Presentation on theme: "Basic Copy Cataloging (Books)"— Presentation transcript:
1Basic Copy Cataloging (Books) Prepared byLynnette Fields, Lori Murphy,Kathy Nystrom, Shelley Stoneas an LSTA grant“Funding for this grant was awarded by the Illinois State Library (ISL), a Division of the Office of the Secretary of State, using funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Service (IMLS), under the Federal Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA).”
2Session 11: Subject Analysis through Classification Dewey Decimal classification organization & principlesLibrary of Congress classification organization & principlesWe’ve talked about classification by subject with words—now we’ll talk about putting those concepts into 2 different number classification systems. Remember, you can assign enough/many subject “words” but only a single shelving subject “number.”
3How Do Books Get Organized on the Shelf? That’s the job of classification numbers
4Let’s Look at Dewey First This is going to be a little hard to do without the DDC books here.How many of you use Dewey? Are you familiar with the DDC schedules?
6What you might find on some Dewey shelves Remember, digits after the decimal are “decimal”—they act like any other decimal number. If you’re not quite sure when one number should come before another, extend the digits with 0’s until the number of digits to the right of the decimal is the same—then compare answers. For instance, .5 extends to .500; when compared to .512, it’s smaller, so shelves beforeAlso, 586 isn’t correct for birds!See any problems?
7Plus the 000’s for generalities An outline of the 10 main disciplines & some of the major subjects includedPlus the 000’s for generalities
8Characteristics of Dewey 4 v.: tables (1), schedules (2-3), index (4)Note manual (1) & intro (1)10 classes = decimal basisHierarchical, from general to specificAdding number segments adds meaning & specificitySummaries & carets [ < ]in marginsSome specific physical characteristics to noteOne of the nicest things about Dewey is that you can make your numbers as specific or as general as meets your needs.Abridged Dewey, in 1 vol., contains only 4 tables & much abbreviated index, schedules, & resulting classification numbers.
9Basic Premise of Dewey according to Arlene Taylor No one class for any given subjectPrimary arrangement is by disciplineAny specific topic may appear in any number of disciplinesVarious aspects of such a topic are usually brought together in the relative indexBase classification number on discipline for which work was intendedPoint #3 is true--true—true! There’re always several good call #’s to choose among If it’s talking about getting a job from the point of view of training, or the job market, or writing the resume--that’s where you should put the item
10Organization of the Index Cross references“T” numbers (tables)Spacing of long numbersDirection to different DDC numbers for different aspects of a topicSome “built” numbers (which include bicycles & adopted children)Index is very imp’t pt. of DDC. It’s also the 1st place you begin a search for the “right” number. We’ll look at a printout next, but here are some imp’t things to note about it.Built numbers are those in the index that are built according to directions in the schedules
11Dewey’s Index So, let’s look at the index Talk about the T numbers – have to do with Table 2 – they start with hyphens because they are add-onsNote the different aspects acknowledged in QuestionnairesNote the digit spaces in T numbers *&* in schedule numbersNote that, even with several-digit numbers, T numbers don’t include decimals. There’s no telling at just what point they’ll be added to a “base number” &, therefore, where the decimal will need to be.
12Some DDC Class Numbers Pertaining to the Family 173 Ethics of family relationshipsChristian family ethicsReligious family rites, etc.Family planningMarriage and familyFamilies with specific problemsDwelling placesFamily psychotherapySports for familiesFamily historiesLook at all the disciplines that relate—so to speak!
13Classification Number Structure Most:Discipline (0-9) subject subdivision geographic &/time period form of presentation (T1) /942/Literature and language:Discipline original language form period of compositionGeneralities (dictionaries, encyclopedias, library science):Form language or place641.5/942/05851./1This is the decimal aspect of Dewey—getting more specific with additional segments.= periodical about cookery in Great Britain851.1 = Italian poetry of the early period= Danish general encyclopedia038./81
14Some Important Ways to Understand DDC Read summaries throughout schedules, especially 800 & 810; T3 & T3ANote references to ManualRead scope notesConcepts: base numbers, built numbers, period numbers, segmentation, footnotesScope notes are often marked with “carets” in the margin—something to watch for. You only go to the manual when directed to, but that’s where you’ll find comparisons between or among various choices of numbers—pros & cons. Hierarchy tables help you decide which segment should come first, sometimes.Definitions on next screens
15Some DefinitionsBase number = number you add to, when directed by schedule or when adding from tablesBuilt number = number not directly available in schedule, but already “built” for you in the indexPeriod number = segment sometimes available to be added, indicating time periodSegmentation = logical break points to make a classification number shorter; indicated by “/” in OCLC & by “ ’ ” in CIP
18Tables: General Info T1 = standard subdivisions, -01-09 Use for all classesT2 = geographic table, -1-9Use when told to, orUse after standard subdivision, -09T3 = literatures, 3A, B, CUse with base number of asterisked class numbers,You’re never told to go to T1, so you need to be very familiar with the possibilities so you can apply it whenever appropriate.Concepts that often have to do with formMost of the other tables have stringent rules for application.
