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Anthony P. (Tony) Taylor Technical Director Airborne Systems Inc The System Approach to Spin Stall Parachute Recovery – An Update at 10+ Years.

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Presentation on theme: "Anthony P. (Tony) Taylor Technical Director Airborne Systems Inc The System Approach to Spin Stall Parachute Recovery – An Update at 10+ Years."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anthony P. (Tony) Taylor Technical Director Airborne Systems Inc The System Approach to Spin Stall Parachute Recovery – An Update at 10+ Years

2 Outline What is a Spin Stall Parachute Recovery System (SSPRS) ?  History of the System Approach to SSPRS at Irvin  The Challenge  The Result - An Outline of a Basic SSPRS System  Aircraft Installed Equipment  Ground Support Equipment and Integrated Testing  Well Developed Installation and Operation Manuals  Interlaced Throughout – Initiatives to Address the Requirements of the VLJ Market, and Recent Work on the Lightning II  Lessons Learned  The Evolution of Systems Since the ‘First System Approach’  Examples of Operational Incidents, Major and Minor, Positive and Negative  Major Events, safety related  Minor Events, maintenance level but also safety related  Some Operational Tests – Your Personal Fam Flight!

3 A View of a SSPRS Attach / Release Mechanism Cockpit Control Panel Parachute / Mortar System Trailing Cone CutterAircraft wiring / componentsSupport Structure

4 What is A SSPRS  Simply put, a parachute attached to the aircraft tail that lowers the AOA and thus restricts the Spin or Stall  Great Example in next Video  For Fairness, Other Approaches Exist  Rockets – Wing Tip or Tail Mounted  Mass transfer – Forward in some cases, Aft in other cases  Deployable Fins at the Aircraft Tail  While these have been studied and used occasionally, the Parachute method is the Aerospace industry standard  One other significant note, many Business Jet Mfg also use another parachute for high speed drag augmentation.  Mach Tuck and Deceleration out of Flutter points, as well as Attitude Control  Similar approach as discussed herein however details of the situation can be significantly different

5 Next Slide, a Video of an Actual Recovery  This is one of my favorite videos – you will see why !  Aircraft: F-5E – First Spin Test  Location: EAFB – Ground to Air Video with Long Lens  Pilot: Dick Thomas  Actually got to ask Dick about this test  Summary: Tried all the Adverse combinations (Stick and Rudder) and all the Proverse Combinations and all in between – Finally, and Dick reported pretty late, went to the parachute.

6 F-5E Flight Test Video

7 History of the System Approach at Irvin  Circa late 1995, Bombardier Flight Test Center (BFTC) invites Irvin to a meeting to review system requirements for the Global Express aircraft  At that time, Irvin provides only the Parachute and Mortar  Irvin is providing equipment for Canadair Aircraft only  Lear Jet Aircraft are provided by another company  BFTC has recently been created to Flight Test all Bombardier Aircraft  Canadair has suffered in the past two (2) significant system failures  CRJ Incident  Challenger Incident  Both caused loss of aircraft and some/all of flight crew  The Challenge:  BFTC Challenges Irvin to become System Level provider of all the SSPRS Equipment  Pete Reynolds outlines the basic system challenges  BFTC and Irvin Engineers Define the Basic Requirements, and Recognize a Significant, but interesting Challenge

8 The Basic Requirements  Original Requirements As Outlined with BFTC:  Dual Power Source  Quad Electrical Circuits – Where Possible  Dual for Pyro Lock  Reversible Parachute Lock  Fast Acting Additional Parachute Lock  Large Deploy Handle  Rotate to Lock  Pull to Deploy Parachute  Fast Acting Lock – Immediate  Trailing Cone Cutter – Immediate  Parachute Deploy – 0.5 Second Time Delay

9 The Basic Requirements (continued)  Smaller Jettison Handle  Covered by Deploy Handle  Electrical Interlock  Simple Lights  Green Parachute Locked and Passing BIT  White Parachute Unlocked – All position Switches Agree  Green Light Repeater on Glare Shield  Built In Test  Power  Pyro Circuits  Reversible Lock Switch Position  Irvin Response at the meeting: ‘This is going to be hard, but it is going to be darn neat when it is finished!’

