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Figure 5.1 Hierarchy of data for a computer-based file.
Figure 5.2 Indexed sequential access method.
Figure 5.3 Computer based files in the traditional file environment cause problems such as redundancy due to partial or full duplication, inconsistency across files, and data isolation.
Figure 5.4 Database Management System (DBMS) provides access to all data in the database.
Figure 5.5 (a) Centralized database
Figure 5.5 (b) Distributed database with complete or partial copies of the central database in more than one location.
Figure 5.6 Entity-Relationship model
Figure 5.7 Non-normalized relation
Figure 5.8 Normalized relation
Figure 5.9 Hierarchical database model
Figure 5.10 Network database model
Figure 5.11 Table of relational database model
Figure 5.12 Data warehouse framework and views [Source: and Data Management Strategies, Cutter Information Operations, February 1999.]
Figure 5.13 Relational databases
Figure 5.14 Multidimensional databases
Figure 5.15 Equivalence between relational and multidimensional databases
Figure 5.15 (Continued)
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