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Arctic Operations Tribal & Cultural Engagement Sudie Hargis D17 Tribal Liaison Version AS-13 v-3 8/1/13 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Arctic Operations Tribal & Cultural Engagement Sudie Hargis D17 Tribal Liaison Version AS-13 v-3 8/1/13 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arctic Operations Tribal & Cultural Engagement Sudie Hargis D17 Tribal Liaison Version AS-13 v-3 8/1/13 1

2 CG Arctic Mission Why do we conduct missions in the arctic?   Related Missions Environmental Protection Maritime Commerce Search & Rescue Law Enforcement National Security Research/National Policy Issues Expansion of All Missions   Engagement & Outreach What do they mean?   A Short Historical Perspective… 2

3 Major Alaska Native Ethnic Groups  Eleven Distinct Cultures Inupiaq/St Lawrence Yupik Yup’ik/Cup’ik Unangax (Aleut)/Alutiiq Athabascan Eyak/Tlingit/Haida/Tsimshian  Over 22 Indigenous Dialects  Differences in Continental/Ethnic Origins  Differences in Regions/Subsistence Methods  229 Federally Recognized Tribes (1934 Indian Reorganization Act) 3

4 The Coast Guard Mission in Alaska: A Legacy and Part of Alaskan History Humanitarian Aid: Reindeer imported from Siberia to Alaska 1892 (Capt Mike Healy): Herds grew to 500K by stable food supply **Impact of seal & whale hunting Corwin and Bear Ice Rescue: : Overland Relief Expedition -- Eight whaling ships caught in arctic ice: 382 reindeer with sled dogs miles through blizzards to Pt. Barrow (3½ months) Federal Presence in Alaska: Revenue Cutter Service was “Judge, Doctor, Policeman” Note our history/reputation is mixed! 4

5 Alaska Territorial Guard “Eskimo Scouts”   Organized WWII in response to Hawaii/Japan   Component of US Army   Missions: Detected Japanese Incursions Placed & Maintained Survival Caches Safeguarded Platinum Secured Lend-Lease US/USSR air route US sent over $11 Billion in supplies to Russia   Supplies by air, boat, dog team   107 Communities/20,000 Personnel (Ages 12-80)   Aleut, Athabascan, Inupiaq, Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian, & Yupik   Key to integration of US military   Recognized in 2000 as U.S. Military Veterans 5

6 Alaska “The Great Land” Resource Extraction = Driver for CG/Federal Presence   Alaska Purchase: 1867 U.S. Laws not extended to Alaska purchase. American Indian Law not applied to Alaska Natives   Alaska: Military District   Gold Discovery: 1880   Alaska Seafood: 1885   $$$ Trillions in minerals, oil, and gas 2011: Alaska = 209 Million barrels (10% of total U.S.) USRC Rush, Sitka, AK 6

7 Federal Indian Policy/Philosophy   Treaty Making Era >20 Treaties = Recognition of Sovereignty   The Removal Era   The Reservation Era   Allotments – Assimilation   U.S. Citizenship1924   Indian Reorganization Act 1934   The Termination Era   The Self-Determination Era1968-Present   Mandate for Federal G-2-G2000-Present “Domestic Dependent Nations” 7

8 Key Alaska Native Legislation   1906: Alaska Native Allotment Act Authorizes Land Parcels for Alaska Natives up to 160 acres/person   1924: American Citizenship American Indians and Alaska Natives   1934: Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) Recognizes aboriginal land rights for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Establishes Federally recognized tribes   1935: Jurisdictional Act Allows Indians and Alaska Natives to file court claims for aboriginal land. Tlingit & Haida Tribes claimed all of Southeast Alaska 8

9 Alaska   Supreme Court Upholds 1935 Tlingit Land Claim   State Public land selections Some on Native lands Result: Court-ordered Land Freeze   Black Gold! 1969   All Create Strong Need for Resolution of Issue 9

10 Resolution: Resolution: Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) 1971   44 Million Acres/$963 Million Settlement   Driven by Alaska Federation of Natives   Extinguishes Native Land and Subsistence Claims (except Metlakatla, 1888)   13 Regional Corporations   12 Regional Non-Profit Associations for social services   200+ Village Corporations 10

11 Native Governance & Consultation: Tribal Consultation is a Mandate -- Executive Order (2000)   Recognize Tribal Sovereignty   Mandate for federal agency consultation on matters that may impactTribal rights, resources, or interests   229 Federally Recognized Tribes in Alaska   President/Chief Have Official Government Status   D17 Engagement/Consultation 11

