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Hand Tools: Measuring Tools

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1 Hand Tools: Measuring Tools
Tape Measure Plastic or metal case, appropriate for general scenic measuring Tri Square Used as a guide for marking 90-degree angles Combination Square Used for marking 45- and 90-degree angles Bevel Protractor Adjustable and used for marking 0 to 90-degree angles

2 Hand Tools: Measuring Tools
Framing Square Used for checking accuracy of 90-degree corner joints in flat construction Bevel Set Used for transferring angles from one piece of work to another Carpenter’s Level Used to determine true horizontal and vertical angles

3 Hand Tools: Marking Tools
Pencils Either carpenter’s pencils or number two yellows china markers used for marking metal wax pencils for lighting color media Scribe “Scratch awl” Used for marking wood, metal, and plastic; can also be used to make starter holes Chalk line Used to mark straight lines

4 Hand Tools: Hammers Claw Hammer Rip Hammer Ball Peen Hammer
Designed for inserting and removing nails Rip Hammer Can be used for prying or ripping apart previously nailed wood Ball Peen Hammer Used for bending and shaping metal and seating rivets

5 Hand Tools: Hammers Mechanic’s Hammer Tack Hammer Mallet
Used for shaping metal Tack Hammer Used for inserting tacks, the face is magnetized to hold tacks in place Mallet Wooden, plastic, or metal head, they are used for driving chisels

6 Hand Tools: Cutting Tools Saws
Crosscut Saw Used to cut across the grain of wood Rip Saw Designed to cut parallel with the grain of the wood Backsaw and Miter Box Fine-toothed crosscut saw, used with the miter box for more accurate cuts

7 Hand Tools: Cutting Tools Saws
Keyhole Saw Used for making curvilinear cuts in stock lumber Coping Saw Used for making fine, curvilinear cuts in thin plywood Hacksaw Adjustable frame saw for cutting metal

8 Hand Tools: Cutting Tools Utility Knife
Used to trim excess muslin from the edges of flats as well as to cut out stencils and other lightweight cutting projects Scissors Used to cut papers and fabrics Tin Snips Used to cut thin ferrous and nonferrous strap and sheet metals

9 Hand Tools: Cutting Tools
Wood Chisel Used for gouging, paring, or smoothing wood Cold Chisel Used for cutting through, or shearing, mild steel and nonferrous metals

10 Hand Tools: Cutting Tools Planes
Block Plane Used to smooth the ends (across the grain) of boards Smoothing Plane Applied parallel to the grain of the wood

11 Hand Tools: Cutting Tools Planes
Spoke Shave Pulled across the surface of the work and used to soften or round sharp edges Surform Tools Not really a plane or a file, they are pushed across the work, cross-grain or parallel

12 Hand Tools: Cutting Tools Files
Wood Rasp Used for rough shaping of wood Wood File Used for smoothing wooden and plastic surfaces

13 Hand Tools: Cutting Tools Files
Rat-Tail File Can be used with wood, plastic, and metal Metal File Has very fine teeth for use on metal

14 Hand Tools: Drilling Tools
Hand Drill Used for making small-diameter holes in wood Brace Used for holes larger than ¼ inch in diameter Push Drill Designed for light usage, it can be useful for making starter holes

15 Hand Tools: Drilling Tools Bits
Twist-Drill Bits Designed for use with either wood or metal Wood Bits Designed for use in wood or soft plastic, used with power hand drills or drill presses Auger Bits Used with the brace for cutting holes in wood

16 Hand Tools: Drilling Tools Bits
Push-Drill Bits Very sharp points that seem to punch rather than drill holes in wood Hole Saws Used to center the saw in the work

17 Hand Tools: Clamping Tools
Carpenter’s Vice Attached to the edge of a workbench, used for holding wood Machinist’s Vice Used to clamp and hold metal Adjustable Wood Clamp Used in furniture construction

18 Hand Tools: Clamping Tools
Pipe Clamp Used to clamp furniture frames, table tops, and similar wide objects together while their glue joints dry Belt Clamp Used to clamp irregularly shaped pieces together C Clamp Used for holding work together while the parts are being assembled or while glue dries

19 Hand Tools: Clamping Tools Pliers
Slip-Joint Pliers Used for clamping, gripping, bending, cutting light wire Long-Nose Pliers Useful for holding small objects in hard-to-reach places Adjustable Arc-Joint Pliers Used for holding metal pipe and tubing and other similar gripping jobs

20 Hand Tools: Clamping Tools Pliers
Locking Pliers “Vise Grip” Used to grasp, lock, and hold almost any object Diagonal Cutters Used by electricians for cutting soft wire Wire Strippers Used for stripping insulation for electrical wires Wire-Crimping Tool Used to pressure-clamp solderless connectors to electrical wire

