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Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Chapter 13 An Introduction to Cloning and Recombinant DNA.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Chapter 13 An Introduction to Cloning and Recombinant DNA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Chapter 13 An Introduction to Cloning and Recombinant DNA

2 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Clones Genetically identical organisms or molecules derived from a common ancestor

3 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Cloning Plants from Single Cells Fig. 13.1

4 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Cloning Animals Animals were cloned more than 20 years ago Two techniques –Embryo splitting –Nuclear transfer

5 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning library.thinkquest.org animalscience.ucdavis.edu

6 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Embryo Splitting Egg collected Fertilized by in vitro fertilization (IVF) Embryo is grown to 8–16 cells Cells are separated Separated cells grown into separate embryos Embryos transplanted into surrogate mothers May be used to clone any mammalian embryos, including humans

7 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Cloning by nuclear transfer

8 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Cloning by nuclear transfer

9 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Nuclear Transfer First done in 1986 More difficult Nucleus is removed from an egg Enucleated eggs are fused with other cells Embryos are transplanted into a surrogate mother In 1997, Dolly the sheep was the first mammalian clone from an adult donor cell

10 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Cloned animals Second addition Second chance at Texas A&M Also cloned animals about to go extinct - gaur etc

11 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Cloning Mice by Injection of Nuclei from Adult Cells Fig. 13.5

12 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Problems - don’t live as long not carbon copies/identical develop diseases early very low success rate % Dedifferentiation/reprogramming may not be complete or accurate

13 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Gene Cloning All identical to starting gene - CLONES Gene Host Cloning vectorRecombinant DNA Started with: few copies GOAL: To get enough copies of the gene to manipulate Multiply Ended with: Many copies.

14 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Restriction enzymes Nobel Prize Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith 1978

15 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Restriction Enzymes Fig. 13.6

16 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning G CCTAG GATCC G G G CCTAG Inserting foreign DNA using restriction enzymes GATCC G G CCTAG BamHI Ligase

17 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Frequency of occurrence of restriction sites If DNA sequence has equal amounts of each base If bases are distributed randomly 6 base cutter (1/4) 6 = 1 site in ~4000 bp 4 base cutter(1/4) 4 = 1 site in 256 bp

18 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Common Restriction Enzymes Fig. 13.8

19 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Fig a-d Cloning DNA in Plasmid Vectors

20 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Fig e-g

21 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Plasmid Used to Carry DNA Fragments = Vectors Fig

22 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Table 19.2

23 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning EcoRI 4.0 kb 2.0 kb3.0 kb Problem: How to get the 2.0 kb piece to subclone into vector Randomly Isolate specific fragment Shotgun cloning

24 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Steps in cloning a single piece of DNA 1. Appropriate restriction sites 2. Cut vector and foreign DNA with RE 3. Run on gel to separate fragments 4. Isolate specific fragment 5. Ligate with cut vector 6. Transform host bacteria. Selection. 7. Grow up colonies. 8. Isolate plasmid DNA. 9. Cut with RE to confirm presence of foreign DNA. 10. Run on gel to identify recombinant plasmids.

25 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Gel electrophoresis -ve +ve Size separation 4.0 kb 3.0 kb 2.0 kb Log (kb) Distance migrated

26 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Gel electrophoresis system or “gel box” gel stained with ethidium bromide

27 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning UV illumination of stained DNA fragments separated in an agarose gel by electrophoresis. Credit: © Michael Gabridge/Visuals Unlimited 34173

28 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Selecting Cells with Vectors  Vectors carry antibiotic resistance genes  Growing antibiotic-sensitive cells on media with antibiotics ensures that all growing cells must carry the vector  Selecting Cells with Recombinant Vectors  While inserting the donor DNA, an existing gene in the vector is inactivated  OR  In addition to the Donor gene a marker gene is added

29 Chapter 13 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings ©2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Original vector - 4 kb with one RE (EcoRI) site DNA to be inserted - 2 kb, flanked by same RE Cut plasmids isolated from colonies. Run gel Vector alone (no insert) - 1 band 4 kb How to tell that plasmid now contains insert Vector + insert - 2 bands 4 kb AND 2 kb


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