12 Consultation and Tribal Impacts : What Might Be Triggers?  Air Ops  Vessel Ops  Shore/Cleanup Ops  Wildlife Disturbance  Sacred Sites  Restaurants & Driving  Village Presence  Phone Conversations 12

13 U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Coast Guard Consultation and Engagement With Tribes and Alaska Native Organizations   In Support of CG Missions Statewide   Ongoing Meetings/briefings: Tribes Alaska Native Organizations Local Governments   Listen/Engage/Respond   Cross-Cultural training for all CG personnel deployed to Arctic Developing Training for all CG personnel in Alaska   Continuing to focus on tribal engagement & collaboration statewide   Working to identify gaps in connections with tribes Rear Admiral Ostebo (CGD17 Commander) & Vice Admiral Zukunft (Pacific Area Commander) at Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission Meeting in Pt Hope 13

14 D17 Tribal Engagement & Consultation  Actively Engage  Visit Tribal Council office when CG Ops/TAD to a village CG Operations Vessel/Facility Inspections Spill Response & Planning Aids to Navigation Auxiliary Ops  Notify D17 Tribal Liaison of Tribal interactions /Opsum POC Info/Date Concerns/Issues 14

15 Complexity of Consultation/Engagement Example: Point Hope, Alaska   Native Village of Point Hope (IRA Tribe) Governs; does not hold land   Inupiat Community of Arctic Slope (ICAS) (IRA Tribe)   Tikigaq Corporation (ANCSA Village Corp) Holds surface land rights   Arctic Slope Reg. Corp. (ANCSA Regional Corp) Holds subsurface land rights (gravel, oil, gold, coal)   North Slope Borough (State/Municipal: Barrow) Provides services to Point Hope residents   City of Point Hope (2nd class city/state chartered)   Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission: 1977 (10 Villages)   Alaska Walrus Commission: 1978 (19 Villages: Nome) 15

16 16 WLB Buoy Tender Arctic Operations (Significant CG focus area in 2013) H-60 Jayhawk Two Icebreakers Ops Summary: Flag Outreach: Mar – Oct SONS Oil Spill TTX: June Mass Rescue (MRO) TTX WLB Towex/VOSS: Jul WPB L/E & Educ Ops: Jul Icebreaker Ops: Jul – Sep R&D Center Ops: Sep NSC Ops: Sep Aviation Ops: Jul & Sep VIP Visits: Aug Community Svc: Feb –Aug Tribal Issues: CG effort to reduce subsistence impacts CG effort to communicate with tribes during season Natl Security Cutter with H-65 Helo WPB Patrol Boat

17 U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Coast Guard Respect for Subsistence   Marine Mammal & Caribou Tracking   Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission Penthrite (Not in 2013) Bowhead Whale Hunt Avoidance   Eskimo Walrus Commission Carcass Survey   Response to issues & complaints Caribou & Helicopters in Arctic operations   Tracking info from: Tribes NSB-DWM City of Nome NW Arctic Borough State of Alaska Federal Agencies Satellite Tracking Sites 17

18 Whaling: Inupiat/Yupik Cultures   Harvest Quotas   Bowhead Science   Whaling Captains: Umialik = Leader/Chief   Whaling Crews   Who Gets the Whale?   Distribution of Meat   Generosity/Community   Food/Survival 18

19 Overall Bowhead/Cutter Op Issues   Do not operate in sensitive or migration/hunt areas unless SAR or other special operation/necessity: Identified in EA, Oporder, and Wildlife Management maps.   Specific permission is needed to operate in Bowhead quiet zones or other critical areas.   Verify changing marine mammal locations and issues with local Wildlife Management representatives from North Slope Borough and Tribes. 19

20 Walrus Issues: Aviation & Cutters   May - Sept: Mothers with Calves   Haul-out Areas Along Coastline   Point Lay/Icy Cape (Up to 10,000 walruses)   Impact of Aircraft Ops: If still pregnant: walrus will abort fetus Calves can drown or be crushed   Low Visibility for Aircraft? Fly inland   Walrus Ahead? No sudden flight/course changes Increase distance Maintain 1500 ft when possible Everyone Onboard is Responsible 20

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22 Polar Bear Issues: Aviation   Critical Resting Areas: Sea Ice & Barrier Islands   Circling/Hovering Causes Distress   Distressed Bears may become Weaker and Drown   More bears onshore   Air Ops: See bears? Do NOT approach Observe signs of distress 22

