Interior commissioned a study of the Act and found widespread fraud by Indian Agents, they were using the act to buy up parcels from Indians and to deprive Indians of their land rights. This led, in large part, to the Indian Reorganization Act (1934).The Jurisdictional Act (1935) enabled American Indians and Alaska Natives to file court claims for their aboriginal lands.Tlingit and Haida Natives/Tribes claimed all of Southeast Alaska, creating a significant legal issue, particularly with western non-native population/communities and non-native fisheries, gold, and other commercial operations.This obviously created tension and complexity for both Native and non-Native desire to control lands and use their resources.
9 Alaska 1959-70 Supreme Court Upholds 1935 Tlingit Land Claim 4/12/2017AlaskaSupreme Court Upholds 1935 Tlingit Land ClaimState Public land selectionsSome on Native landsResult: Court-ordered Land FreezeBlack Gold! 1969All Create Strong Need for Resolution of IssuePrevious legislation developments and land claims created a situation by the 1950’s where:Alaska Natives were authorized to claim their landThey did in fact claim itState and individuals (non-native) wanted access to land and resourcesThis was a strong driver to find a resolution to the issue
10 Resolution: Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) 1971 4/12/2017Resolution: Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA)44 Million Acres/$963 Million SettlementDriven by Alaska Federation of NativesExtinguishes Native Land and Subsistence Claims(except Metlakatla, 1888)13 Regional Corporations12 Regional Non-Profit Associations for social services200+ Village CorporationsAlaska Native Claims Settlement Act in 1971 (ANCSA) dealt with finding resolution to issue. It was far from perfect and still a controversial issue, but provided a compromise to settle control and use of rich Alaska land resources.13 Regional corporations were formed by the act to provide money-making mechanism for tribes within Alaska regions, along with approximately 200 Village Corporations. 12 Regional Native Associations were also created to address social services (non-profit).This act extinguished Alaska Native land and subsistence claims, except for the Metlakatla Tribe, which chose to create a reservation on Annette Island.This created a mechanism that “settled” the land claims issue and opened land resources up for both natives and non-natives, but forced Alaska Native tribes into a western business model structure.Early days of Native Regional Corporations were fraught with challenges and financial difficulties, including “assistance” from individuals who sought to take advantage of money that could be made from native land resources.Although perhaps “better” than Indian policy forcing tribes to reservations in the lower 48 in the 1800’s, ANCSA has been seen as a less than perfect compromise, and has had significant impacts to Alaska Natives (including both positive and negative aspects).
11 4/12/2017Native Governance & Consultation: Tribal Consultation is a Mandate -- Executive Order (2000)Recognize Tribal SovereigntyMandate for federal agency consultation on matters that may impactTribal rights, resources, or interests229 Federally Recognized Tribes in AlaskaPresident/Chief Have Official Government StatusD17 Engagement/ConsultationStarting in 2000 and re-affirmed by every US President, there is a federal mandate (Executive Order 13175) to consult with American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes on a Government-to-Government basis on any issue that may affect Tribal rights, resources, or interests. These include financial, subsistence (both plant and animal), social, cultural, or other potential impacts.President/Chiefs of Federally Recognized Tribes have official government status as Heads of State for their Tribal nation, and report directly to the US Congress. Congress and each US President have the responsibility to ensure that Tribal interests are addressed, and that Tribes are consulted appropriately.As a federal agency, the CG must consult with Tribes on operations or activities that have potential for impacts.Note that formal consultation must be done by the Commandant of the CG or District Commander.An approach of active engagement (briefings, updates, meetings) with Tribes often makes formal consultation unnecessary, but may not replace formal consultation if requested by Tribes.Note that in June 2012, Senator Murkowski (Alaska) wrote a strong letter to President Obama, urging him to ensure federal agencies improve compliance with tribal consultation mandates, and identifying specific issues and shortcomings in agency compliance, including meaningful consultation PRIOR to federal actions, improved listening, and 2-way dialogue.Also note that Tribes have authority to use the US Justice/Court system to request injunctions or other actions against agencies who have not consulted appropriately regarding agency operations or activities.
