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Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790). Auto bio graphy.

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Presentation on theme: "Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790). Auto bio graphy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790)

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4 Auto bio graphy

5 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Auto bio graphy Autos bios graphein

6 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Auto bio graphy Autos bios graphein Self life writing

7 St. Augustine, Confessiones (398)

8 Conversion from pagan to Christian

9 St. Augustine, Confessiones (398) Conversion from pagan to Christian Story of his life, from birth to conversion

10 St. Augustine, Confessiones (398) Conversion from pagan to Christian Story of his life, from birth to conversion Daily life and habits

11 St. Augustine, Confessiones (398) Conversion from pagan to Christian Story of his life, from birth to conversion Daily life and habits Temptations: observing spider as spectator sport

12 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Confessions (1782) Emphasis on childhood

13 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Confessions (1782) Emphasis on childhood Frank discussion of humiliations

14 Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Confessions (1782) Emphasis on childhood Frank discussion of humiliations Petty acts of theft

15 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Conversion?

16 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Having emerged from the poverty and obscurity in which I was born and bred, to a state of affluence and some degree of reputation in the world, and having gone so far through life with a considerable share of felicity, the conducing means I made use of, which with the blessing of God so well succeeded, my posterity may like to know, as they may find some of them suitable to their own situations, and therefore fit to be imitated. (5)

17 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Having emerged from the poverty and obscurity in which I was born and bred, to a state of affluence and some degree of reputation in the world, and having gone so far through life with a considerable share of felicity, the conducing means I made use of, which with the blessing of God so well succeeded, my posterity may like to know, as they may find some of them suitable to their own situations, and therefore fit to be imitated. (5)

18 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) I have been the more particular in this description of my journey, and shall be so of my first entry into that city, that you may in your mind compare such unlikely beginnings with the figure I have since made there. (26)

19 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Conversion? No, but Dramatic rise from poverty to postion

20 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) At length, a fresh difference arising between my brother and me, I took upon me to assert my freedom, presuming that he would not venture to produce the new indentures. It was not fair in me to take this advantage, and this I therefore reckon one of the first errata of my life; but the unfairness of it weighed little with me, when under the impressions of resentment for the blows his passion too often urged him to bestow upon me, though he was otherwise not an illnatur’d man: perhaps I was too saucy and provoking.

21 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) At length, a fresh difference arising between my brother and me, I took upon me to assert my freedom, presuming that he would not venture to produce the new indentures. It was not fair in me to take this advantage, and this I therefore reckon one of the first errata of my life; but the unfairness of it weighed little with me, when under the impressions of resentment for the blows his passion too often urged him to bestow upon me, though he was otherwise not an illnatur’d man: perhaps I was too saucy and provoking. (22)

22 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Erratum, pl. errata = error (Latin)

23 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) The breaking into this money of Vernon's was one of the first great errata of my life. (35)

24 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) He seem'd quite to forget his wife and child, and I, by degrees, my engagements with Miss Read, to whom I never wrote more than one letter, and that was to let her know I was not likely soon to return. This was another of the great errata of my life, which I should wish to correct if I were to live it over again. (43)

25 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) We ventured, however, over all these difficulties, and I took her to wife, September 1st, 1730. None of the inconveniences happened that we had apprehended, she proved a good and faithful helpmate, assisted me much by attending the shop; we throve together, and have ever mutually endeavored to make each other happy. Thus I corrected that great erratum as well as I could. (69)

26 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Conversion? No, but Dramatic rise from poverty to position Regretting errors (errata) and correcting them

27 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Having emerged from the poverty and obscurity in which I was born and bred, to a state of affluence and some degree of reputation in the world, and having gone so far through life with a considerable share of felicity, the conducing means I made use of, which with the blessing of God so well succeeded, my posterity may like to know, as they may find some of them suitable to their own situations, and therefore fit to be imitated. (5)

28 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Conversion? No, but Dramatic rise poverty to position Regretting errors (errata) and correcting them Exemplary life

29 St. Augustine, Confessiones (398) Conversion from pagan to Christian Life story, from birth to time of writing

30 St. Augustine, Confessiones (398) Conversion from pagan to Christian Life story, from birth to time of writing Daily life and habits

31 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Letter from Mr. Benjamin Vaughan: It is in youth that we plant our chief habits and prejudices; it is in youth that we take our party as to profession, pursuits and matrimony; (73)

32 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Daily life and habit How Franklin became a vegetarian

33 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) "I doubt," said he, "my constitution will not bear that." I assur'd him it would, and that he would be the better for it. He was usually a great glutton, and I promised myself some diversion in half starving him. He agreed to try the practice, if I would keep him company. I did so, and we held it for three months. We had our victuals dress'd, and brought to us regularly by a woman in the neighborhood, who had from me a list of forty dishes to be prepar'd for us at different times, in all which there was neither fish, flesh, nor fowl, and the whim suited me the better at this time from the cheapness of it, not costing us above eighteenpence sterling each per week. (37)

34 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) "I doubt," said he, "my constitution will not bear that." I assur'd him it would, and that he would be the better for it. He was usually a great glutton, and I promised myself some diversion in half starving him. He agreed to try the practice, if I would keep him company. I did so, and we held it for three months. We had our victuals dress'd, and brought to us regularly by a woman in the neighborhood, who had from me a list of forty dishes to be prepar'd for us at different times, in all which there was neither fish, flesh, nor fowl, and the whim suited me the better at this time from the cheapness of it, not costing us above eighteenpence sterling each per week. (37)

