July 2005 Purpose of the Session To help you identify practical ways to apply principles of best practice, behaviour change theory and research to the planning and implementation of physical activity initiatives in your community.
“The only person that likes change is a wet baby.” - source unknown
“Successful self-changing individuals follow a powerful and, perhaps most important, controllable & predictable course.” James Prochaska
SCM Developed by Prochaska, DiClemente, Norcross Consists of 6 stages and 10 processes The idea behind the SCM is that behaviour change does not happen in one step People tend to progress through different stages on their way to successful change Each person progresses through the stages at his/her own rate
July 2005 Precontemplation Have no intention of changing behaviour in the foreseeable future May not see the behaviour as a problem for them resistant, unaware, unwilling “It isn’t that I can’t see the solution; I can’t see the problem.”
July 2005 Reasons for Precontemplation Reluctance – inertia or lack of information prevents the person from being fully aware Rebellion – active resistance or hostility to the problem or desired behaviour may exist Resignation – a belief in the inability to change (efficacy); a lack of energy for & investment in change Rationalization – determines there is no problem, the odds of risk are in their favour, or problem is someone else’s
July 2005 Contemplation Usually something happens that prompts change Aware that a problem exists & seriously considers action but has not yet made a commitment to action Ambivalent, aware, open, need convincing Lacks confidence & commitment Open to information but waiting for that “one thing” to move them The end of this phase – anticipation, activity, anxiety, excitement “I want to stop feeling so stuck.”
July 2005 Decision Point An event, not a stage Concluded that the negatives of the behaviour outweigh the positives Chooses to change behaviour
July 2005 Preparation Accepts responsibility to change Evaluates & selects techniques for behaviour Develops a plan – getting organized Intent upon taking action soon & often reports some steps taken Combination of behavioural intentions & actions Usually take serious action within a month Some ambivalence remains Relatively transitory stage Anticipation, willingness
July 2005 Action Aware the problem exists & actively modifies their behaviour, experiences & environment Commitment is clear Great deal of effort is expended Have made a plan & begun to implement Ambivalence is still an issue Gains new insights & develops new skills Learns to overcome the tendencies for unwanted behaviour Usually lasts 1-6 months Change is more visible to others
July 2005 Maintenance Has made a sustained change Masters the ability to sustain the change with minimal effort Remains alert to high-risk situations New pattern of behaviour has replaced the old & is firmly established Self-controlled Threat of relapse becomes less intense Relapse likely after an initial slip
July 2005 Relapse Event not a stage May occur at any time Personal distress or social pressures are allowed to interrupt the behaviour change process Temporary loss of progress which resumes at an earlier stage Experience is educational to help prevent further lapses Most successful self-changers go through the stages 3-4 times; most return to Contemplation
July 2005 Allegory of Change by Portia Nelson 1.I walk down the street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I fall in. I am lost.......I am helpless. It isn't my fault. It takes forever to find a way out. 2.I walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I pretend I don't see it. I fall in again. I can't believe I am in the same place, but it isn't my fault. It still takes a long time to get out. 3.I walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I see it is there. I still fall in..........it's a habit. My eyes are open. I know where I am. It is my fault. I get out immediately. 4.I walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I walk around it. 5.I walk down another street.
July 2005 Limitations of the Theory Individually based Ideally complemented with a broader approach to changing the environment Not generally population-based Resource intensive
July 2005 So how do you know what stage? Nomogram I am not currently … & am not thinking of doing so in the coming month. I am not currently … but I have thought about … I am not currently … but I plan to do so within the next month. I am currently … but have only been doing so for the past 6 months or less. I am currently … and have been doing so for 7 months or more.