12 Consultation and Tribal Impacts : What Might Be Triggers? 4/12/2017Air OpsVessel OpsShore/Cleanup OpsWildlife DisturbanceSacred SitesRestaurants & DrivingVillage PresencePhone ConversationsVirtually all of our CG operations have the potential to impact tribes, thus mandating consultation opportunities for them and for us to identify and consider their concerns.A big issue for Tribes is our potential to impact wildlife and subsistence hunting and gathering – their grocery store! In particular, they have asked the CG to do our very best not to disrupt or disturb wildlife, or to operate in areas of known wildlife (this changes their behaviors).In addition to official CG operations, off-duty time in Alaska villages/towns puts every service member under public scrutiny. They know who we are, and have an extensive and effective communications network (including directly to Congress). This reinforces the need to be professional and respectful at all times.This will help ensure we maintain and strengthen the good reputation that has taken years to form, but can be broken in a mindless moment.
13 at Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission Meeting in Pt Hope U.S. Coast Guard Consultation and Engagement With Tribes and Alaska Native OrganizationsIn Support of CG Missions StatewideOngoing Meetings/briefings:TribesAlaska Native OrganizationsLocal GovernmentsListen/Engage/RespondCross-Cultural training for all CG personnel deployed to ArcticDeveloping Training for all CG personnel in AlaskaContinuing to focus on tribal engagement & collaboration statewideWorking to identify gaps in connections with tribesRear Admiral Ostebo(CGD17 Commander) &Vice Admiral Zukunft(Pacific Area Commander)at Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission Meeting in Pt Hope
14 D17 Tribal Engagement & Consultation 4/12/2017Actively EngageVisit Tribal Council office when CG Ops/TAD to a villageCG OperationsVessel/Facility InspectionsSpill Response & PlanningAids to NavigationAuxiliary OpsNotify D17 Tribal Liaison of Tribal interactions/OpsumPOC Info/DateConcerns/IssuesVirtually all of our CG operations have the potential to impact tribes, thus mandating consultation opportunities for them and for us to identify and consider their concerns.A big issue for Tribes is our potential to impact wildlife and subsistence hunting and gathering – their grocery store! In particular, they have asked the CG to do our very best not to disrupt or disturb wildlife, or to operate in areas of known wildlife (this changes their behaviors).In addition to official CG operations, off-duty time in Alaska villages/towns puts every service member under public scrutiny. They know who we are, and have an extensive and effective communications network (including directly to Congress). This reinforces the need to be professional and respectful at all times.This will help ensure we maintain and strengthen the good reputation that has taken years to form, but can be broken in a mindless moment.
15 Complexity of Consultation/Engagement Example: Point Hope, Alaska 4/12/2017Native Village of Point Hope (IRA Tribe)Governs; does not hold landInupiat Community of Arctic Slope (ICAS) (IRA Tribe)Tikigaq Corporation (ANCSA Village Corp)Holds surface land rightsArctic Slope Reg. Corp. (ANCSA Regional Corp)Holds subsurface land rights (gravel, oil, gold, coal)North Slope Borough (State/Municipal: Barrow)Provides services to Point Hope residentsCity of Point Hope (2nd class city/state chartered)Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission: 1977 (10 Villages)Alaska Walrus Commission: 1978 (19 Villages: Nome)There can be as many as 8 or more separate entities represented in one village or area where we are operating. We need to consider, meet with, and consult and/or engage with all of these regarding our potential impacts on them.Each Tribe has the right to request consultation (and federal agency has responsibility to offer it), which does not have to be done in combination with any other tribe or organization.The Head of each federal agency holds the responsibility for consultation. Although tribes are understanding of the difficulty of this issue and are often willing to work with consultation and discussions with less senior officials (such as a District Commander), official consultation is at the agency head level. Each agency is also now mandated to report to Congress on consultation activities.Consultation does not mean that the agency has to follow the Tribe’s desires, but the intent is to encourage a collaborative and respectful relationship, which includes agencies taking tribal interests and concerns into consideration in planning and conducting operations.