21 Hand Tools: Clamping Tools Wrenches
Open-End Wrench Designed to fit nuts of specific standard or metric diameter Box-End Wrench Have a closed, toothed head that must be fit over the nut Adjustable-End Wrench “Crescent Wrench” It adapts to fit any small to medium sized nut

22 Hand Tools: Clamping Tools Wrenches
Monkey Wrench Adjustable, used on large nuts and other work too large for the crescent wrench Pipe Wrench Used to hold or twist metal pipes Socket Set and Ratchet Handle Allows you to tighten and loosen nuts without removing the socket from the nut

23 Hand Tools: Screwdrivers
Standard Screwdriver Available in a variety of sizes Philips Screwdriver Four-flanged tip allows for more rotational force Nut Driver Used for tightening small hex nuts on bolts

24 Hand Tools: Misc Hand Tools
Wrecking bars Used to pry wood apart and remove nails Sandpaper Used for smoothing wood, metal, and plastic Nail puller Used for extracting nails that have been driven flush to the wood surface

25 Hand Tools: Misc Hand Tools Grommet Set
Used to seat grommets on drops, stage draperies, and the like Oil Stone Used to sharpen knives, chisels, and other cutting tools Staple Gun Used for attaching muslin to flat frames and fabric to furniture

26 Hand Tools: Metalworking Hand Tools
Anvil Used for bending metal Conduit Bender Used to bend thin-wall conduit Center Punch Used to make small indentations in metal, starter holes

27 Hand Tools: Metalworking Hand Tools
Bolt Cutter Used to cut through mild-steel bolts and round stock Pipe Cutter Used to make clean, right-angle cuts through steel pipe Tap and Dies Used to cut threads on pipe and rod stock

28 Power Tools: Stationary Power Saws
Table Saw Used for ripping lumber Radial-Arm Saw Used for cross cutting and angle cutting, as well as for ripping lumber Bandsaw Used to make curvilinear cuts

29 Power Tools: Power Handsaws
Circular Saw Used for straight-line cross cutting and angle cutting, as well as ripping Saber Saw Used to make curvilinear cuts Cut Awl Used for making curvilinear cuts and intricate cuts

30 Power Tools: Power Drilling Tools
Drill Press Used to polish and sand as well as cut mortise and tenon joints for furniture construction Electric Hand Drill Used for light-duty drilling on lumber and light metals Heavy-Duty Hand Drill Used for heavier work, such as thick wood, thick mild steel, and concrete

31 Power Tools: Battery-Powered Tools: Pneumatic Tools
Pneumatic Stapler Uses air pressure to drive the staples Pneumatic Nailer Used for rapid assembly of platforms and similar structures Impact Wrench Uses air pressure to tighten or loosen nuts

32 Power Tools: Metalworking: Welders
Oxyacetylene Welder Combines oxygen and acetylene to produce a very hot flame that burns through metal Arc Welder Works by creating an electrical arc that melts the metals being welded Mig Welder An arc welder that focuses a flow of inert gas on the welding zone

33 Power Tools: Metalworking: Soldering Equipment
Pencil, gun, iron Used to bond wires together Propane Torch Used for soldering most heavy-duty scenic jobs and heating thin-gauge steel for bending and shaping Power Hacksaw Used to cut through various types of metal stock

34 Power Tools: Metalworking
Cutoff Saw Used to make either straight or angle cuts through metal stock Power Pipe Cutter Used for cutting and threading metal pipes

35 Power Tools: Misc Router Wood Lathe Bench Sander
Hand-held, used for shaping wood Wood Lathe Bench-mounted, holds and spins wood rapidly for shaping and carving Bench Sander Mounted and used to bevel or smooth the surface edges of wood and some plastics

36 Power Tools: Misc Electric Screwdriver Bench Grinder
Magnetized tip, used with Philips screws for assembling flats and platforms Bench Grinder Used for grinding and sharpening metal Hand Power Grinder Used for pieces too heavy or awkward for the bench grinder

37 Power Tools: Misc Hand Power Sander Belt Sander Hot-Melt Glue Gun
Uses a rotating disk of sandpaper to sand wood, metal, and plastic Belt Sander Uses belts of sandpaper for rapid sanding of wood Hot-Melt Glue Gun Used for making rapid-hold glue bonds between just about every type of material

38 Wood: Stock Lumber A Select: Free of all knots, blemishes, erratic graining and warps B Select: Grain can be less uniform and the wood can contain more pitch C Select: Can have a few tight knots, slightly less uniform, and still more pitch

39 Wood: Stock Lumber D Select: Can have more tight knots, an occasional pitch pocket, and some warping No. 1 Common: Can have knots that fall out; commonly warp and twist No. 2 Common: Knots that fall out, bark on the edges, warped and twisted

