2 R & D Fabrication Sampling Order Receiving from Merchandiser. Selection of Yarn.Knitting parameters setting.Finishing Parameters (Samples + Production).Samples inspection according to four point system.Testing of samplesChecking parameters at every stage (Knitting, dyeing &finishing)
3 Process Flow of R & D Sample Order Decision of Parameter Yarn demand GenerationDyeingKnittingYarn ProcurementFinishingQuality & TestingDispatching
4 Sample Order (SO) Sample order consist of following GSM of fabric. Fabric Quality.Fabric Composition.Fabric Testing Standard.Customer Remarks related to finishing.
9 Selection of Yarn Type of yarn Normal Yarn, Fancy yarn. Normal Yarn cotton, polyester, acrylic and nylon are normal yarn.Fancy yarnSlub yarn, Heather yarn, Mélange yarn and lycra yarn.
10 Count Number of hanks per pound is called Count. (1 hank is equal to 840 yards)We say that if 1 pound cotton makes 1 hank, count will be 1.Or 1 pound cotton makes 2 hank, count will be 2.For Cotton:1 Hank = 840 yardsFor Wool :1 Hank =256 yards
14 Relation Between Count, GSM & SL 20/22/It shows as “count increases, Gsm decreases”Stitch length GSMSt.Length Gsm
15 Relation B/W Dia,Guage & Width Dia & Gauge œ Width:Dia Gauge # of Needles Width“””
16 Tightness Factor Tightness Factor = √Tex / Stitch length in mm Tightness factor is a ratio between yarn diameter and its loop length in the structure. It indicates tightness or looseness of a fabric. Tightness factor does not have any units and for practical purpose its value ranges between 1.29 and 1.8. Higher value indicates a tighter fabric & lower value indicate looser fabric. Mathematically tightness factor can be expressed as under,Tightness Factor = √Tex / Stitch length in mmWhere Tex = √ / Count / S.L in mm (3.3)= √ /S.L= /S.LT.F will be =
17 Different methods to check GSM By GSM cutter:GSM = gram per square meter (wt / area).GSM = Wt of cut fabric * 100Area of cutter: Л(r²)Dia of cutter: 113mm or 11.3cmArea = 3.14 * ( 11.3 / 2 )²=100
18 In case of Non-availability of GSM Cutter GSM = Wt / AreaSuppose a fabric has length 10cm and width 8cm, then Area will be:Area of fabric = 10 x 8= 80 cm² or m²Suppose wt of fabric is 2g ThenGSM = 2 / = 25010cm8cm
19 8cm 10cm GSM = Wt / Area Area = 1/2(base × height) Area = 1/2(10*8) = 40cm2 or 0.004m2Suppose Wt of fabric is = 2g ThenGSM will be:GSM = 2/.004 = 50010cm8cm
20 Consumption of yarn in a Knitted fabric Calculation of yarn in 3-End-Fleece with yarn compositionYarn Count Stitch Length %age30/ /30 =0.0127/0.0367*100=34.60%20/ /20 =0.014/0.0367*100=38.147%16/ /16 = 0.010.01/0.0367*100= %Total yarn three loop(30/1,20/1,16/1) =
21 KNITTING “ Knitting is a process in which yarn is converted into loops with the help of needles ”
22 Types of Knitted Fabric Single Knit FabricDouble Knit Fabric
23 Types of Single Knit Fabric Single JerseySingle PQ LoqastDouble PQ2.Thread Fleece3.Thread Fleece
24 Types of Double Knit Fabric ThermalWaffleRibInterlockMesh
30 Finishing Definition: “It is a process, To enhance the aesthetic properties of a fabric by treating with chemical and mechanical devices is called finishing”.
31 Types of Finishing Chemical Finishing: In chemical finishing, different finishes are applied on a fabric with the help of chemicals such as, Silicon finish, Stain Release, Anti-microbial finish, Resin finish etc.
32 Mechanical FinishingIn mechanical finishing, fabric is treated with mechanicaldevices to impart aesthetic look/properties to the fabricsuch as, Peaching, Raising, Heat setting and Compacting.
33 Finishing Route’sTo apply different finishes on a fabric, different route’s are followed in finishing .Some of them are as follow:Stretch Dry, Compact.Slit,Heat set,Dye/white/wash,Slit,stretch dry, Compact.Slit,Stretch Dry,Peach,Re-stretch,Semi Dry, Tumble.Slit,Stretch dry, compact.
34 Quality Control Quality: “Quality is a standard achieved by process to render a defectfree product to the customer”To control the quality of a fabric, fabric is inspected according to Four point system.Four point system introduced by JC-penny for fabric inspection.
35 Faults Grading Faults in Cm Faults in Inches Points 0cm to 7.5cm 1 inch to 3 inch17.5cm to 15cm3 inches to 6 inches215cm to 22.5cm6 inches to 9 inches3Over 22.5cmMore than “9”inches inAny direction.4
36 Points AllowedKnitting Quality=Maximum 20 points allowed/100 linear yardsFinish Fabric: Maximum 40 points allowed/100 linear yard.3 minor faults in one linear yard=1 major(Four points will be given)
37 How to change Kgs into Yards For Tubular:Yards = Weight (Kgs)*Gsm*Width*2For Open Width:Yards= Weight(Kgs)*Gsm*WidthPoints Allowed for Tubular=Total yards*0.2 orTotal yards/5Points Allowed for Open Width:=Total yards*0.4 or Total yards/2.5
38 TestingAfter finishing, fabric is tested to ensure the quality of a fabric. Following tests are performed on a fabric according to the requirement of customer.Shrinkage testTorquingColour Fastness to Light, Water, Washing & Perspiration.Bursting StrengthPilling TestFlammability
39 DispatchingAfter ensure the quality & testing of a fabric, fabric is dispatched to Apparel Division.
40 Research & Development Presented by:Abdul RoufDeputy ManagerResearch & Development