35 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) "I doubt," said he [Keimer], "my constitution will not bear that." I assur'd him it would, and that he would be the better for it. He was usually a great glutton, and I promised myself some diversion in half starving him. He agreed to try the practice, if I would keep him company. I did so, and we held it for three months. We had our victuals dress'd, and brought to us regularly by a woman in the neighborhood, who had from me a list of forty dishes to be prepar'd for us at different times, in all which there was neither fish, flesh, nor fowl, and the whim suited me the better at this time from the cheapness of it, not costing us above eighteenpence sterling each per week. (37)

36 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) "I doubt," said he, "my constitution will not bear that." I assur'd him it would, and that he would be the better for it. He was usually a great glutton, and I promised myself some diversion in half starving him. He agreed to try the practice, if I would keep him company. I did so, and we held it for three months. We had our victuals dress'd, and brought to us regularly by a woman in the neighborhood, who had from me a list of forty dishes to be prepar'd for us at different times, in all which there was neither fish, flesh, nor fowl, and the whim suited me the better at this time from the cheapness of it, not costing us above eighteenpence sterling each per week. (37)

37 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Daily life and habits How Franklin became a vegetarian and an advocate for temperance

38 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) My companion at the press drank every day a pint before breakfast, a pint at breakfast with his bread and cheese, a pint between breakfast and dinner, a pint at dinner, a pint in the afternoon about six o'clock, and another when he had done his day's work. I thought it a detestable custom; but it was necessary, he suppos'd, to drink strong beer, that he might be strong to labor. (46)

39 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) I endeavored to convince him that the bodily strength afforded by beer could only be in proportion to the grain or flour of the barley dissolved in the water of which it was made; that there was more flour in a pennyworth of bread; and therefore, if he would eat that with a pint of water, it would give him more strength than a quart of beer. He drank on, however, and had four or five shillings to pay out of his wages every Saturday night for that muddling liquor; an expense I was free from. And thus these poor devils keep themselves always under. (46)

40 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) when I talk'd of a lodging I had heard of, nearer my business, for two shillings a week, which, intent as I now was on saving money, made some difference, she bid me not think of it, for she would abate me two shillings a week for the future; (48) 0393919617

41 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Frugality

42 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) "For the industry of that Franklin," says he, "is superior to any thing I ever saw of the kind; I see him still at work when I go home from club, and he is at work again before his neighbors are out of bed.” (61)

43 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) I mention this industry the more particularly and the more freely, tho' it seems to be talking in my own praise, that those of my posterity, who shall read it, may know the use of that virtue, when they see its effects in my favour throughout this relation. (61)

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45 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Frugality Industry

46 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Frugality Industry Adam Smith: Capital is increased by parsimony and industry. (431)

47 St. Augustine, Confessiones (398) Conversion from pagan to Christian Life story, from birth to time of writing? Daily life and habits Temptations: observing spider as spectator sport

48 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) The Art of Virtue It was about this time I conceiv'd the bold and arduous project of arriving at moral perfection. (82)

49 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) The Art of Virtue But I soon found I had undertaken a task of more difficulty than I bad imagined. While my care was employ'd in guarding against one fault, I was often surprised by another; habit took the advantage of inattention; inclination was sometimes too strong for reason. I concluded, at length, that the mere speculative conviction that it was our interest to be completely virtuous, was not sufficient to prevent our slipping; and that the contrary habits must be broken, and good ones acquired and established, before we can have any dependence on a steady, uniform rectitude of conduct. For this purpose Itherefore contrived the following method. (82)

50 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) The Art of Virtue But I soon found I had undertaken a task of more difficulty than I bad imagined. While my care was employ'd in guarding against one fault, I was often surprised by another; habit took the advantage of inattention; inclination was sometimes too strong for reason. I concluded, at length, that the mere speculative conviction that it was our interest to be completely virtuous, was not sufficient to prevent our slipping; and that the contrary habits must be broken, and good ones acquired and established, before we can have any dependence on a steady, uniform rectitude of conduct. For this purpose I therefore contrived the following method. (82)

51 Benjamin Franklin (06 – 1790) The Art of Virtue

52 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) The Art of Virtue My intention being to acquire the habitude of all these virtues, I judg'd it would be well not to distract my attention by attempting the whole at once, but to fix it on one of them at a time; and, when I should be master of that, then to proceed to another, and so on, till I should have gone thro' the thirteen; and, as the previous acquisition of some might facilitate the acquisition of certain others, I arrang'd them with that view, as they stand above.

53 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) The Art of Virtue My intention being to acquire the habitude of all these virtues, I judg'd it would be well not to distract my attention by attempting the whole at once, but to fix it on one of them at a time; and, when I should be master of that, then to proceed to another, and so on, till I should have gone thro' the thirteen; and, as the previous acquisition of some might facilitate the acquisition of certain others, I arrang'd them with that view, as they stand above.

54 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) The Art of Virtue Frugality: “Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e. waste nothing.”

55 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) The Art of Virtue Frugality: “Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e. waste nothing.” Industry: Lose no time; be always employed in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions” (83)

56 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Frugality and Industry freeing me from my remaining debt, and producing affluence and independence, would make more easy the practice of Sincerity and Justice, etc., etc. (85)

57 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) Order:

58 Benjamin Franklin (1706 – 1790) The Art of Virtue Humility I cannot boast of much success in acquiring the reality of this virtue, but I had a good deal with regard to the appearance of it. (91)


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