40 Wood: Molding and Trim

41 Wood: Sheet Stock Plywood Particle Board
Made by laminating several layers of wood, much stronger than solid wood Particle Board Composed of wood chips and sawdust mixed with a glue binder Heavier than plywood, but not as strong

42 Wood: Sheet Stock Wafer Board Hardboard Upson Board
Similar to particle board but lighter, cheaper, and just as strong as plywood Hardboard Called Masonite, is manufactured from wood pulp and used as a facing surface Upson Board Paper pulp and binder, fairly flexible with little strength, used to cover fairly sharply curved surfaces

43 Wood Sonotube Manufactured Wood
Paper tube used for forming concrete; in theatre, it can also be used to make columns Manufactured Wood Woodlike construction materials made from wood by-products

44 Metal: Mild Steel Square and Rectangular Tubing Tubing or Pipe Channel
The most used and useful shapes of steel, used for platform framing and flat framing Tubing or Pipe Primarily used for decorative items Channel Used in structures requiring significant strength, such as the framework for large platforms and wagons

45 Metal: Mild Steel Angle Strap
Used in those situations requiring less strength, such as lightweight frames, braces, and stiffeners Strap Used to strengthen or brace existing wooden structures

46 Metal: Proprietary Structural Systems
Unistrut Consists of U-shaped channels of differing sizes Telespar A system of telescoping square steel tubing; can be adjusted without cutting Slotted Angle Manufactured with a variety of holes and slots punched into both faces of the stock Aluminum Not used as extensively as mild steel, more expensive and more difficult to weld; mainly used for decorative purposes

47 Plastics Acrylic Epoxy Fluorocarbons
Used as a glass substitute and for making decorative baubles and stained glass Epoxy Most commonly used types are those for adhesives and casting resins, can be worked with either wood or metal cutting tools Fluorocarbons Teflon, makes an excellent bearing surface for turntables and for covering skids

48 Plastics: Polyesters Saturated Polyesters Unsaturated Polyesters
Have a variety of uses in both scenic and costume construction, such as stage mirrors Unsaturated Polyesters Can be used in casting or to create fiberglass

49 Plastics Polyethylene Polystyrene Polyvinyl Chloride Urethanes
Available in film and foam, can be used for such things as drop cloths and projection screens Polystyrene Styrofoam, used for making decorative trim Polyvinyl Chloride PVC pipe, can be used for a variety of decorative scenic purposes Urethanes Commonly used for cushions and padding in furniture

50 Fasteners: Nails Common Nail Box Nail Coated Box Nail
Large head, thick shank, used for heavier general construction Box Nail Narrower shaft that reduces the chance of splitting lumber Coated Box Nail Even narrower shaft, coated with an adhesive that bonds the nail to the wood

51 Fasteners: Nails Finish Nail Wire Nail and Brad Double-Headed Nail
Slender shaft and narrow head, used for building props or furniture in which the nail head needs to be hidden Wire Nail and Brad Small finish or box nails with slender shafts, used in property construction or for attaching delicate decorative moldings to larger scenic elements Double-Headed Nail Used for scaffolding or any temporary structure that needs to be dismantled quickly

52 Fasteners: Nails Screw Nail Clout Nail Tack
Threaded shank that rotates as it is driven into the wood for more holding power Clout Nail Used to be used in flat construction but has since been replaced by power-driven screws and pneumatic devices Tack Used for attaching fabric and for decorative purposes

53 Fasteners: Nails Corrugated Fastener Staple
Used to hold lightweight frames together Staple Come in a variety of types, used to fasten things together

54 Fasteners: Screws Flat-Head Wood Screw Round-Head Wood Screw
Used for attaching hardware and joining various wooden elements together Round-Head Wood Screw Used in those situations in which you do not want to have the top of the screw flush with the surface of the work Drywall Screw Used to attach gypsum board or drywall to wooden wall and ceiling studs

55 Fasteners: Screws Sheet-Metal Screw Lag Screw
Used for joining sheets of metal Lag Screw Very large wood screws used where the lack of access to both sides of the work prevents the use of bolts

56 Fasteners: Bolts Carriage Bolt Machine Bolt Stove Bolt
Used to join either wood to wood or wood to metal Machine Bolt Designed to join metal to metal Stove Bolt Used for attaching stage hardware, hinges, and similar items that require extra fastening strength

57 Fasteners Washers Nuts
Flat-steel disks that increase the bearing surface of the nut or bolt and prevents the nut or bolt from cutting into the surface of the work Nuts Applied to threaded ends of bolts to close and tighten the fastener

58 Glues and Adhesives: Glues
Animal Glue One of the prime ingredients of scenic glue, used to glue muslin or canvas to flats or to construct furniture Flexible Glue Animal glue with glycerine, used for projects requiring flexibility Wheat Paste Used for hanging wallpaper, papier-mâché, and for attaching dutchman