July 2005 Strategies for each Stage- Precontemplation Increase awareness of need to change (risk, benefits) Give personalized information (e.g. benefits) Encourage thinking about change Offer to help is they do decide to change Recommend a solution
July 2005 Strategies for each Stage- Contemplation Motivate & increase confidence Emphasize benefits of change & identify barriers Explore concerns & fears Help resolve ambivalence
July 2005 Strategies for each Stage- Preparation Help individualize a plan for change Set realistic goals Provide options & logical information Provide & have person seek social support Develop necessary skills to take action Motivation is key
Strategies for each Stage- Action Reaffirm commitment & follow-up Teach behavioural skills Provide educational materials Stress benefits Reduce barriers through problem-solving Access social support Celebrate successes & use rewards Continue follow-up
July 2005 Strategies for each Stage- Maintenance Plan for potential difficulties Develop & utilize a support network Reminder of benefits Reassure about ability to sustain new behaviour (efficacy)
July 2005 Strategies for Preventing Relapse Identify coping strategy for the short-term Analyze what went wrong; use lapse as a learning opportunity Plan next attempt at change & identify what will be different next time Persevere
July 2005 Processes of Change The different types of strategies used to influence people in moving from one stage to another. Two types: Experiential – changes in the ways people think & feel Behavioural – changes in the way people act
Experiential Processes of Change Consciousness Raising Involves providing information regarding the nature & risk of unsafe behaviours; gets people thinking about the issue Dramatic Relief Fosters the identification, experiencing, & expression of emotions related to the risk the safer alternatives
July 2005 Experiential Processes of Change (2) Social Liberation An awareness of circumstances in the environment that provides additional behavioural alternatives (e.g. I see fewer people doing …) Self Re-evaluation A re-appraisal of personally relevant consequences associated with the changes
July 2005 Experiential Processes of Change (3) Environmental Re-evaluation – An awareness of the impact that one’s behaviour has on others
July 2005 Behavioural Processes of Change Counterconditioning Refers to replacing the behaviour with a substitute Stimulus Control Concerns removing cues or avoiding situations which trigger the behaviour
July 2005 Behavioural Processes of Change (2) Reinforcement Management How people reward themselves (or are rewarded by others) (consider the original motivators) Helping Relationships Trusting others and accepting their support or seeking professional assistance
6 Features of the Enabling Environment ( The Communication Initiative) Social - nature of personal relationships; expectations of class, position, age, gender; access to knowledge, information. Cultural - the behaviors and attitudes considered acceptable in given contexts - eg. relating to sex, gender, drugs, leisure, participation Ethical and Spiritual - influence of personal and shared values and discussion about moral systems from which those are derived - can include rituals, religion and rights of passage Legal - laws determining what people can do and activities to encourage observance of those laws Political - systems of governance in which change will have to take place - can, for example, limit access to information and involvement in social action Resource - affect what is required to make things happen - covers human, financial and material resources; community knowledge and skills; and items for exchange
July 2005 Tools Authors: James O. Prochaska, John C. Norcross, Carlos C. Diclemente Format: Paperback, 1 st ed., 304pp. ISBN: 038072572X Publisher: Morrow,William & Co Pub. Date: August 1995
July 2005 Tools Transtheoretical Model / Stages of Change Overview (University of South Florida) http://hsc.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Stages_of_Change_Overview.htm The Stages of Change http://www.skysite.org/primer/stagesofchange.html
July 2005 Stages of Change related to Marketing Strategies Developed by Andreasen (1995): Stages of ChangeMarketing Theory PrecontemplationCreate awareness, interest & change values ContemplationPersuade, motivate ActionCreate action MaintenanceMaintain change
July 2005 Motivation McLelland & Atkinson Identified three types of people: – Affiliation – Achievement – Power / Prestige
July 2005 Affiliator Goal is to be with others & enjoy mutual friendships Seeks out relationships Likes to work with other people Sensitive to feelings, needs of others Supports others in achieving goals Talks about feelings
July 2005 Achiever Experiences success in a situation which requires excellent or improved performance. Concerned with results, personal best Sets goals, takes risks to get there Innovative, restless Likes to be challenged Likes to work alone
