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To Market.  Inspecting Beef  Grading Beef  ‘Branding’ Beef  Enhancing Beef  Color of Beef From the Ranch to the Dinner Plate.

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Presentation on theme: "To Market.  Inspecting Beef  Grading Beef  ‘Branding’ Beef  Enhancing Beef  Color of Beef From the Ranch to the Dinner Plate."— Presentation transcript:

1 To Market

2  Inspecting Beef  Grading Beef  ‘Branding’ Beef  Enhancing Beef  Color of Beef From the Ranch to the Dinner Plate

3  Began in 1891  Responsibility of the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), the public health agency the USDA  Considered by many to be the most regulated segment of the food industry Beef Inspection

4  Federal Meat Inspection Program  Mandatory (paid for by taxpayers)  Ensures only meat from healthy animals enters food chain  Ensures facilities and equipment meet sanitation standards  U.S. Inspected and Passed stamp on each primal  On outside of container if packaged  Includes official establishment number of processing plant Beef Inspection

5  The beef industry takes responsibility for producing the safest products possible  Includes everyone:  Livestock producer (Beef Quality Assurance Program)  Packer/processor (USDA-FSIS oversight and HACCP implementation)  Wholesaler/retailer operations (cold chain management)  Foodservice operator or consumer (ServSafe ®, proper cookery) Producing Wholesome Beef

6  Hebrew meaning “fit and proper” or “properly prepared”  Processed under supervision of a rabbi; independent of the requirements for federal/state meat inspection  Hindquarter cuts not available as kosher  Kosher inspection stamp applied after meeting  kosher and federal/state inspection requirements Kosher Beef BEEF INSPECTION:

7  Arabic meaning “lawful” or “permitted”  Dietary standard of Muslims  Animal or poultry must be harvested in a ritual, “Zibah”  Animal must be alive and healthy at time of harvest  A Muslim must perform the harvest  “Halal” or “Zabiah Halal” labels must be handled according to Islamic law under Islamic authority  Independent of the requirements for federal/state meat inspection Halal Beef BEEF INSPECTION:

8  USDA meat-grading program  Established in 1927  Administered by the USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)  Sets “standards” of quality and cutability  Generates federal grade standards for beef and veal  Grading is voluntary (meat inspection is mandatory)  Paid for by meat packers  Provides operator with a prediction of palatability  Tenderness, juiciness, flavor History of Federal Program BEEF GRADING:

9  8 Quality Grades  3 most familiar:  5 remaining: Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter and Canner  Less than 1% of older cattle that could qualify for Commercial or Utility are graded  5 Yield Grades  1=leanest  5=fattest Quality and Yield Grades BEEF GRADING: SOURCE: USDA, 2010

10  Beef carcass, not individual cuts  Grade carries forward to all wholesale/primal and portion cuts derived from graded carcass  Roughly 95% of all federally inspected slaughter gets a grade What’s Graded? BEEF GRADING:

11  Rolled:  Graded carcass “rolled” with blue ink stamp or shield to designate grade  Rolled along back from Round to Chuck and over the clod and brisket  No Roll:  Ungraded carcass  No official USDA grade standard  No official “no roll” stamp Rolled and “No Roll” Beef BEEF INSPECTION:

12  Carcasses from lower quality grades not typically graded  Wholesome and nutritious, but less tender  Commonly used in  Ground beef  Sausages  Other manufactured meat products  The best cuts/subprimals of lower grades may be tenderized and used in lower-priced beef entrées Lower Quality Still Valuable BEEF GRADING:

13  Plays important role in determining quality and yield grades  Types of fat:  Marbling (intramuscular)  Fat deposited within the muscle  Important factor in determining quality grade  Last area for fat to be deposited  External (subcutaneous)  Covers outside of the carcass  Has negative impact on final yield grade  Seam (intermuscular)  Lies between muscles  Has negative impact on final yield grade  Internal (KPH)  Protects internal organs  Has negative impact on final yield grade Carcass Fat BEEF GRADING: Slightly abundant marbling Moderate marbling Small marbling

14 Relationship Between Marbling, Maturity, and Carcass Quality Grade* The Final Word About Quality BEEF GRADING: Degrees of Marbling Slightly Abundant Moderate Modest Small Slight Traces Practically Devoid * Assumes that firmness of lean is comparably developed with the degree of marbling and that the carcass is not a “dark cutter.” ** Maturity increases from left to right (A through E). *** The A Maturity portion of the Figure is the only portion applicable to bullock carcasses. SOURCE: USDA

