7Left hand spiralright hand spiralLeft hand cutterright hand cutterFig. 5 Left and right hand cutters.HelicalPlainFig. 6 Milling Cutters. a ) Helical b ) Plain
8Fig. 7 Various types of milling cutters Slab millCourse tooth millHelical millStaggered tooth millSide millInterloching millMetal slitting sawFig. 7 Various types of milling cuttersHelical mill (arbor type)
9Fig. 8 Various types of end mills Woodruff Keyslot end millDouble-end end millTwo-lip end millShell end millT-slot end mill
10Fig. 9 Angle, concave, convex, corner and gear cutters Corner rounding cutterCovex formed cutterGear tooth cutterSingle angle cutterDouble angle cutterConcave formed cutter
11Fig. 10 Effect of milling cutter diameter on workpiece travel Large diametercutterAmount of travel using large diameter cutterDirection of cutMaterial being removedworkpieceSmall diameterAmount of travel using small diameter cutter
12Intermediate arbor support Fig.11 Tapers used for Milling machine arborrsFig. 12The standard milling machine arborArborIntermediate arbor supportArbor supportSpindleDraw in boltMilling cutterJournal bearingArbor nutFig. 13 Arbor installation
15Standard machine table vise Fig. 18 examples of various visesswivel viseStandard machine table viseThe universal viseFig. 19 The index head and footstock
16Fig.22 Various mounting tools Fig. 20 Rotary tableFig. 21 Offset boring headAngle plate V-Block and clamp V-clamp C- clampStep block Bent tail machine clamp Finger machine clamp Strap clamp C- clampFig.22 Various mounting tools
17Fig. 24 correct mounting of workpiece in a vise Not correctCorrectWorkpieceParallelSelection of ParallelsViseCentering of workpiece in viseLocating the workpiece at end of viseFig. 24 correct mounting of workpiece in a viseStrap blockFig. 23 locating keys or tongues on the underside of the vise bases should be located correctly in relation to the T-slots on the milling machine table vise.
18Brown and Sharpe type Plate I - 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 holes Fig. 25 using hold down strapsFig. 26 The indexing plateBrown and Sharpe typePlate I - 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 holesPlate , 23, 27, 29, 31, 33 holesPlate , 39, 41, 43, 47, 49 holesCincinnati typeFirst side - 24, 25, 28, 30, 34, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43 holesSecond side - 46, 47, 49, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 62, 66 holes
19Fig. 27 Examples of Milling Cutters and Operations a) Slab milling b) Face milling c) End millingArborCutterSpindleShankEnd millFig. 27 Examples of Milling Cutters and Operationsd)e)
20Fig. 28 Face-milling operation showing (a) action of an insert in face milling; (b) climb milling; (c) conventional milling; (d) dimensions in face milling. The width of cut, w, is not necessarily the same as the cutter radius.
21fv(a)(b)Fig. 29 (a) Slab milling operation, showing depth of cut, d, feed per tooth, f, chip depth of cut, tc, and workpiece speed, v. (b) Schematic illustration of cutter travel distance lc to reach full depth of cut.
22TABLE 1 Typical capacities and maximum workpiece dimensions for milling machines Machine toolMaximum dimensionm (ft)Power (kW)Maximum speedMilling machines (table travel)Knee-and-column1.4 (4.6)204000 rpmBed4.3 (14)Numerical control5 (16.5)Note: Larger capacities are available for special applications.
23TABLE 1 Parameters and formulae of the milling process =Rotational speed of the milling cutter, rpmfFeed, mm/tooth or in./toothDCutter diameter, mm or in.nNumber of teeth on cuttervLinear speed of the workpiece or feed rate, mm/min or in./minVSurface speed of cutter, m/min or ft/min=D NFeed per tooth, mm/tooth or in/tooth=v /N nlLength of cut, mm or in.tCutting time, s or min=( l+lc ) v , where lc =extent of the cutter’s first contact with workpieceMRRmm3/min or in.3/min=w d v , where w is the width of cutTorqueN-m or lb-ft( Fc ) (D/2)PowerkW or hp(Torque) ( ), where = 2 N radians/minTABLE 1 Parameters and formulae of the milling processNote: The units given are those that are commonly used; however, appropriate units must be used in the formulas.
24Fig. 31 A typical setup for plain milling Fig. 33 Straddel milling of a hexagonFig. 32 is a typical example of angular milling.Fig. 34 Face milling
25Fig. 35 Face milling of angular surfaces Fig. 37 Form millingFig. 36 Gange milling.
26Fig. 38 Fly cutting toolsKey is milled to required lengthCutter centered over the shaftFig. 40 Milling rounded end key slot waysKey is milled to required lengthFig. 39 The Woodruff key slot milling cutter
27Fig. 41 T-slot milling cutter Fig. 43 The splines are cut by straddle millingFig. 42 Parting of a solid stock