16 (Significant CG focus area in 2013) Arctic Operations(Significant CG focus area in 2013)Ops Summary:Flag Outreach: Mar – OctSONS Oil Spill TTX: JuneMass Rescue (MRO) TTXWLB Towex/VOSS: JulWPB L/E & Educ Ops: JulIcebreaker Ops: Jul – SepR&D Center Ops: SepNSC Ops: SepAviation Ops: Jul & SepVIP Visits: AugCommunity Svc: Feb –AugTribal Issues:CG effort to reduce subsistence impactsCG effort to communicate with tribes during seasonH-60 JayhawkTwo IcebreakersWPBPatrol Boat2013 CG Arctic operations will occur primarily in Kotzebue, Barrow, Nome/Port Clarence.Natl Security Cutter with H-65 HeloWLB Buoy Tender
17 U.S. Coast Guard Respect for Subsistence Marine Mammal & Caribou TrackingAlaska Eskimo Whaling CommissionPenthrite (Not in 2013)Bowhead Whale Hunt AvoidanceEskimo Walrus CommissionCarcass SurveyResponse to issues & complaintsCaribou & Helicopters in Arctic operationsTracking info from:TribesNSB-DWMCity of NomeNW Arctic BoroughState of AlaskaFederal AgenciesSatelliteTracking SitesThe CG works hard to de-conflict our operations and help minimize impacts to subsistence hunters.In particular, efforts include:-- Tracking marine mammals and caribou in areas of CG operations-- Working with Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission and other subsistence user groups-- Responding to issues that arise
18 Whaling: Inupiat/Yupik Cultures 4/12/2017Whaling: Inupiat/Yupik CulturesHarvest QuotasBowhead ScienceWhaling Captains:Umialik = Leader/ChiefWhaling CrewsWho Gets the Whale?Distribution of MeatGenerosity/CommunityFood/SurvivalIt is important to understand cultures in Alaska Native areas we operate in.Note that each village in Alaska has particular and different characteristics based on centuries of different activities and culture. Don’t assume they are all the same, though there are common characteristics. One example is that whaling is a foundation of Inupiat culture, and also serves as one of the foundations for building character values.Example: “Who/which whaling crew gets the whale?” – often many teams and less that half the teams get a whale. The answer: “The whale decides.” The belief is that the whale decides who to “give themselves to” based on whaling Captain/team character including who is respectful to elders, generous, clean-living, takes care of their family and community, etc. The belief is that this is a very deep and sacred connection with the whale and giving its life to support the Inupiat people.A few characteristics:Whaling Captains are very highly regarded, and are leaders in their communities.Whaling teams work together in a highly organized fashion, and have extremely efficient and effective skills and techniques.The International Whaling Commission sets limits for whale harvest for a 5-year period, and distributes those quotas to specific villages based on whale populations and historical whaling activity.The bowhead whale population is currently growing at approximately 3% per year, and Whaling Captains work with researchers to conduct research and protect whale populations and migration patterns.After a whale is taken, meat is distributed to elders and other community members. The whale is a resource for the entire community.Whaling customs are particularly based on generosity and meeting community food needs, and enabling the entire village to survive from year to year.The Nulukataq, or “Whale Feast” is sponsored by the Whaling Captain and crew of each whale taken, and provides for further meat distribution and celebration of this foundation of Inupiat culture.
19 Overall Bowhead/Cutter Op Issues 4/12/2017Do not operate in sensitive or migration/hunt areas unless SAR or other special operation/necessity:Identified in EA, Oporder, and Wildlife Management maps.Specific permission is needed to operate in Bowhead quiet zones or other critical areas.Verify changing marine mammal locations and issues with local Wildlife Management representatives from North Slope Borough and Tribes.Overall Bowhead/Vessel Operating Issues:CG Vessel operations have a high potential risk for failure in the Arctic.In addition to safety of our vessels, vessel operations that interfere with, harass, or otherwise distress wildlife, disrupt subsistence hunting, or village residents have the potential to have significant repercussions for our long-term reputation and operations in the Arctic.All Commanding Officers MUST operate cutters within mission guidelines in order to minimize this risk and be good partners in the areas that we are operating in.Be sure to print or obtain a copy of this map, note restricted areas during operating periods, and check with Tribal Liaison and D17 Program Managers before operating in sensitivity zones.Report all sightings, behaviors, and operational incidents involving marine mammals.