19Tables: General Info, cont’d T4 = individual languages (analysis of)Use with base number of asterisked class numbers,T5 = racial, ethnic, national aspectsUse when told to, orUse after standard subdivision, -089T6 = languages (items in other langs.)Use when told to
20Table 1Table 1 can be used with almost any schedule number. Learn what it’s good for—you’ll never get directed to it—you just have to keep its concepts in mind. Note the 2-digit summary numbers; then they get added to for more specificity, such as -011.All begin with hyphens because these will only be tacked on to another numberNote the “add to base number” instructions. They always include an example of a number built using the instructions, too. Note segmentation in built number.382.41/0973/01
21Some Oddities to Note T1 “explanations” at various spots: 501 [no note or explanation][no note or explanation][in summary + examples][in note + summary]Terminal 0’s at main class (600) or division (680) act as space fillers unless otherwise notedYou also need to become familiar with just how it gets applied to various schedule numbers—the directions differ throughout DDC. Sometimes you get explicit directions—perhaps more than one way. Other times, you extrapolate its application from examples, like at 501.The form is the least important part of the number, so sometimes you can’t go straight to table 1 and add the number because they may have used that number already.
22Note: no summary; no note about T1 application—only this example, from which you extrapolate the other T1 applications—503 would be dictionaries/encyclopedias about natural history/mathematics
23WebDewey, with Directions No summary here, either, but clear indication of just where T1 fits in at 025
24Dewey Call Number Structure [Location info] REF*Classification numberAuthor notation or cutter D56i+ work mark maybeDate[Vol. no.] v. 3[Copy no.] c. 2* decimal point between 3rd & 4th digits[ ] = optional componentsExplain about the work markAuthor notation could just be the first three letters of the author’s last name instead of an LC cutterVolume and copy no. are optional. Copy number isn’t used very much any more because most use barcodes to distinguish between copies. Dewey libraries often don’t include publication date in call #, either.
25Steps to Follow When Assigning Dewey Call Numbers Use index for subject & possible built numbersALWAYS look up index number in schedules for further direction/ explanationUse tables to add to number, if directed or desiredAlways remember T1. You can add concepts of form, class of person, geographic, etc., to almost any call number. For large collections, this adds specificity and organization. It’s part of what is so neat about DDC—you can be very basic in parts of your collection, but very expansive in parts that require lots of differentiation.
26Some Don’tsDon’t combine more than one standard subdivision (T1) unless specifically told toFollow precedence tables when doing soDon’t add standard subdivision, if redundant, e.g., adding -09+ to 973
27Clues to Look for in MARC Bibs for DDC Currency Fixed field “entered date”Fixed field “desc”—rules appliedAlways look for “a” [AACR2 + ISBD]ISBD punctuation or not040—Who created record?Usually prefer DLC [Library of Congress]082 or 092 $2—DDC edition usedYou also want to think about how something fits in your collection.Resumes can legit go in three different places – would want to just pick one – should have a local practice.Class numbers from older editions might very well have changed completely, due to DDC’s habit of revising definitions of whole sections of numbers by “Phoenix” changes.
28DDC is available in complete or abridged editions + in WebDewey thru OCLC Connexion. If older ed. shows, know that ea. edition has chart of changed numbers.
29Now that you know all about Dewey , we’ll look at LCC How many of you use Library of Congress classification?Are you familiar with the schedules?
30A - General works B - Philosophy C - Auxiliary sciences of history D - History (general) E-F - History (Americas) G - Geography H - Social sciences J - Political science K - Law L - Education M - Music N - Visual arts P - Language and literature Q - Science R - Medicine S - Agriculture T - Technology U - Military science V - Naval science Z - Bibliography; library scienceGood example of not being able to guess where LC puts a subject: Can you guess where sports would be?[answer = GV—in the geography schedule ]
31Library of Congress Classification 21 classes in ~40 separate schedulesEach has own index--no cumulativeAll classes except E-F have subclassesKept current with additions & changes, new schedules, reprint/cumulative/ revised editionsMain entry notation: LCC cuttersThe answer to finding an appropriate number with “no cumulative index” is sometimes LCSH. Don’t depend on it, but use any call numbers found in LCSH as starting points. Also, you can browse subject headings in a catalog—yours, OCLC, LC—for call # ideas.LCC is available in print--all those separate vols.--& also online in ClassWeb.
32Many gaps for future expansion Not consistently hierarchical LC can add schedule cutters for specific subjects, for expansionThese are some of the differences between DDC & LCC.