10 The Result  The result, both in the initial response and with years of maturation has been (what most consider) a marked improvement in the reliability, safety and testing of SSPRS systems  Significant Results  1 Aircraft Recovery  Several Aircraft ‘Events’ which were ‘Non-Events’  Tens of BIT detected faults which were real issues, resolved both before and during flight  Several Service Related Incidents – Including One Very Recent – Which Result in Safety Notices and Procedure/Equipment Updates

11 Parachute and Mortar  The Parachute and Mortar is the Irvin preferred installation  Conical Ribbon (or other Ribbon) parachute is the preferred approach due to inherent strength and excellent stability  Direct mortar deployment of the parachute provides the highest reliability approach  High Energy  Minimal part count  Mortar also provides an efficient mounting container  Relatively well weather protected  Easily mounted to aircraft structure  Images at the left provide examples of:  Initial Parachute Pack Deployment  Fully Deployed Parachute  Thanks to EAFB F-22 Raptor CTF !

12 VLJ Market – Mortar vs. Other Devices  Parachute Mortars have many positives  Highly Reliable  Energetic deployment  Provide a Parachute Compartment  And at least one negative  Cost  For one recent VLJ Customer Airborne has agreed to use Tractor Rocket Deployment – Customer is very use to tractor rockets  Airborne is pursuing a program to become more comfortable with the devices for the future

13 Attach/Release Mechanism (ARM)  Two designs exist that cover aircraft from relatively light business jet through F-22/F- 35  Functional features are the same for all variants, these include:  Reversible lock through a servo motor  Parachute retention through a low force shear pin that will release the parachute if not ‘Locked’ to the aircraft  Position switches for feedback of reversible lock position  Pyro locking pin for fast acting (and redundant) lock when Recovery Parachute is deployed  Redundant pyrotechnic cutters for parachute release  These are much more reliable than any mechanical based release  Full value of this approach is realized when reviewed with the control technique (next chart) ATTACH RELEASE MECHANISM

14 Smaller/Lower Cost ARM  Small Probably = Lower Cost  Current Low Force ARM is not that large, but price could be reduced  IRAD Effort Planned for this year to work to reduce price and size

15 Control System  Provides simple PVI that has eliminated all previously known errors  Rotate Deploy Handle to Operate reversible, servo-motor lock  Pull Deploy Handle – begins Deployment sequence  Irreversible Sequence  Permanent Pyro-Lock fires to provide additional parachute lock  Trailing Cone Cutter releases that device (if installed) – Business Jet Issue  Parachute deployment is delayed 0.5 seconds to allow above to complete  Jettison Handle – Not Active until Deployment Handled is pulled  Jettison Handle is Electrically Interlocked CONTROL PANEL

16 Fighter Class Environment  Similar approach to previous however Large handles are not usually possible  Replace with Buttons and switches  Toggle for Lock/Unlock Function  Mash Button for Deploy  Guarded Toggle for Parachute Jettison  Functionality remains largely the same  One exception, T-50 program had room for Pull Handle configuration and preferred not to integrate the other approach.  Integrated Pull Handles and controls into the mounting position for an MFD

17 Lightning II Design  Same Electronics (Basically) – Distributed Switch Design to Match Lightening II Cockpit environment and Pilot Desires  The Latter Always Being a Risk  Some Challenges in Switch Functionality and Environmental Testing are nearly behind us

18 Forward Lower Cost Initiatives  Current Business and VLJ Class Aircraft use the Legacy Control Panel  Specialized Switches, while very functional have become Very Expensive  Internal BIT Processor has become obsolete – over 10 year old!  Still available but only in limited special builds  Internal Project to Upgrade and Update these issues  May convert switch design to an Airborne Internal Design CONTROL PANEL