20 Walrus Issues: Aviation & Cutters 4/12/2017Walrus Issues: Aviation & CuttersMay - Sept: Mothers with CalvesHaul-out Areas Along CoastlinePoint Lay/Icy Cape (Up to 10,000 walruses)Impact of Aircraft Ops:If still pregnant: walrus will abort fetusCalves can drown or be crushedLow Visibility for Aircraft?Fly inlandWalrus Ahead?No sudden flight/course changesIncrease distanceMaintain 1500 ft when possibleEveryone Onboard is ResponsibleParticular issue for aviation operations:Walrus haulouts are generally well-known locations where walruses can form dense concentrations of thousands of animals.Avoid or increase altitude in these areas.Even one stampede will significantly change CG/Community/Tribal relationships for years.Walruses are particularly sensitive to helicopter noise – they have very little exposure to this type of noise.Very serious impacts if walruses stampede.Walruses WILL crush young and adult animals in a stampede.Report all sightings, behaviors, and operational incidents involving marine mammals.
21 Map of established walrus haulouts: 4/12/2017Map of established walrus haulouts:You may see other walruses in smaller groupings in other areasDo NOT approach walruses if seen with aircraft – increase altitude and distance
22 Polar Bear Issues: Aviation 4/12/2017Polar Bear Issues: AviationCritical Resting Areas: Sea Ice & Barrier IslandsCircling/Hovering Causes DistressDistressed Bears may become Weaker and DrownMore bears onshoreAir Ops:See bears? Do NOT approachObserve signs of distressParticular issue for aviation operations:Polar bears have well-known critical resting areas on barrier islands and ice packs, but travel extensively on shore and pack ice. These critical resting areas extend into October/November, until the sea ice is well formed.Avoid or increase altitude in these areas and if a polar bear is seenDo NOT approach polar bears with aircraft, PERIOD.Polar bears are particularly sensitive to helicopter noise – they have exposure to this type of noise from scientific live capture operations.Very serious impacts to these animals who are having very difficult time physically due to changing ice conditionsReport all sightings, behaviors, and operational incidents involving marine mammals, including polar bears (which are marine mammals).
23 Polar Bear Issues: On-Shore 4/12/2017Polar Bear Issues: On-ShorePolar Bears On-Shore resting / scavengingPolar Bears are faster than YOUSafety Guidelines:Always Use a Buddy System Away from TownDo NOT go Running Near Shore BermNEVER Approach a Polar BearMove Away or to a Vehicle if bear nearbyContact NSB-DWM to Report SightingsPolar Bear Issues:Note a separate Polar Bear training covers this topic extensively and should be completed by EVERY CG member who is deployed to the Arctic.Polar bears are dangerous – AVOID themPolar bears are also ESA LISTED AS THREATENED – respect their critical statusReport sightings to North Slope Borough Wildlife Management
24 Over 80,000 Spectacled Eiders in pack ice near St. Lawrence Island Critical Bird Issues4/12/2017Threatened and endangered bird species gather in pack ice to overwinter and moltBirds cannot fly during molting processVessels can kill birds that cannot flyPrimary molting areas:Eastern Norton SoundLedyard Bay (Cape Lisburne to Point Lay)Over 80,000 Spectacled Eiders in pack ice near St. Lawrence IslandCritical Bird Issues:Threatened and endangered bird species gather in pack ice to overwinter and molt.Birds cannot fly during molting process.Vessels can kill birds that cannot fly.Primary molting areas:Eastern Norton SoundLedyard Bay (Cape Lisburne to Point Lay)
25 Caribou Issues: Aviation 4/12/2017Caribou Issues: AviationCaribou calving and feeding areasNoise/Disturbance Drives them from their feeding areasCaribou Mosquito Avoidance HerdsLow-Flying Aircraft can spark stampedesCaribou may crush young animalsAir Ops:Maintain 1500 ft When PossibleSee Caribou? Increase Altitude and DistanceEveryone is ResponsibleParticular issue for aviation operations:Caribou herd/feeding areas are generally well-known areas – maps available from North Slope Borough Wildlife ManagementAvoid or increase altitude in these areasEven one stampede will significantly change CG/Community/Tribal relationships for yearsCaribou are particularly sensitive to helicopter noise – they have exposure to this type of noise through scientific live capture operationsVery serious impacts if caribou stampede – young are crushed, and herd moves away from optimum food sources (higher protein plants in particular areas)