33How LCC Might AppearSpine label display differs among libraries. Spine above could be displayed as LB2396 on the top line, rather than splitting the letters from the first numbers.
34Read call numbers line by line LB Read the first line in alphabetical order: A, B, BF, C, D... L, LA, LB, LC, M, ML...2395 Read the second line as a whole number: 1, 2, 3, 45, 100, 101.5, 1000, 2000,.C65 The third line is a combination of a letter and numbers. Read the letter alphabetically. Read the number as a decimal, e.g.: .C65 = .65 .C724 = .724These decimal numbers are read just like numbers to the right of the decimal in DDC—extend with 0’s if in doubt as to order.
35Some call numbers have more than one combination letter-number line 1991 The last line is the year the book was published. Read in chronological order: 1985, 1991,Some call numbers have topical cutters *from the schedule*, as well as main entry cutters from the piece in hand.Publication dates are always included in LCC monograph numbers
36Here is a shelf of books with the call number order explained
37For Majority of Subjects Form, period, geographical, & topical subdivisions are indicated by different classification numbers in schedules, with few additional tablesExceptions: Law (K), Social Sciences (H), Literature (P), Fine Arts (N)Other subjects may have small tables included near topic, with footnoted directionsThese are generalities, but …
38Frequently Used Tables Regions & countries in 1 alphabetStates & Canadian provincesAuthor tables [P table schedule]Form subdivisions [K schedule]Biography tableTranslation/edition tableThese aren’t found in every vol. “H” has most. A book like Chan’s on LCC includes them all.
39Common DirectionsDirections for “By region or country, A-Z”, e.g., Witchcraft in AlabamaBF1577 Witchcraft, by region or country, A-Z.A2 AlabamaS5 main entry cutter1961 publication dateRefer to region/country cutter table *when told to do so.* Otherwise, geographic aspects can’t be added to a call number. Cutter breakdowns sometimes allow for form distinction within a single classification number; use only when given.
40Cutter breakdown in some schedules, e.g., HD9213, Salt industry: .A1A-Z Periodicals, societies, etc.; will have 2 cutters.A2A-Z General works; will have single cutterHD9213.A1 T Periodical about Taiwan’s salt industry, with title beginning with THD9213.J Book about salt industry, by Jones
41LCC Call Number Structure [Location info] REFClassification number HD8039Possible topical cutter .P3Main entry cutter [Ghastly] G63Date[Vol. no.] v. 3[Copy no.] c. 2[ ] = optional componentsSome libraries might type above spine label with HD on single line; 8039 on the next line.
42DDC vs. LCC Biography Fiction DDC: B, 920, 92, -092 LCC: particular subset of most subject categoriesFictionDDC: 823, Fic/SF/X, etc.LCC: PBiographies usually go with the subject in LCC not in a separate biography area unless it is a collective biography.
43DDC vs. LCC Bibliography DDC: 016+ or -016 [016.796 or 796.016] LCC: Z or subject category subsetHistoryDDC: 9+LCC: D, E-F, etc.GeographyDDC: 91+LCC: D, E-F, etc. COMBINED with History
44DDC vs. LCC DDC = additional segments are tacked on to base number LCC = tables used to locate desired number within range of numbers; appropriate number is arithmetically added to base numberDDC call numbers use various author notationsLCC call numbers use LC’s cutter chartKF schedule often gives a range of 5, 10, 20 numbers for a single subject. The tables direct cataloger to use 1st number in range for bibliography, the 2nd for serials, etc. H schedule has similar number ranges & tables, but different directions. Remember—all LCC schedules are created & designed by different subject experts, so their organization varies.Bottom line with either classification schedule—CHECK YOUR CATALOG FOR CONSISTENCY IN PLACEMENT!
45LC’s Cutter ChartRun thru a few examples. Note that all the samples on the next screen don’t just fit what you’d expect from this screen—they’re assigned to fit into *LC’s* catalog!
47Call Numbers in MARC DDC 082 DDC assigned by LC 1st indicator = no info or full or abridged DDC edition [blank, 0, 1]2nd indicator = assigned by LC or someone else [0, 4]$a classification number$b main entry cutter [rarely used for DDC]$2 edition of DDC used, if 1st indicator is 0 or 1092 DDC assigned by the rest of usSame 1st indicator & subfields; no 2nd indicator
48Call Numbers in MARC LCC Local free-text call numbers 050 LCC assigned by LC1st indicator = exists in LC catalog2nd indicator = assigned by LC or someone else$a classification number$b main entry cutter & publication date090 LCC assigned by the rest of usno indicators; same subfieldsLocal free-text call numbers099 Any call # type, with each part separated by $a, to format on separate lines in labels