59 Glues and Adhesives: Adhesives
White Glue Elmer’s Glue, used extensively in scenic construction Carpenter’s Glue Used in woodworking, dries almost clear, is stronger and dries more quickly than white glue Latex Cement Used in laying carpet

60 Glues and Adhesives: Adhesives
Contact Cement Used for bonding nonporous surfaces together Polyvinyl Glue Resembles white glue and can be used for furniture construction and repair and as a binder for scene paint Cyanoacrylate Cement Super Glue, powerful adhesives used in property construction Epoxy Resin Adhesive Used in the shop in situations where its strength can be an advantage, furniture construction and property work

61 Hardware: Construction Hardware
Eye Bolt Used for attaching lines or ropes to an object Screw Eye Similar to eye bolts but used when the extra strength or the bolt fastener is not necessary Screw Hook Have a hook instead of an eye so that items hung from the hook can be quickly removed

62 Hardware: Construction Hardware
U Bolt Used to secure or fasten pipe, tube, or rod to flat surfaces Cable Clamp Used to hand scenery and battens Nicopress Tool Provides a permanent, nonremovable friction clamp for wire rope or cable

63 Hardware: Construction Hardware
Thimble Used to protect wire, rope, or cable from sharp bends or kinks Turnbuckle Used to lengthen or shorten a line system Snaps Used to provide a quick means of attaching a line to its associated load

64 Hardware: Construction Hardware: Hinges
Strap Hinge Used to hinge stage doors Butt Hinge Used to hang stage doors T-Strap Hinge Used for hanging doors, gates, and box lids

65 Hardware: Construction Hardware: Hinges
Loose-Pin Back-Flap Hinge Used for joining scenery, the pin can be removed in order to break the unit apart Tight-Pin Back-Flap Hinge Used for joining scenery permanently

66 Hardware: Stage: Lashing
Lash-Line Eye Used to attach the lash line to the flat Lash-Line Cleat Used to hold the rope in place so that the flats can be lashed together Lash-Line Hook Used to hold the rope in place so that the flats can be lashed together; can also be used in place of a tie-off cleat

67 Hardware: Stage: Lashing Tie-Off Cleat
Used in pairs to tie off the line after the flats have been lashed together Stop Cleat Attached to the back of flats to prevent the flats from slipping past each other when they are being lashed together in an outside corner configuration Stop Block Small piece of scrap wood used to prevent flats from slipping past each other when they are being lashed together in an inside corner configuration

68 Hardware: Stage: Flying Hardware Hanger Iron
Used in conjunction with a bottom hanger iron for flying heavy scenery Bottom Hanger Iron Used in conjunction with a hanger iron for flying heavy scenery Ceiling Plate Bolted to primary structural members of the ceiling to provide a means of attaching the flying lines to the ceiling

69 Hardware: Stage: Bracing
Stage Brace Adjustable pole attached to the brace cleat and secured to the stage floor Brace Cleat Attached to the stile of the flat, provides the point of attachment between scenery and the stage floor Rigid Foot Iron The long leg is attached to the bottom of the scenery and the short leg is secured to the stage floor

70 Hardware: Stage: Bracing
Hinged Foot Iron Similar to the rigid foot iron, its horizontal foot is hinged to fold out of the way when the scenic unit is shifted or flown Stage Screw Used to anchor a foot iron or stage brace to the stage floor Improved Stage Screw Doesn’t tear up the stage floor as much as the regular stage screw

71 Hardware: Stage: Bracing
S Hook Latch keeper, used to hold stiffening battens on the back of wall units made of two or more flats Floor Plate Used when the stage floor is not wood or you are not allowed to put holes in it

72 Hardware: Stage: Misc Corner Plate Tee Plate Picture Hook and Eye
Used to reinforce the corners of doors, windows, door or window casings, and picture frames Tee Plate Used as a substitute for keystones Picture Hook and Eye Used in sets of two or more for rapid hanging and removal of decorative draperies

73 Hardware: Stage: Misc Casket Lock Casters
Heavy-duty, hidden lock used to hold platforms together Casters Wheeled attachments used to easily move scenery

74 Hardware: Stage Hardware

75 Rope, Cable, and Wire Manila Rope Sisal Rope Clothesline
Primary type of rope used for raising and suspending loads in the theatre Sisal Rope Much stiffer than manila and easily deteriorates when used in sharp angle bending Clothesline Used for operating line on travelers as well as for lashing flats together

76 Rope, Cable, and Wire Nylon Rope Monofilament Line Aircraft Cable
Stretch too much and are too expensive for use in the theatre Monofilament Line Fishing line, used whenever lines need to be invisible Aircraft Cable Flexible and strong, used for flying heavy stage scenery

77 Rope, Cable, and Wire: Wire
Stovepipe Wire Used for tying or wiring things together, not to be used for flying scenery Piano Wire Used to fly scenery

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