26 General Subsistence Hunting Issues 4/12/2017June – October is Primary Hunting SeasonAlaska Natives Depend on Subsistence FoodsDo NOT Compete with SubsistenceMost land is owned by corporations and Tribes, and not open for hunting without specific permissionCG Operations Can Disrupt Alaska Native Hunting of Caribou, Moose, Seals, and WalrusesPlease Be Respectful of SubsistenceHunting and ActivitiesGeneral Subsistence Hunting Issues:Do NOT compete with subsistence huntingDo not hunt while tad on Arctic operationsNote the potential for significant adverse impacts to subsistence hunters from CG operations
27 Marine Mammal Reporting If You See It – Please Report It! 4/12/2017Marine Mammal Reporting If You See It – Please Report It!Dead whale? Seal? Walrus?Take photos/Record locationNorth of Pt. Hope:NSB Dept. of Wild. Management (Barrow)(907)South of Pt. Hope:UAF - Marine Advisory Program (Nome)(907)2012: Unusual Mortality EventCG Carcass Survey SupportCurrently, no data on marine mammal strandings are available for analysis in highly important ship traffic and marine mammal migration corridors in Western and Northern Alaska.This summer, USCG has the ability to provide unprecedented aerial coverage to remote beaches in northern and western Alaska and provide essential biological information currently not available by any other means.If ANY dead or distressed marine mammal – whale / seal / walrus is seen please take photos, record the location (GPS) or approximate landmark and report to…NSB Dept. of Wildlife management (Barrow) N of Pt. Hope…and to Gay Sheffield with the UAF Marine Advisory Program (Nome) S of Pt. Hope
28 More Than Subsistence… It’s a Cultural Existence 4/12/2017More Than Subsistence… It’s a Cultural ExistenceLives are connected to the land and seaSubsistence is what binds the cultureFears:Increased Arctic activity will lead to spillsSpills lead to lost food resources/no easy “backup”Increased shipping = collisions, groundings, etc.Govt response capabilities appear inadequateNot enough CG infrastructure present“Western World” cultural impactsErosion of traditional knowledgeSubsistence represents the very essence of the Alaska Native culture.Fears that if lose subsistence resources, people won’t have food to eat, culture will have major negative impacts.Importance of subsistence includes both the actual food source and the hunting/gathering activities, efforts, celebrations, and central theme of Alaska Native culture/life.
29 Cultural/Foundational Values 4/12/2017Cultural/Foundational ValuesAlaska Native Values:Show Respect to OthersEach person has a special giftShare What You HaveGiving makes you richerKnow Who You AreYou are a reflection on your familyAccept What Life BringsYou cannot control many thingsHave PatienceSome things cannot be rushedLive CarefullyWhat you do will come back to youTake Care of OthersYou cannot live without themHonor Your ElderThey show you the way in lifePray for GuidanceMany things are not knownSee ConnectionsAll things are relatedCoast Guard Values:HonorIntegrityEthical ConductMoral BehaviorLoyaltyAccountable to the Public TrustRespectWe Value our Diverse WorkforceFairnessDignityCompassionIndividual Opportunity and GrowthTeamworkDevotion to DutyWe are ProfessionalsAchievement of CG GoalsResponsibleAccept AccountabilityWe Exist to ServeWe Serve With PrideCultural Values:Note that we/the CG have very similar foundational values with our Alaska Native neighbors.In particular, Honor, Respect, and Devotion to Duty are manifested by Alaska Natives and their respect for each other and care for their families. These foundational values have served them for thousands of years, and served us in the CG for over 200 years.Note that there are Ten Universal Alaska Native Values:Show Respect to Others – Each person has a special giftShare what You Have – Giving makes you richerKnow Who You Are – You are a reflection on your familyAccept What Life Brings – You cannot control many thingsHave Patience – Some things cannot be rushedLive Carefully – What you do will come back to youTake Care of Others – You cannot live without themHonor Your Elder – They show you the way in lifePray for Guidance – Many things are not knownSee Connections – All things are related
30 Cultural Differences (Differences in operating paradigms) 4/12/2017Cultural Differences (Differences in operating paradigms)Alaska Native Worldview:Group EmphasisPresent and Past OrientationTime: Always With UsAgeCooperationHarmony with NatureGiving - SharingPragmaticMysticalPatienceListening Skills learned firstReligion: A Way of LifeShould appear modestOralUse of landA Western Worldview:Individual EmphasisFuture OrientationTime - Use Every MinuteYouthCompetitionMastery of NatureOwning – SavingTheoreticalSkepticalAssertivenessVerbal Skills learned firstReligion: Segment of LifePut best foot forwardWrittenOwnership of landCultural Differences:Although we have similar foundational values (previous slide), we often have a different operating approach from Alaska Natives. Our western world view is much more based on individual achievement, speedy decisions and operations, and competition.This means we sometimes have the capacity to “run over” our Alaska Native partners, and not give them the opportunity for input or to engage in a meaningful way on CG operations and activities (or even when giving briefings).This is seen as extremely disrespectful, and listening and asking questions are a good way to gauge if you are connecting in a particular interaction situation.*Note these are generalizations for training discussions