15  Performed by same USDA grader who determines quality grade  Identify differences in carcass cutability  Cutability: the amount of saleable meat obtained from the carcass as boneless, trimmed retail cuts  USDA Yield Grades and Quality Grades are “rolled” onto the beef carcass at the same time  Useful at purchasing level  Lower yield grade number translates to:  Smaller cutting loss  Less seam fat within individual cuts  Higher cooking yield A Word About Yield Grading BEEF GRADING: Yield Grade 1 greatest amount of saleable meat Yield Grade 5 least amount of saleable meat

16  “Branding” is increasingly popular  Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)  Provides voluntary certification services  Provides for certification of specific carcass characteristics within each program’s published requirements  Provides confidence that claims made were substantiated by independent 3rd party oversight  Currently has approved certification services for 60+ beef programs  For more information visit ELDEV ELDEV Certification – Assists Branding

17  A natural enzymatic process that occurs in all muscles after harvesting  Two types of aging:  Dry  Wet (vacuum packaged)  Research suggests that tenderness of cooked beef can be affected by:  Individual muscles  USDA quality grade  Length of aging time  To download a copy of Industry Guide for Beef Aging, visit Aging

18 Wet AgingDry Aging Vacuum BagsUncovered Under Refrigeration N/AControlled Humidity & Air Flow Up to 45 DaysUp to 35 Days Tenderness Increases Traditional FlavorDistinctive Brown-Roasted Beefy Flavor Yield Loss less than 1%Yield Loss 4-19% Less Expensive than Dry AgedMore Expensive than Wet Aged Dry vs. Wet Aging

19  Meat is soaked, massaged, tumbled and/or injected with a marinade to:  Enhance tenderness or juiciness  Impart other attributes, such as color or flavor  All prepackaged products must disclose on the label the amount of marinade and the ingredients used Enhanced Beef

20  Primary ingredients are:  Water  Salt  Phosphates  These ingredients affect:  Texture  Water-holding capacity (increases it)  Meat proteins = 20% of beef’s composition and can hold 4X their weight in water  Secondary ingredients are:  Seasonings  Acids  Sweeteners  Results:  Impart unique flavors  Improve visual appearance  Provide extended shelf life Enhancement Ingredients, Purposes

21  Abnormally dark color, generally the result of reduced glycogen (muscle “sugar”) when animal is harvested  Causes:  Excessive animal stress prior to harvest  Stressful conditions (i.e., severe weather changes) A Natural Phenomenon DARK-CUTTING BEEF:  Effects:  Does not affect eating quality  Higher muscle pH (less acid) after carcass is chilled  May receive one full grade lower

22  About 2% of steers and heifers are dark cutters  Acceptable for many foodservice applications  Appears the same as “normal” colored beef after cooking  Does NOT have as long a shelf-life Quality Not Affected DARK-CUTTING BEEF:

23 Myoglobin  A protein in muscles, similar to hemoglobin, the oxygen- carrying protein in blood  Various amounts give meats their distinctive colors Beef Color Myoglobin in a Gram of Meat MeatmgMeat Color Beef8Bright Red Lamb6Red Pork2Grayish-Pink Veal2Light-Pink Chicken2Light-Pink Fish2Light-Pink

24  Beef muscle not exposed to air (oxygen) is a purplish-red color  Foodservice operator will recognize a color change with vacuum-packaged beef cuts  Sealed bag, color appears purple-red  Opened bag, “blooms” to bright, cherry-red  Fresh meat exposed to oxygen for a longer period of time may change to a “brownish” color  Chemical change is called oxidation  Color can toggle between purple and red but once it changes to brown, it cannot go back Oxygen & Color BEEF COLOR:

25  Myoglobin, along with other meat proteins, “denatures” when cooked  The higher the internal temperature of the meat, the less red the cooked meat becomes, reflecting the “degree of doneness” of the cooked meat Color and Meat Cookery BEEF COLOR: medium rare (145°F) medium (160°F) well done (170°F)

26  Rainbow color in raw and cooked beef  Naturally occurring phenomenon  Does not affect quality or palatability  Created by interference of light waves reflected off the meat’s surface  Smooth meat surfaces may exhibit iridescence more vividly than rough surfaces  Common in Roast Beef and Eye Round Iridescent Beef BEEF COLOR:

27  Persistent pinking - cooked fresh meats that remain red on the surface or interior despite being fully cooked  i.e. meatloaf that remains pink even when fully cooked  Scientifically proven causes are:  Traces of nitrates in water supplies  Traces of nitrites and nitrates in vegetables  Use of pepper solution (which may contain a trace of natural nitrate)  Presence of carbon monoxide in heating gases and exhaust gases may lead to the red ring on cooked meats Beef Color Dynamics

28  Inspection is mandatory; federally administered  Grading for quality and yield is voluntary  Aging and marinating enhance beef's tenderness and flavor  Color of meat is an important factor Beef’s Journey to the Dinner Plate


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