19 Control System Built In Test  Built In Test runs continuously and checks the following  Current resistance of all pyrotechnic circuits – a more precise test than simple continuity (as with test lights)  Checks input power voltage  Checks Sequence time delay and relays – at power on only  ARM position feedback switches  Bit operates once per second, but requires failure is present for three straight occurrences before pilot report  Reduces nuisance trips  Flight Mode reports data to pilot via control panel lights and repeater  Maintenance mode provides detailed results via laptop computer  Allows quick isolation of problems  OPEN CIRCUIT - FSC1A (Deploy 1A)  Fail/4 FSC2A ijs-off FSC1B ijs-off FSC1A ijs-off FSC2B ijs-off  Pass Pass Pass Pass Fail Pass Pass Pass  2.134 0.0 1.170 0.0 31.75 0.0 2.113 0.0   274  Fail/1 FTCA FMLA FSCR1A FSCR2A FSC1A FSC2A CALIBA ij's-off  Pass Pass Pass Pass Fail Pass Pass Pas  2.247 2.163 2.172 2.215 31.85 2.18 4.768 0.0

20 Additional Equipment  Aircraft Wiring  Experience and requirements are provided for every customer  TSP and termination locations are critical to EMI (read lightning) protection  Some customers prefer Irvin provide aircraft wiring harnesses  Installation Structure  Provide adaptive structure to mount equipment and transfer parachute loads into aircraft  Analysis and test also provided  Thermal Protection  When required, thermal protection systems are provided for equipment  Parachute and mortar  Deployed parachute riser  APU compartment and exhaust  Engine exhaust MORTAR SYSTEM ATTACH RELEASE MECHANISM

21 JSF Quadrapod Status  Working through Qualification of This Large Structure  Some Lessons Learned Related to Vibration Qualification and Metal Plating  Believe that these will be resolved shortly – we are not holding up the program  Will be well suited to help future customers

22 Ground Support Equipment (GSE) and Integrated Testing  Integrated testing provided through Sophisticated Break Out Box  Allows failure insertion to assure BIT is functioning  Provides Pyro Device Simulation Mode  Allows Simulated functioning of Control System on aircraft  Internal circuits limit current flow to milliseconds, as with real pyro devices  Internal device measures current through each pyro path  Allows review of delivered current and deployment sequence

23 Current Re-design With Modern Equipment  Desire to Reduce Weight, Size and Cost  Additional Customer Desire to Further Automate Testing Process  Customer/Airborne collaboration to produce new device  Another project slated for internal development this year  Will also update device based on recent lesson learned during aircraft installation  More on this later

24 Manuals and Procedures  Seemingly a simple issue, well developed manuals require significant effort  Installation Manual  Includes initial and periodic electrical tests – Functional Test Procedure  Operation Manual – pilot operations and emergency procedures  De-Installation Manual  Many systems have been damaged by mechanics assuming they know how to remove equipment  Well developed Acceptance Test Procedures WARNING: BEFORE CONNECTING THE AIRCRAFT WIRING TO THE MORTAR CARTRIDGE, ESTABLISH A SAFETY ZONE AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT. The switch settings must be as follows: Key inserted in the Key lock Key lock in the ‘LOCKED’ position Deploy Switch Handle in the ‘UNLOCKED’ position Contact Breakers (‘BUS A’ and ‘BUS B’) ‘pulled’

25 Lessons Learned  System Approach to SSPRS  This is critical to a successful high AOA program  We continue to resist significant changes from what we believe is now proven  The Value of the System Provider and The Ability to Learn the Lessons  We were put into and remain in a unique position where we can learn from the problems of the past  We continue to learn from these issues  Need to form closer ties with Military customers, where big organizations and security serve to separate us from those lessons