31 Helpful Hints Acronyms Chief, President, Council Chair 4/12/2017Helpful HintsChief, President, Council ChairEngage when invited &Relax with DiscomfortListen &Leave Gaps –Silence is Okay!Respect Traditional KnowledgeTalking Speed –Slow DownFront Row SeatsAre For EldersRespect EldersTeaching & Engaging Are Important!Helpful hints – listen, ask questions, leave your ego at the door – be curious and respectful.AcronymsThis is Hunting & Gathering SeasonRemember History is a Long Time!Include Food
32 Community Relations Issues 4/12/2017Community Relations IssuesAlaska Villages generally welcome usWe are CG representatives –ALL THE TIMENon-verbal cues speak volumes.Be respectful -- realize that we have little understanding of their culture and the reason they do particular things.They have survived for thousands of years in this environment – most of us can’t do that!Don’t be afraid, just be good neighbors!Please Be Role Models for the CGCG Community Relations in the Arctic:It all boils down to:Thinking aheadThinking while you are actingBeing good neighborsNot doing things you don’t want to explain to your parents, family, or senior officers!Being respectful of people who may seem different from youAsk Questions – don’t assume
33 Please Be Part of the Solution We Are Community Role Models 4/12/2017Alcohol IssuesA lot of Alaska villages have to deal with alcohol issues –Please support their effortsMost villages are “Damp” or “Dry”Alcohol Importation is IllegalAlcohol is Not AllowedPossession is Only Legal With a Permit in Barrow and other villagesDo NOT Drink To/From TAD TripsPlease Be Part of the SolutionWe Are Community Role ModelsAlcohol Issues:Do NOT take alcohol to Arctic or village tad locationsPlease follow local regulations regarding alcohol access and restrictions
34 Barrow/Ukpeagvik “Where the Owls are Hunted” 4/12/2017Barrow/Ukpeagvik “Where the Owls are Hunted”Barrow (725 Miles North of Anchorage)Average Temp: 40 degrees in Summer -- below freezing 324 days/yearPopulation: 4400Inupiat EskimoWhaling/Subsistence CultureRemote (4 restaurants)Difficulty Factor x3 for just about everything!Significant Issues:High Food cost (107% more than Anchorage)Subsistence resources: summer hunting/gathering seasonWater & Sewage treatmentBarrow Information:Barrow is also called “Ukpeagvik” in Inuit, which is translated to mean where the snowy owls are hunted.It is a traditional Inupiat community, and serves as a hub for 8 smaller villages in the arctic slope region.Barrow has been the base for Prudhoe Bay oil operations since the 1970’s. Although it is very remote, the oil resources and revenues have created a powerful financial and political system.
35 Nome Community Information 4/12/2017Nome Community InformationPopulation: ~ 3500Region occupied for thousands of years.Multicultural community“Hub” transportation for >19 regional coastal communitiesGold seekers since the late 1800’s – a very different culture from most Arctic villages.40% of population is Non-NativeArctic science projects / opportunitiesNome Information:Look around, watch, and listen.For example, note that at gatherings, there might be chairs and bleachers. Chairs may seem the easiest place to sit, but are generally reserved for elders (and often their grandchildren climbing around). Please be respectful and sit in the rear at gatherings – humility and respect for elders are some of the most key values held in Alaska Native culture.On the other end of the spectrum, being loud and displaying arrogance or self-importance are also strong messages that we may inadvertently send. This is sometimes not even evident to us, as we might display this self-importance through being first in line, pushing ahead, sitting in seats we don’t realize are reserved for others, and other subtle behaviors.Taking an opportunity to assist an elder or otherwise show your respect goes a LONG WAY for their respect for the CG and what we do.As mentioned before, don’t be afraid – just watch, listen, and learn from their culture, and respect will go a very long ways. Also don’t be afraid to ask – it’s fine to ask where to sit, how you might be helpful, or other questions.