23 Polar Bear Issues: On-Shore   Polar Bears On-Shore resting / scavenging   Polar Bears are faster than YOU   Safety Guidelines: Always Use a Buddy System Away from Town Do NOT go Running Near Shore Berm NEVER Approach a Polar Bear Move Away or to a Vehicle if bear nearby Contact NSB-DWM to Report Sightings 23

24 Critical Bird Issues   Threatened and endangered bird species gather in pack ice to overwinter and molt   Birds cannot fly during molting process   Vessels can kill birds that cannot fly   Primary molting areas: Eastern Norton Sound Ledyard Bay (Cape Lisburne to Point Lay) 24 Over 80,000 Spectacled Eiders in pack ice near St. Lawrence Island

25 Caribou Issues: Aviation   Caribou calving and feeding areas   Noise/Disturbance Drives them from their feeding areas   Caribou Mosquito Avoidance Herds   Low-Flying Aircraft can spark stampedes   Caribou may crush young animals   Air Ops: Maintain 1500 ft When Possible See Caribou? Increase Altitude and Distance Everyone is Responsible 25

26 General Subsistence Hunting Issues   June – October is Primary Hunting Season   Alaska Natives Depend on Subsistence Foods   Do NOT Compete with Subsistence   Most land is owned by corporations and Tribes, and not open for hunting without specific permission   CG Operations Can Disrupt Alaska Native Hunting of Caribou, Moose, Seals, and Walruses Please Be Respectful of Subsistence Hunting and Activities 26

27 Marine Mammal Reporting If You See It – Please Report It!   Dead whale? Seal? Walrus? Take photos/Record location   North of Pt. Hope: NSB Dept. of Wild. Management (Barrow) (907)   South of Pt. Hope: UAF - Marine Advisory Program (Nome) (907)   2012: Unusual Mortality Event   CG Carcass Survey Support 27

28 More Than Subsistence… It’s a Cultural Existence   Lives are connected to the land and sea   Subsistence is what binds the culture Fears:   Increased Arctic activity will lead to spills   Spills lead to lost food resources/no easy “backup”   Increased shipping = collisions, groundings, etc.   Govt response capabilities appear inadequate   Not enough CG infrastructure present   “Western World” cultural impacts   Erosion of traditional knowledge 28

29 Cultural/Foundational Values Alaska Native Values:   Show Respect to Others Each person has a special gift   Share What You Have Giving makes you richer   Know Who You Are You are a reflection on your family   Accept What Life Brings You cannot control many things   Have Patience Some things cannot be rushed   Live Carefully What you do will come back to you   Take Care of Others You cannot live without them   Honor Your Elder They show you the way in life   Pray for Guidance Many things are not known   See Connections All things are related Coast Guard Values:   Honor Integrity Ethical Conduct Moral Behavior Loyalty Accountable to the Public Trust   Respect We Value our Diverse Workforce Fairness Dignity Compassion Individual Opportunity and Growth Teamwork   Devotion to Duty We are Professionals Achievement of CG Goals Responsible Accept Accountability We Exist to Serve We Serve With Pride 29

30 Cultural Differences (Differences in operating paradigms) Alaska Native Worldview:   Group Emphasis   Present and Past Orientation   Time: Always With Us   Age   Cooperation   Harmony with Nature   Giving - Sharing   Pragmatic   Mystical   Patience   Listening Skills learned first   Religion: A Way of Life   Should appear modest   Oral   Use of land A Western Worldview:   Individual Emphasis   Future Orientation   Time - Use Every Minute   Youth   Competition   Mastery of Nature   Owning – Saving   Theoretical   Skeptical   Assertiveness   Verbal Skills learned first   Religion: Segment of Life   Put best foot forward   Written   Ownership of land *Note these are generalizations for training discussions 30

31 Helpful Hints Chief, President, Council Chair Respect Elders Include Food Acronyms Respect Traditional Knowledge Listen & Leave Gaps – Silence is Okay! Talking Speed – Slow Down Front Row Seats Are For Elders Engage when invited & Relax with Discomfort Teaching & Engaging Are Important! This is Hunting & Gathering Season Remember History is a Long Time!