26 Lessons Learned The Evolution Since the ‘First System Approach ’  ARM Changes and Enhancements  Servo Motor, Original Motor was too difficult to procure to support most programs  Lock witness switches, original design had an issue with simultaneity of multiple arms in a single switch  Fasteners, Original design incorporated commercial grade fasteners  Parachute and Mortar  Parachute Riser, customer interaction during entire program allows improved surveillance of installed equipment and enhanced designs for future installations  UV, Thermal and Moisture Protection  Load Limit Fitting, a Fuse link type device that some customers request to limit force that the parachute can apply to the aircraft  After fielding one particular design, Irvin identified an unfavorable potential loading condition  Units were recalled and modified to protect against that condition

27 Lessons Learned - Control Panel Changes  Original Jettison Switch was not Spring Return  Identified as a design discrepancy and corrected  Original Units Retrofitted  Original Design required one fault to complete pilot declaration – BIT fault light is latched  Experience has shown that ground plane voltage fluctuations can provide occasional fault  Algorithm changed to require three faults in a row before annunciation  Significantly improved performance

28 Lessons Learned – Control Panel Changes (continued)  BFTC identified (post Global Express), that single internal switch failure (fails closed) could lock and deploy parachute  Circuit modified such that two switch closures are required to complete deploy command  Retains most of quad-redundant architecture ability to deploy parachute  Currently incorporated in all fielded systems  Aircraft Wiring, Original installations did not require wire twisting, shielding or specific termination location  Result of lighting event described later  Lessons learned now incorporated and recommended to all customers

29 Lessons Learned – Ground Test Equipment  Original design used automotive class (Buss) fuses as pyro simulator  We were frequent guests at Radio Shack or Auto Parts stores  Choice between testing with fuse of lower current, or risking warm aircraft wire  Pyro’s require 4 amps for 10 msec to fire  A 4 amp fuse will take 4 amps for minutes to hours  Developed current pyro simulator device, with current trace recording – far superior monitoring  Currently working on ‘Fool Proof’ system which will prevent accidental firing from improper connection

30 Operational Incidents – Lessons Learned  Global Express, Successful Recovery  Locked in deep stall  Yoke full forward for 10-20 seconds, no result  Deploy parachute, recovery within seconds  Aware of some other events at commercial (business jet) customers, details to sketchy for discussion, however, recoveries have been completed high and low speed  F-16, flies Spin Systems even today  Edwards  Worldwide, we continue to provide new systems  Has had operational incidents such as damaged connectors, program continues to take appropriate corrective actions

31 Operational Incidents – Maintenance Related Learning Lessons  Have detected many real world failures  Bad power, Open breakers, etc  Poor ground connections in flight  Was a serious issue as this related to all pyros in the system – essentially the ground system was a single point failure  Connectors not properly connected  Bent connector pins  More than one occurrence  Ask my about my incident if we have time for questions !  Still suffer occasional hanger firing event  Never with Irvin personnel present  No injuries or significant equipment damage to date  Of course the spin system needs some work  Always traced to not following procedures  Working on a ‘fool proof’ system without disturbing excellent reliability of the flight system

32 Lessons Learned – Recent Support  Incident With Recent Pyro Vendor  Devices were NOT Meeting Performance Specification  Discovered During NASA Program Testing  Failure Analysis Provides Sufficient Doubt about Reliability of Fielded Devices  Airborne Decides to Recall and Replace Fielded Devices  Hangar Deployment Event – During Our Installation  Root Cause Traced to Lack of Ground in AC Supply  Safety Advisory Issued to All Customers of this Equipment  Future Designs Will Eliminate this Design ‘Feature’

33 Lessons Learned – Flight Test Planning  Consider the Planned Tests in the System design  Balanced field length for taxi tests – What if parachute doesn’t deploy, do we have runway to stop ?  In-flight deployment, is this parachute force higher than emergency recovery ?  Image below is C-17 with reefed parachute to address that issue

34 Global Express In-Flight Deployment

35 T-50 Golden Eagle – Taxi Deployment Test Courtesy KAI and ROKAF

36 T-50 Golden Eagle – In Flight Deployment Courtesy KAI and ROKAF

37 F-22 Raptor Taxi Test Deployment Courtesy Lockheed Martin

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