36 Kotzebue Kotzebue (549 M NW of Anchorage Significant Issues: 4/12/2017KotzebueKotzebue (549 M NW of Anchorage26 M N of Arctic CirclePop 3154 (741 students), 3 mile long spitInupiat EskimoSignificant Issues:High electric costs (> $.50/kWh – 3x higher than Anch)Wind farm saves $120,000 in annual fuel costs (17 turbines)Subsistence resources: summer hunting/gathering seasonWaterSewage treatmentFuel costs (Gas 177% higher/propane 193% higher)Food cost (107% more than Anch)
37 Alaska Villages Point Hope (Tikeraq -- 330 M SW of Barrow) Pop 713 (208 students), water from lake 6m/$.50 kWh elexOne of oldest continuous Inupiat areas in AK (2500 yrs)Whaling/mammals/Tribe historically controlled areaTikeraqmuit Inupiat EskimosKoyuk (90 M NE of Nome)Pop 358 (102 students), habitation yrs(nomadic)Gold/coal mining supportUnalit/Malemiut EskimoWales (111 M NW of Nome)Pop 148 (33 school students)Whaling, reindeer station, influenza lossKinugmiut EskimoSelawik (90 M E of Kotz)Pop 849 (264 school students)Inupiat Eskimo
38 Alaska Villages (Continued) 4/12/2017Shishmaref (126 M N of Nome)Pop 606 (180 students) 5 miles fm mainland, water hauling/honey bucketsSupply center for gold minersErosion; village relocationKivalina (80 M NW of Kotz): Inupiat EskimoPop 410 (122 students), water from 3 M/30 gal/day limitStopover Arctic/Kotz travelersBowhead whalesDiomede (135 M NW of Nome)Pop 117 (32 students), spring water (runs out March); honeybucketsWhaling, polar bear hunting, seal/walrusInagalikmiut EskimoShaktoolik (125 M E of Nome)Pop 231 (59 students); water 3 M/piped systemSubsistence, reindeer (old)Malemiut Eskimo
39 The D17 Tribal Liaison is a resource for information 4/12/2017General Village InfoPopulations: ~ 100 – 5000 maximumArctic has been occupied by Alaska Natives for thousands of years.Arctic communities are different from each other – some based on whaling, others on walrus, others on reindeer herding or inland fishing and hunting, etc.Check village characteristics on State of Alaska website:Check local Tribal/Community websites.If doing community projects, pick small projects or do stages of a project so we can accomplish what we start!The D17 Tribal Liaison is a resource for information
40 Things to Remember Cultural Responsiveness First and Foremost 4/12/2017Things to RememberCultural Responsiveness First and ForemostTribes and community members have a wide range of concerns – ask, don’t guessCommunity members can offer suggestionsRemember history is a long time…On Duty 24/7: NO hidden times or placesHave fun and learn about their culture – they usually like to share traditional knowledgeIf in doubt, ASK!Community Relations Information:Look around, watch, and listen.For example, note that at gatherings, there might be chairs and bleachers. Chairs may seem the easiest place to sit, but are generally reserved for elders (and often their grandchildren climbing around). Please be respectful and sit in the rear at gatherings – humility and respect for elders are some of the most key values held in Alaska Native culture.On the other end of the spectrum, being loud and displaying arrogance or self-importance are also strong messages that we may inadvertently send. This is sometimes not even evident to us, as we might display this self-importance through being first in line, pushing ahead, sitting in seats we don’t realize are reserved for others, and other subtle behaviors.Taking an opportunity to assist an elder or otherwise show your respect goes a LONG WAY for their respect for the CG and what we do.As mentioned before, don’t be afraid – just watch, listen, and learn from their culture, and respect will go a very long ways. Also don’t be afraid to ask – it’s fine to ask where to sit, how you might be helpful, or other questions.
41 Training Feedback Is this training useful? Is it engaging? 4/12/2017Training FeedbackIs this training useful?Is it engaging?Would you recommend it to others?Do you have recommended changes to add/delete?Please send feedback to D17 Tribal Liaison:Thanks!
42 U.S. Coast Guard Points of Contact 17th District Commander:Rear Admiral Tom Ostebo17th District Chief of Staff:Captain Jack VogtCoast Guard D17 Tribal Liaison:Sudie HargisOffice:Cell: