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Research & Development

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Presentation on theme: "Research & Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Research & Development
( R & D Fabrication )

2 R & D Fabrication Sampling Order Receiving from Merchandiser.
Selection of Yarn. Knitting parameters setting. Finishing Parameters (Samples + Production). Samples inspection according to four point system. Testing of samples Checking parameters at every stage (Knitting, dyeing & finishing)

3 Process Flow of R & D Sample Order Decision of Parameter Yarn demand
Generation Dyeing Knitting Yarn Procurement Finishing Quality & Testing Dispatching

4 Sample Order (SO) Sample order consist of following GSM of fabric.
Fabric Quality. Fabric Composition. Fabric Testing Standard. Customer Remarks related to finishing.





9 Selection of Yarn Type of yarn Normal Yarn, Fancy yarn. Normal Yarn
cotton, polyester, acrylic and nylon are normal yarn. Fancy yarn Slub yarn, Heather yarn, Mélange yarn and lycra yarn.

10 Count Number of hanks per pound is called Count. (1 hank is
equal to 840 yards) We say that if 1 pound cotton makes 1 hank, count will be 1. Or 1 pound cotton makes 2 hank, count will be 2. For Cotton: 1 Hank = 840 yards For Wool : 1 Hank =256 yards

11 Yarn Count Definitions
Denier ( Den) = Gram / 9000 m. Grex = Gram / 10,000 m. Tex = Gram / 1000 m. English cotton count (Ne) = 840 yd / 1 lb or Ne = 768.1m / g Metric Count (Nm) = Meter / 1g

12 Count Conversion Formulae
From metric count (Nm) to others: Tex  = / Nm NeB  =  0.59 x Nm Den  =  9000 / Nm From denier (den) to others: Nm  =  9000 / den NeB  =  5315 / den Tex  =  x den

13 Knitting Parameters Input output Count Gsm Stitch length Width Dia

14 Relation Between Count, GSM & SL
20/ 22/ It shows as “count increases, Gsm decreases” Stitch length GSM St.Length Gsm

15 Relation B/W Dia,Guage & Width
Dia & Gauge œ Width: Dia Gauge # of Needles Width

16 Tightness Factor Tightness Factor = √Tex / Stitch length in mm
Tightness factor is a ratio between yarn diameter and its loop length in the structure. It indicates tightness or looseness of a fabric. Tightness factor does not have any units and for practical purpose its value ranges between 1.29 and 1.8. Higher value indicates a tighter fabric & lower value indicate looser fabric. Mathematically tightness factor can be expressed as under, Tightness Factor = √Tex / Stitch length in mm Where Tex = √ / Count / S.L in mm (3.3) = √ /S.L = /S.L T.F will be =

17 Different methods to check GSM
By GSM cutter: GSM = gram per square meter (wt / area). GSM = Wt of cut fabric * 100 Area of cutter: Л(r²) Dia of cutter: 113mm or 11.3cm Area = 3.14 * ( 11.3 / 2 )² =100

18 In case of Non-availability of GSM Cutter
GSM = Wt / Area Suppose a fabric has length 10cm and width 8cm, then Area will be: Area of fabric = 10 x 8 = 80 cm² or m² Suppose wt of fabric is 2g Then GSM = 2 / = 250 10cm 8cm

19 8cm 10cm GSM = Wt / Area Area = 1/2(base × height)
Area = 1/2(10*8) = 40cm2 or 0.004m2 Suppose Wt of fabric is = 2g Then GSM will be: GSM = 2/.004 = 500 10cm 8cm

20 Consumption of yarn in a Knitted fabric
Calculation of yarn in 3-End-Fleece with yarn composition Yarn Count Stitch Length %age 30/ /30 = 0.0127/0.0367*100=34.60% 20/ /20 = 0.014/0.0367*100=38.147% 16/ /16 = 0.01 0.01/0.0367*100= % Total yarn three loop(30/1,20/1,16/1) =

21 KNITTING “ Knitting is a process in which yarn is converted
into loops with the help of needles ”

22 Types of Knitted Fabric
Single Knit Fabric Double Knit Fabric

23 Types of Single Knit Fabric
Single Jersey Single PQ Loqast Double PQ 2.Thread Fleece 3.Thread Fleece

24 Types of Double Knit Fabric
Thermal Waffle Rib Interlock Mesh

25 Box baby terry

26 Vertical feed stripe jersey

27 Single Jersey

28 Tilla Fleece

29 Single Jersey (Embroided)

30 Finishing Definition:
“It is a process, To enhance the aesthetic properties of a fabric by treating with chemical and mechanical devices is called finishing”.

31 Types of Finishing Chemical Finishing:
In chemical finishing, different finishes are applied on a fabric with the help of chemicals such as, Silicon finish, Stain Release, Anti-microbial finish, Resin finish etc.

32 Mechanical Finishing In mechanical finishing, fabric is treated with mechanical devices to impart aesthetic look/properties to the fabric such as, Peaching, Raising, Heat setting and Compacting.

33 Finishing Route’s To apply different finishes on a fabric, different route’s are followed in finishing .Some of them are as follow: Stretch Dry, Compact. Slit,Heat set,Dye/white/wash,Slit,stretch dry, Compact. Slit,Stretch Dry,Peach,Re-stretch,Semi Dry, Tumble. Slit,Stretch dry, compact.

34 Quality Control Quality:
“Quality is a standard achieved by process to render a defect free product to the customer” To control the quality of a fabric, fabric is inspected according to Four point system. Four point system introduced by JC-penny for fabric inspection.

35 Faults Grading Faults in Cm Faults in Inches Points 0cm to 7.5cm
1 inch to 3 inch 1 7.5cm to 15cm 3 inches to 6 inches 2 15cm to 22.5cm 6 inches to 9 inches 3 Over 22.5cm More than “9”inches in Any direction. 4

36 Points Allowed Knitting Quality=Maximum 20 points allowed/100 linear yards Finish Fabric: Maximum 40 points allowed/100 linear yard. 3 minor faults in one linear yard=1 major (Four points will be given)

37 How to change Kgs into Yards
For Tubular: Yards = Weight (Kgs)* Gsm*Width*2 For Open Width: Yards= Weight(Kgs)* Gsm*Width Points Allowed for Tubular=Total yards*0.2 or Total yards/5 Points Allowed for Open Width: =Total yards*0.4 or Total yards/2.5

38 Testing After finishing, fabric is tested to ensure the quality of a fabric. Following tests are performed on a fabric according to the requirement of customer. Shrinkage test Torquing Colour Fastness to Light, Water, Washing & Perspiration. Bursting Strength Pilling Test Flammability

39 Dispatching After ensure the quality & testing of a fabric, fabric is dispatched to Apparel Division.

40 Research & Development
Presented by: Abdul Rouf Deputy Manager Research & Development

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