Presentation on theme: "Basic Copy Cataloging (Books)"— Presentation transcript:

Prepared by Lynnette Fields, Lori Murphy, Kathy Nystrom, Shelley Stone as an LSTA grant “Funding for this grant was awarded by the Illinois State Library (ISL), a Division of the Office of the Secretary of State, using funds provided by the Institute of Museum and Library Service (IMLS), under the Federal Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA).”

Session 11: Subject Analysis through Classification
Dewey Decimal classification organization & principles Library of Congress classification organization & principles We’ve talked about classification by subject with words—now we’ll talk about putting those concepts into 2 different number classification systems. Remember, you can assign enough/many subject “words” but only a single shelving subject “number.”

How Do Books Get Organized on the Shelf?
That’s the job of classification numbers

Let’s Look at Dewey First
This is going to be a little hard to do without the DDC books here. How many of you use Dewey? Are you familiar with the DDC schedules?

Then Let’s

What you might find on some Dewey shelves 
Remember, digits after the decimal are “decimal”—they act like any other decimal number. If you’re not quite sure when one number should come before another, extend the digits with 0’s until the number of digits to the right of the decimal is the same—then compare answers. For instance, .5 extends to .500; when compared to .512, it’s smaller, so shelves before Also, 586 isn’t correct for birds! See any problems?

Plus the 000’s for generalities
An outline of the 10 main disciplines & some of the major subjects included Plus the 000’s for generalities

Characteristics of Dewey
4 v.: tables (1), schedules (2-3), index (4) Note manual (1) & intro (1) 10 classes = decimal basis Hierarchical, from general to specific Adding number segments adds meaning & specificity Summaries & carets [ < ]in margins Some specific physical characteristics to note One of the nicest things about Dewey is that you can make your numbers as specific or as general as meets your needs. Abridged Dewey, in 1 vol., contains only 4 tables & much abbreviated index, schedules, & resulting classification numbers.

Basic Premise of Dewey according to Arlene Taylor
No one class for any given subject Primary arrangement is by discipline Any specific topic may appear in any number of disciplines Various aspects of such a topic are usually brought together in the relative index Base classification number on discipline for which work was intended Point #3 is true--true—true! There’re always several good call #’s to choose among  If it’s talking about getting a job from the point of view of training, or the job market, or writing the resume--that’s where you should put the item

Organization of the Index
Cross references “T” numbers (tables) Spacing of long numbers Direction to different DDC numbers for different aspects of a topic Some “built” numbers (which include bicycles & adopted children) Index is very imp’t pt. of DDC. It’s also the 1st place you begin a search for the “right” number. We’ll look at a printout next, but here are some imp’t things to note about it. Built numbers are those in the index that are built according to directions in the schedules

Dewey’s Index So, let’s look at the index
Talk about the T numbers – have to do with Table 2 – they start with hyphens because they are add-ons Note the different aspects acknowledged in Questionnaires Note the digit spaces in T numbers *&* in schedule numbers Note that, even with several-digit numbers, T numbers don’t include decimals. There’s no telling at just what point they’ll be added to a “base number” &, therefore, where the decimal will need to be.

Some DDC Class Numbers Pertaining to the Family
173 Ethics of family relationships Christian family ethics Religious family rites, etc. Family planning Marriage and family Families with specific problems Dwelling places Family psychotherapy Sports for families Family histories Look at all the disciplines that relate—so to speak!

Classification Number Structure
Most: Discipline (0-9)  subject subdivision  geographic &/time period  form of presentation (T1) /942/ Literature and language: Discipline  original language  form  period of composition Generalities (dictionaries, encyclopedias, library science): Form  language or place 641.5/942/05 851./1 This is the decimal aspect of Dewey—getting more specific with additional segments. = periodical about cookery in Great Britain 851.1 = Italian poetry of the early period = Danish general encyclopedia 038./81

Some Important Ways to Understand DDC
Read summaries throughout schedules, especially 800 & 810; T3 & T3A Note references to Manual Read scope notes Concepts: base numbers, built numbers, period numbers, segmentation, footnotes Scope notes are often marked with “carets” in the margin—something to watch for. You only go to the manual when directed to, but that’s where you’ll find comparisons between or among various choices of numbers—pros & cons. Hierarchy tables help you decide which segment should come first, sometimes. Definitions on next screens

Some Definitions Base number = number you add to, when directed by schedule or when adding from tables Built number = number not directly available in schedule, but already “built” for you in the index Period number = segment sometimes available to be added, indicating time period Segmentation = logical break points to make a classification number shorter; indicated by “/” in OCLC & by “ ’ ” in CIP

Bicycles in DDC Index (Built Number)
WebDewey

Base Number Directions

Tables: General Info T1 = standard subdivisions, -01-09
Use for all classes T2 = geographic table, -1-9 Use when told to, or Use after standard subdivision, -09 T3 = literatures, 3A, B, C Use with base number of asterisked class numbers, You’re never told to go to T1, so you need to be very familiar with the possibilities so you can apply it whenever appropriate. Concepts that often have to do with form Most of the other tables have stringent rules for application.