32 Community Relations Issues   Alaska Villages generally welcome us   We are CG representatives –ALL THE TIME   Non-verbal cues speak volumes.   Be respectful -- realize that we have little understanding of their culture and the reason they do particular things.   They have survived for thousands of years in this environment – most of us can’t do that!   Don’t be afraid, just be good neighbors! Please Be Role Models for the CG 32

33 Alcohol Issues   A lot of Alaska villages have to deal with alcohol issues – Please support their efforts   Most villages are “Damp” or “Dry”   Alcohol Importation is Illegal   Alcohol is Not Allowed   Possession is Only Legal With a Permit in Barrow and other villages   Do NOT Drink To/From TAD Trips Please Be Part of the Solution We Are Community Role Models 33

34 Barrow/Ukpeagvik “Where the Owls are Hunted”   Barrow (725 Miles North of Anchorage) Average Temp: 40 degrees in Summer -- below freezing 324 days/year Population: 4400 Inupiat Eskimo Whaling/Subsistence Culture Remote (4 restaurants) Difficulty Factor x3 for just about everything!   Significant Issues: High Food cost (107% more than Anchorage) Subsistence resources: summer hunting/gathering season Water & Sewage treatment 34

35 Nome Community Information   Population: ~ 3500   Region occupied for thousands of years.   Multicultural community   “Hub” transportation for >19 regional coastal communities   Gold seekers since the late 1800’s – a very different culture from most Arctic villages.   40% of population is Non-Native   Arctic science projects / opportunities 35

36 Kotzebue   Kotzebue (549 M NW of Anchorage 26 M N of Arctic Circle Pop 3154 (741 students), 3 mile long spit Inupiat Eskimo   Significant Issues: High electric costs (> $.50/kWh – 3x higher than Anch) Wind farm saves $120,000 in annual fuel costs (17 turbines) Subsistence resources: summer hunting/gathering season Water Sewage treatment Fuel costs (Gas 177% higher/propane 193% higher) Food cost (107% more than Anch) 36

37 Alaska Villages   Point Hope (Tikeraq M SW of Barrow) Pop 713 (208 students), water from lake 6m/$.50 kWh elex One of oldest continuous Inupiat areas in AK (2500 yrs) Whaling/mammals/Tribe historically controlled area Tikeraqmuit Inupiat Eskimos   Koyuk (90 M NE of Nome) Pop 358 (102 students), habitation yrs(nomadic) Gold/coal mining support Unalit/Malemiut Eskimo   Wales (111 M NW of Nome) Pop 148 (33 school students) Whaling, reindeer station, influenza loss Kinugmiut Eskimo   Selawik (90 M E of Kotz) Pop 849 (264 school students) Inupiat Eskimo 37

38 Alaska Villages (Continued)   Shishmaref (126 M N of Nome) Pop 606 (180 students) 5 miles fm mainland, water hauling/honey buckets Supply center for gold miners Erosion; village relocation   Kivalina (80 M NW of Kotz): Inupiat Eskimo Pop 410 (122 students), water from 3 M/30 gal/day limit Stopover Arctic/Kotz travelers Bowhead whales   Diomede (135 M NW of Nome) Pop 117 (32 students), spring water (runs out March); honeybuckets Whaling, polar bear hunting, seal/walrus Inagalikmiut Eskimo   Shaktoolik (125 M E of Nome) Pop 231 (59 students); water 3 M/piped system Subsistence, reindeer (old) Malemiut Eskimo 38

39 General Village Info   Populations: ~ 100 – 5000 maximum   Arctic has been occupied by Alaska Natives for thousands of years.   Arctic communities are different from each other – some based on whaling, others on walrus, others on reindeer herding or inland fishing and hunting, etc.   Check village characteristics on State of Alaska website:   Check local Tribal/Community websites.   If doing community projects, pick small projects or do stages of a project so we can accomplish what we start! The D17 Tribal Liaison is a resource for information 39

40 Things to Remember   Cultural Responsiveness First and Foremost   Tribes and community members have a wide range of concerns – ask, don’t guess   Community members can offer suggestions   Remember history is a long time…   On Duty 24/7: NO hidden times or places   Have fun and learn about their culture – they usually like to share traditional knowledge If in doubt, ASK! 40

41 Training Feedback   Is this training useful?   Is it engaging?   Would you recommend it to others?   Do you have recommended changes to add/delete?   Please send feedback to D17 Tribal Liaison: Thanks! 41

42 42 17 th District Commander: Rear Admiral Tom Ostebo 17 th District Chief of Staff: Captain Jack Vogt Coast Guard D17 Tribal Liaison: Sudie Hargis Office: Cell: U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Coast Guard Points of Contact


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