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Library of Congress Classification An Introduction Richard Sapon-White Catalog Librarian, OSU April 20, 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Library of Congress Classification An Introduction Richard Sapon-White Catalog Librarian, OSU April 20, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Library of Congress Classification An Introduction Richard Sapon-White Catalog Librarian, OSU April 20, 2007

2 2 Overview Terminology Basic LCCS Structure and Notation Cuttering Geographic Cutters Tables

3 3 Terminology Classification - a system of coding and organizing library materials according to their subject and assigning a call number to that information resource. Classification schedule - A printed volume or machine-readable database that contains classification numbers and captions, arranged by subject in a logical, hierarchical manner; also called classification scheme.

4 4 Terminology (cont.) Call number – an alphanumeric designation that uniquely identifies a bibliographic item. The call number is printed on a label affixed to a bibliographic item so that the item can be shelved and found.

5 5 More on Call Numbers Consists of class number (also called classification number) and a book number (also called a Cutter number) Class number  subject of the work Book number organizes works within a class May also include other information (notably a date)

6 6 Shelflisting Shelflist - A file of bibliographic records arranged in the same order as the corresponding materials on the shelves. Shelflisting - Arranging materials within an existing collection, generally by main entry; and determining the book number and other additions to the classification number necessary to create a unique number for each item.

7 LCC Structure and Notation

8 8 LCC System Structure 21 classes using letters AGeneral works BPhilosophy. Religion CHistory: Aux. sciences D World history and history of Europe, Asia, Africa, etc. E-F History of the Americas GGeography. Anthropology. Recreation HSocial sciences JPolitical science KLaw LEducation MMusic NFine Arts PLanguage and literature QScience RMedicine SAgriculture TTechnology UMilitary science VNaval science ZBibliography. Library science. Info resources

9 9 System Structure (cont.) Subclasses usually designated by a second letter (exceptionally by a third in D and K) Q Science (general) QAMathematics QB Astronomy QCPhysics

10 10 System Structure 7 categories provide structure within each schedule as well as within subcategories Physical format Philosophy Study and teaching General works Laws and regulations Juvenile works Topical subdivisions

11 11 Notational structure Alphabetic subclasses are further divided by sequential cardinal numbers from 1 to 9999 Example: QC 1-75Physics in general QC 81-114Weights and measures QC 120-168.85Descriptive and experimental mechanics

12 12 Notational Structure (cont.) Note that classes use whole numbers and are arranged in numerical order, e.g., QH1Natural history - Periodicals QH44Works about Linnaeus QH135Natural history – Biogeography – Europe – General works QH705Economic biology

13 13 Notational structure (cont.) Decimal numbers are sometimes used when topics are added Example: QC 81Early works through 1800 General works, treatises, & textbooks QC 8151801-1969 QC 815.21970-

14 Cutters and Cuttering

15 15 Cutters and Cuttering Cutter number or Cutter A method of representing words or names by using a decimal point followed first by a letter of the alphabet, then by one or more Arabic numerals. A Cutter number is read and sorted as a decimal number. Named for Charles Ammi Cutter, who developed several tables using letters and numbers to achieve an alphabetical arrangement. Book numbers and some subdivisions in the classification schedules are types of Cutter numbers. Example: Sapon-White .S36

16 16 Cutter Numbers in Classification In LCCS, Cutter numbers are sometimes used to subdivide classes Most common: Geographic Cutters

17 17 Cutter Numbers in Classification (cont.) Example: Geomagnetism QC 811-QC 849 Observatories QC 818.A2 General works QC 818.A5-ZBy region or country, A-Z A work on geomagnetism observatories in Canada would be classed in QC818.C2

18 18 Cutter Numbers in Classification (cont.) This results in two Cutter numbers for complete call numbers: 1. Subclass division 2. Cutter for main entry Example: The geomagnetism observatories of Canada / by I.M. Lodestone. QC818.C2 L64 2005

19 19 Cutter Numbers in Classification (cont.) Except in Class G, no more than two Cutter numbers are allowed In some cases, two Cutter numbers are used in the classification schedules. The 1 st Cutter is for a topical subclass The 2 nd Cutter is for a geographic country or locality or name of a corporate body, etc. A digit is added to the second Cutter for the main entry

20 20 Cutter Numbers in Classification (cont.) Example: Propaganda and censorship during Canada’s great war / by Jeff Keshen, 1996. D639class number for World War I.P7subclass for propaganda C24sub-subclass for Canada; added digit for Keshen 1996year of publication

21 Geographic Cutters

22 22 What are Geographic Cutters? Topics in classification schedules are often subdivided geographically “By region or country” “By region or state” A Cutter is added to the class number to complete the classification

23 23 Geographic Cutters: Step 1 Geographic Cutter numbers have been assigned for all countries SCM: Shelflisting G300 Regions and Countries Table G302 U.S. States and Canadian Provinces Can also check Cataloging Calculator Czech Republic: C94 United States: U6

24 24 Geographic Cutters: Step 2 Under each country:.xPeriodicals. Societies. Congresses.x2General works.x3A-.X3Z Local, A-Z HD9650.8.U6 Periodicals, etc. on chemical industries in the U.S. HD9650.8.U62General works (non-serial) on chemical industries in the U.S. HD9650.8.U63Works on chemical industries in a locality in the U.S. Second Cutter represents locality.

25 25 Example Chemical industries in Prague / Josef Chemický. 2005 HD9650.8.C943 P733 2005 HD9650.8 – chemical industries by country.C943 – Czech Republic, local P73 – Prague 3 for Chemický

26 Tables

27 27 Introduction to Tables Used to subdivide topics In print: appear in back of each volume References to specific tables appear in text Tables are numbered – be sure you are using the correct table! Add the number in the table to the number printed in schedule

28 28 Table in Print: Example 1 In the schedule HD Special industries and trades HD 9650-9660 Chemical industries (Table H19) In Table H19 at back of volume (in part) 0.1 Periodicals. Societies. Serials For manufacturer's associations formed with particular reference to labor questions, see HD6941-6948 0.2 Yearbooks 0.3 Directories 0.4 Statistics, prices, etc. 0.5 General works. History Including biography 0.6 Public policy 0.65 Handbooks, manuals, etc.

29 29 Table in Print: Example 1 (cont.) PROMT : Predicasts overview of markets and technology. [serial] 1 st subject heading: Chemical industry – Abstracts – Periodicals HD9650 + 0.1 (Periodicals) = HD9650.1 The chemical industry and globalization / Roger F. Jones, editor. 2006. subject headings: Chemical industry. Globalization. HD9650 + 0.5 (General works) = HD9650.5

30 30 Table in Print: Example 2 Taxation 0.8.A1 General works 0.8.A2-Z By region or country, A-Z Under each country:.xPeriodicals*.x2General works.x3A-.X3ZLocal, A-Z *Periodicals. Societies. Serials

31 31 Table in Print: Example 2 (cont.) A book on taxation of chemical industries in the United States by John Smith: HD9650.8.U62 S65 2007 HD9650Chemical industries.8Taxation.U62United States + General works S65Smith 2007Date

32 32 Tables in Classification Web HD9650-9660Chemical industries Table H19 [H R B L D S]Chemical industries HRBLDS Clicking on hyperlinked text inserts table into the class schedules! Removes the need to do some class “calculation” Note the granularity of classification allowed by the integration of tables

33 33 For Further Information Richard Sapon-White Catalog Librarian Oregon State University 541-737-7319

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