Presentation on theme: "Research & Development ( R & D Fabrication ). R & D Fabrication Sampling Order Receiving from Merchandiser. Selection of Yarn. Knitting parameters."— Presentation transcript:
Research & Development ( R & D Fabrication )
R & D Fabrication Sampling Order Receiving from Merchandiser. Selection of Yarn. Knitting parameters setting. Finishing Parameters (Samples + Production). Samples inspection according to four point system. Testing of samples Checking parameters at every stage (Knitting, dyeing & finishing)
Process Flow of R & D Sample OrderDecision of Parameter Yarn demand Generation Yarn ProcurementKnittingDyeing FinishingQuality & TestingDispatching
Sample Order (SO) Sample order consist of following GSM of fabric. Fabric Quality. Fabric Composition. Fabric Testing Standard. Customer Remarks related to finishing.
Selection of Yarn Type of yarn Normal Yarn, Fancy yarn. Normal Yarn cotton, polyester, acrylic and nylon are normal yarn. Fancy yarn Slub yarn, Heather yarn, Mélange yarn and lycra yarn.
Count Number of hanks per pound is called Count. (1 hank is equal to 840 yards) We say that if 1 pound cotton makes 1 hank, count will be 1. Or 1 pound cotton makes 2 hank, count will be 2. For Cotton: 1 Hank = 840 yards For Wool : 1 Hank =256 yards
Yarn Count Definitions Denier ( Den) = Gram / 9000 m. Grex = Gram / 10,000 m. Tex = Gram / 1000 m. English cotton count (Ne) = 840 yd / 1 lb or Ne = 768.1m / g Metric Count (Nm) = Meter / 1g
Count Conversion Formulae From metric count (Nm) to others: Tex = 1000 / Nm NeB = 0.59 x Nm Den = 9000 / Nm From denier (den) to others: Nm = 9000 / den NeB = 5315 / den Tex = x den
Relation Between Count, GSM & SL Count GSM, Count GSM 20/ /1 181 It shows as “count increases, Gsm decreases” Stitch length GSM St.Length Gsm
Relation B/W Dia,Guage & Width Dia & Gauge œ Width: Dia Gauge # of Needles Width “ ” ”
Tightness Factor Tightness factor is a ratio between yarn diameter and its loop length in the structure. It indicates tightness or looseness of a fabric. Tightness factor does not have any units and for practical purpose its value ranges between 1.29 and 1.8. Higher value indicates a tighter fabric & lower value indicate looser fabric. Mathematically tightness factor can be expressed as under, Tightness Factor = √Tex / Stitch length in mm Where Tex = √ / Count / S.L in mm (3.3) = √ /S.L = 5.43 /S.L T.F will be = 1.64
Different methods to check GSM By GSM cutter: GSM = gram per square meter (wt / area). GSM = Wt of cut fabric * 100 Area of cutter: Л(r ² ) Dia of cutter: 113mm or 11.3cm Area = 3.14 * ( 11.3 / 2 ) ² =100
In case of Non-availability of GSM Cutter GSM = Wt / Area Suppose a fabric has length 10cm and width 8cm, then Area will be: Area of fabric = 10 x 8 = 80 cm ² or m ² Suppose wt of fabric is 2g Then GSM = 2 / = 250
GSM = Wt / Area Area = 1/2(base × height) Area = 1/2(10*8) = 40cm 2 or 0.004m 2 Suppose Wt of fabric is = 2g Then GSM will be: GSM = 2/.004 = 500
Consumption of yarn in a Knitted fabric Calculation of yarn in 3-End-Fleece with yarn composition Yarn Count Stitch Length %age 30/ /30 = /0.0367*100=34.60% 20/ /20 = /0.0367*100=38.147% 16/ /16 = /0.0367*100= % Total yarn three loop(30/1,20/1,16/1) =
KNITTING “ Knitting is a process in which yarn is converted into loops with the help of needles ”
Types of Knitted Fabric Single Knit Fabric Double Knit Fabric
Types of Single Knit Fabric Single Jersey Single PQ Loqast Double PQ 2.Thread Fleece 3.Thread Fleece
Finishing Definition: “It is a process, To enhance the aesthetic properties of a fabric by treating with chemical and mechanical devices is called finishing”.
Types of Finishing Chemical Finishing: In chemical finishing, different finishes are applied on a fabric with the help of chemicals such as, Silicon finish, Stain Release, Anti-microbial finish, Resin finish etc.
Mechanical Finishing In mechanical finishing, fabric is treated with mechanical devices to impart aesthetic look/properties to the fabric such as, Peaching, Raising, Heat setting and Compacting.
Finishing Route’s To apply different finishes on a fabric, different route’s are followed in finishing.Some of them are as follow: Stretch Dry, Compact. Slit,Heat set,Dye/white/wash,Slit,stretch dry, Compact. Slit,Stretch Dry,Peach,Re-stretch,Semi Dry, Tumble. Slit,Stretch dry, compact.
Quality Control Quality: “Quality is a standard achieved by process to render a defect free product to the customer” To control the quality of a fabric, fabric is inspected according to Four point system. Four point system introduced by JC-penny for fabric inspection.
Faults Grading Faults in Cm Faults in Inches Points 0cm to 7.5cm 1 inch to 3 inch 1 7.5cm to 15cm 3 inches to 6 inches 2 15cm to 22.5cm 6 inches to 9 inches 3 Over 22.5cm More than “9”inches in Any direction. 4
Points Allowed Knitting Quality=Maximum 20 points allowed/100 linear yards Finish Fabric: Maximum 40 points allowed/100 linear yard. 3 minor faults in one linear yard=1 major (Four points will be given)
How to change Kgs into Yards For Tubular: Yards = Weight (Kgs)* Gsm*Width*2 For Open Width: Yards= Weight(Kgs)* Gsm*Width Points Allowed for Tubular=Total yards*0.2 or Total yards/5 Points Allowed for Open Width: =Total yards*0.4 or Total yards/2.5
Testing After finishing, fabric is tested to ensure the quality of a fabric. Following tests are performed on a fabric according to the requirement of customer. Shrinkage test Torquing Colour Fastness to Light, Water, Washing & Perspiration. Bursting Strength Pilling Test Flammability
Dispatching After ensure the quality & testing of a fabric, fabric is dispatched to Apparel Division.
Presented by: Abdul Rouf Deputy Manager Research & Development