July 2005 Prestige/Power Person Wants to have an impact or an influence on others. Tries to shape opinions Wants to change things Exercises power to benefit others Concern for position, respect, reputation May be charismatic Can be verbally aggressive, forceful
Motivational Ideas (Health Canada) Recommend setting personal goals to work toward Use questionnaires to assess personal readiness to change Emphasize incremental changes Encourage use of logs to monitor progress Use physical activity and fitness appraisals to determine each individual's level of preparedness Create messages about physical activity that target personal values such as helping the environment and raising self-esteem
July 2005 Motivational Ideas (2) Encourage people to make a commitment; they will be more likely to carry out the behaviour Find a spokesperson to whom your audience can relate, preferably someone within the community who was successful in changing his/her behaviour Engage respected role models as effective motivational speakers Motivate people through friendly competition with the use of rewards, recognition and prizes for participation
July 2005 Motivational Ideas (3) Organize competitive events between individuals, neighbourhoods and organizations Collaborate with physicians and encourage them to speak to their patients about the benefits of physical activity Use reminders to be physically active to reinforce good intentions such as keeping gym shoes by the door or car, hiding the remote control or writing a note to be physically active and putting it in a place you are sure to see it Post Canada's Physical Activity Guide at work on your fridge or front door
July 2005 Conditions for Success - (Fishbein) Generally speaking it appears that in order for a person to perform a given behaviour: 1.The person must have formed a strong positive intention (or made a commitment) to perform the behaviour. 2.There are no environmental constraints that make it impossible to perform the behaviour. 3.The person has the skills necessary to perform that behaviour. 4.The person believes that the advantages (benefits, anticipated positive outcomes) of performing the behaviour outweigh the disadvantages (costs, anticipated negative outcomes).
July 2005 Conditions for Success (2) - (Fishbein) 5.The person perceives more social (normative) pressure to perform the behaviour than to not perform the behaviour. 6.The person perceives that performance of the behaviour is more consistent than inconsistent with his or her self image, or that it’s performance does not violate personal standards that activate negative self-actions. 7.The persons emotional reaction to performing the behaviour is more positive than negative. 8.The person perceives that he or she has the capabilities to perform the behaviour under a number of different circumstances.
Ideas for Educational / Skill Development Programs Walk This Way! Fitness Classes Others ???? How might you enhance the effectiveness of these?
July 2005 CDC Recommended Strategies Opportunities to sample the desired behaviour Model the desired behaviour Provide opportunities for safe, guided practice Encourage self-reporting and self-discovery Build in cues for action Contract for success Enhance self-efficacy
July 2005 Ideas for Environmental Supports Trails Stair signs Others??? How might you enhance the effectiveness of these?
July 2005 Flex time in workplaces Subsidies for memberships Others??? How might you enhance the effectiveness of these? Ideas for Policies
July 2005 CDC Recommended Interventions Strongly Recommended: Community-wide Campaigns Individually adapted health behaviour change program School based PE Social support interventions in community settings Creation of enhanced access to places for physical activity combined with information outreach activities Point-of-decision prompts for stairs
July 2005 CDC Recommended Interventions Insufficient Evidence Mass Media Campaigns Classroom-based Health Education focused on information provision & behavioural skills Classroom-based Health Education focused on reducing TV viewing and video game playing College-age PE & health education Social support interventions in family setting
July 2005 CDC Recommended Interventions Pending Transportation policy & infrastructure changes to promote non-motorized transit Urban planning approaches, including zoning & land use, neighbourhood & street design, & cluster development
July 2005 Additional Tools Increasing Physical Activity: A report on recommendations of the task force on Community Preventive Services http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5018.pdf Promoting Physical Activity in Your Community Human Kinetics 475 Devonshire Road, Unit 100 Windsor, Ontario N8Y 2L5 Phone: (800) 465 - 7301 Health Behaviour & Health Education:Theory Research and Practice (Karen Glanz, Frances Marcus Lewis, Barbara K. Rimer) 1-55542-243-8
July 2005 Contact information Physical Activity Resource Centre www.ophea.net/parc 1-888-446-7432 Louise Daw Provincial Consultant Louise@ophea.org 519.646.2121