Tables: General Info, cont’d
T4 = individual languages (analysis of) Use with base number of asterisked class numbers, T5 = racial, ethnic, national aspects Use when told to, or Use after standard subdivision, -089 T6 = languages (items in other langs.) Use when told to

Table 1 Table 1 can be used with almost any schedule number. Learn what it’s good for—you’ll never get directed to it—you just have to keep its concepts in mind. Note the 2-digit summary numbers; then they get added to for more specificity, such as -011. All begin with hyphens because these will only be tacked on to another number Note the “add to base number” instructions. They always include an example of a number built using the instructions, too. Note segmentation in built number. 382.41/0973/01

Some Oddities to Note T1 “explanations” at various spots:
501 [no note or explanation] [no note or explanation] [in summary + examples] [in note + summary] Terminal 0’s at main class (600) or division (680) act as space fillers unless otherwise noted You also need to become familiar with just how it gets applied to various schedule numbers—the directions differ throughout DDC. Sometimes you get explicit directions—perhaps more than one way. Other times, you extrapolate its application from examples, like at 501. The form is the least important part of the number, so sometimes you can’t go straight to table 1 and add the number because they may have used that number already.

Note: no summary; no note about T1 application—only this example, from which you extrapolate the other T1 applications—503 would be dictionaries/encyclopedias about natural history/mathematics

WebDewey, with Directions
No summary here, either, but clear indication of just where T1 fits in at 025

Dewey Call Number Structure
[Location info] REF *Classification number Author notation or cutter D56i + work mark maybe Date [Vol. no.] v. 3 [Copy no.] c. 2 * decimal point between 3rd & 4th digits [ ] = optional components Explain about the work mark Author notation could just be the first three letters of the author’s last name instead of an LC cutter Volume and copy no. are optional. Copy number isn’t used very much any more because most use barcodes to distinguish between copies. Dewey libraries often don’t include publication date in call #, either.

Steps to Follow When Assigning Dewey Call Numbers
Use index for subject & possible built numbers ALWAYS look up index number in schedules for further direction/ explanation Use tables to add to number, if directed or desired Always remember T1. You can add concepts of form, class of person, geographic, etc., to almost any call number. For large collections, this adds specificity and organization. It’s part of what is so neat about DDC—you can be very basic in parts of your collection, but very expansive in parts that require lots of differentiation.

Some Don’ts Don’t combine more than one standard subdivision (T1) unless specifically told to Follow precedence tables when doing so Don’t add standard subdivision, if redundant, e.g., adding -09+ to 973

Clues to Look for in MARC Bibs for DDC Currency
Fixed field “entered date” Fixed field “desc”—rules applied Always look for “a” [AACR2 + ISBD] ISBD punctuation or not 040—Who created record? Usually prefer DLC [Library of Congress] 082 or 092 \$2—DDC edition used You also want to think about how something fits in your collection. Resumes can legit go in three different places – would want to just pick one – should have a local practice. Class numbers from older editions might very well have changed completely, due to DDC’s habit of revising definitions of whole sections of numbers by “Phoenix” changes.

DDC is available in complete or abridged editions + in WebDewey thru OCLC Connexion.
If older ed. shows, know that ea. edition has chart of changed numbers.

Now that you know all about Dewey , we’ll look at LCC
How many of you use Library of Congress classification? Are you familiar with the schedules?

A - General works B - Philosophy C - Auxiliary sciences of history D - History (general) E-F - History (Americas) G - Geography H - Social sciences J - Political science K - Law L - Education M - Music N - Visual arts P - Language and literature Q - Science R - Medicine S - Agriculture T - Technology U - Military science V - Naval science Z - Bibliography; library science Good example of not being able to guess where LC puts a subject: Can you guess where sports would be? [answer = GV—in the geography schedule ]

Library of Congress Classification
21 classes in ~40 separate schedules Each has own index--no cumulative All classes except E-F have subclasses Kept current with additions & changes, new schedules, reprint/cumulative/ revised editions Main entry notation: LCC cutters The answer to finding an appropriate number with “no cumulative index” is sometimes LCSH. Don’t depend on it, but use any call numbers found in LCSH as starting points. Also, you can browse subject headings in a catalog—yours, OCLC, LC—for call # ideas. LCC is available in print--all those separate vols.--& also online in ClassWeb.

Many gaps for future expansion Not consistently hierarchical
LC can add schedule cutters for specific subjects, for expansion These are some of the differences between DDC & LCC.

How LCC Might Appear Spine label display differs among libraries. Spine above could be displayed as LB2396 on the top line, rather than splitting the letters from the first numbers.

Read call numbers line by line
LB Read the first line in alphabetical order: A, B, BF, C, D... L, LA, LB, LC, M, ML... 2395 Read the second line as a whole number: 1, 2, 3, 45, 100, 101.5, 1000, 2000, .C65 The third line is a combination of a letter and numbers. Read the letter alphabetically. Read the number as a decimal, e.g.: .C65 = .65 .C724 = .724 These decimal numbers are read just like numbers to the right of the decimal in DDC—extend with 0’s if in doubt as to order.

Some call numbers have more than one combination letter-number line
1991 The last line is the year the book was published. Read in chronological order: 1985, 1991, Some call numbers have topical cutters *from the schedule*, as well as main entry cutters from the piece in hand. Publication dates are always included in LCC monograph numbers

Here is a shelf of books with the call number order explained

For Majority of Subjects
Form, period, geographical, & topical subdivisions are indicated by different classification numbers in schedules, with few additional tables Exceptions: Law (K), Social Sciences (H), Literature (P), Fine Arts (N) Other subjects may have small tables included near topic, with footnoted directions These are generalities, but …

Frequently Used Tables
Regions & countries in 1 alphabet States & Canadian provinces Author tables [P table schedule] Form subdivisions [K schedule] Biography table Translation/edition table These aren’t found in every vol. “H” has most. A book like Chan’s on LCC includes them all.

Common Directions Directions for “By region or country, A-Z”, e.g., Witchcraft in Alabama BF1577 Witchcraft, by region or country, A-Z .A2 Alabama S5 main entry cutter 1961 publication date Refer to region/country cutter table *when told to do so.* Otherwise, geographic aspects can’t be added to a call number. Cutter breakdowns sometimes allow for form distinction within a single classification number; use only when given.

Cutter breakdown in some schedules, e.g., HD9213, Salt industry:
.A1A-Z Periodicals, societies, etc.; will have 2 cutters .A2A-Z General works; will have single cutter HD9213.A1 T Periodical about Taiwan’s salt industry, with title beginning with T HD9213.J Book about salt industry, by Jones

LCC Call Number Structure
[Location info] REF Classification number HD8039 Possible topical cutter .P3 Main entry cutter [Ghastly] G63 Date [Vol. no.] v. 3 [Copy no.] c. 2 [ ] = optional components Some libraries might type above spine label with HD on single line; 8039 on the next line.

DDC vs. LCC Biography Fiction DDC: B, 920, 92, -092
LCC: particular subset of most subject categories Fiction DDC: 823, Fic/SF/X, etc. LCC: P Biographies usually go with the subject in LCC not in a separate biography area unless it is a collective biography.

DDC vs. LCC Bibliography DDC: 016+ or -016 [016.796 or 796.016]
LCC: Z or subject category subset History DDC: 9+ LCC: D, E-F, etc. Geography DDC: 91+ LCC: D, E-F, etc. COMBINED with History

DDC vs. LCC DDC = additional segments are tacked on to base number
LCC = tables used to locate desired number within range of numbers; appropriate number is arithmetically added to base number DDC call numbers use various author notations LCC call numbers use LC’s cutter chart KF schedule often gives a range of 5, 10, 20 numbers for a single subject. The tables direct cataloger to use 1st number in range for bibliography, the 2nd for serials, etc. H schedule has similar number ranges & tables, but different directions. Remember—all LCC schedules are created & designed by different subject experts, so their organization varies. Bottom line with either classification schedule—CHECK YOUR CATALOG FOR CONSISTENCY IN PLACEMENT!

LC’s Cutter Chart Run thru a few examples. Note that all the samples on the next screen don’t just fit what you’d expect from this screen—they’re assigned to fit into *LC’s* catalog!

A Little More of it…

Call Numbers in MARC DDC 082 DDC assigned by LC
1st indicator = no info or full or abridged DDC edition [blank, 0, 1] 2nd indicator = assigned by LC or someone else [0, 4] \$a classification number \$b main entry cutter [rarely used for DDC] \$2 edition of DDC used, if 1st indicator is 0 or 1 092 DDC assigned by the rest of us Same 1st indicator & subfields; no 2nd indicator

Call Numbers in MARC LCC Local free-text call numbers
050 LCC assigned by LC 1st indicator = exists in LC catalog 2nd indicator = assigned by LC or someone else \$a classification number \$b main entry cutter & publication date 090 LCC assigned by the rest of us no indicators; same subfields Local free-text call numbers 099 Any call # type, with each part separated by \$a, to format on separate lines in labels

Can we add classification to our “fake books”?

Four Down, One to Go! Hit enter key to activate!