3Where does our personality come from? Personality: An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.OBJECTIVE 1| Define personality.Each dwarf has a distinct personality.
4Psychologists use 5 approaches to explain the development of personality: 1. Psychoanalytic Approach (aka Psychodynamic)2. Humanistic Approach3. Trait Approach/The Big 54. Learning Approach5. Social-Cognitive Approach
5Psychoanalytic Theory Describes personality as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotionBelieves that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that to truly understand who we are we have to analyze the symbolic meaning of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind
6Created by Sigmund Freud Believed we repress(forcibly block from ourconscious thought)thoughts, beliefs, andmemories that are tooupsetting toacknowledge
7Exploring the Unconscious A reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds (free association) in order to tap the unconscious.OBJECTIVE 3| Discuss Freud’s view of the mind as an iceberg, and explain how he used this image to represent conscious and unconscious regions of the mind.
8Dream AnalysisAnother method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams.The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli (1791)
9Freud believed our personality is made up of 3 structures: IdEgoSuperego
10Id Instincts & impulses Sexual drives Aggression Seeks immediate gratificationRuled by the “Pleasure Principle” = maximize pleasure, minimize painCompletely unconscious
11Ego Controls the id Rational decision-making Obeys the “Reality Principle” = deals with the demands of reality
12Superego Moral decision making Is one’s “conscience” tells you right from wrong
14Psychoanalytic Theory Believes that behavior is merely a surface characteristic and that to truly understand who we are we have to analyze the symbolic meaning of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind (#2)
15Created by Sigmund Freud Believed we repress(forcibly block from ourconscious thought)thoughts, beliefs, andmemories that are tooupsetting toacknowledge (#3)
16Exploring the Unconscious Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds (free association) in order to tap the unconscious. (#1)OBJECTIVE 3| Discuss Freud’s view of the mind as an iceberg, and explain how he used this image to represent conscious and unconscious regions of the mind.
17Freud believed that a person’s personality develops mostly during the first few years of life (#4) Personality is rooted in unresolved childhood conflicts (#4)Believed that children pass through 5 Psychosexual stages of development: childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on the erogenous zones (#5)
18FixationFreud believed that conflicts unresolved during early psychosexual stages could surface as maladaptive behaviors in adult years. Strong conflict could lock, or fixate, the person’s pleasure-seeking behaviors in that stage.Fixation: being stuck in a stage of development, and carrying the behaviors from that stage into adulthood. (#6)
19Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development Oral0-18 monthsPleasure focus is on the mouth sucking, biting, chewing(no key terms for this stage)
20Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development Anal18-36 monthsPleasure focus is on bowel and bladder eliminationcoping with demands for control(no key terms for this stage)
21Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development Phallic3-6 yearsPleasure focus is on genitalscoping with incestuous feelingsKey terms: Oedipus Complex (a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father), Electra Complex
22Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development Latency6-pubertyNo focus, sexual feelings are dormant(children eventually cope with Oedipus Electra by repressing these feelings and identifying with rival parent= if you can’t beat em, join em)Key terms: Identification superego gains strength and begins to incorporate the parents values (trying to become like parent)Gender Identity: sense of being male or female
23Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development Genitalpuberty onFocus is on maturation of sexual interestsNo key terms at this stage
24Defense MechanismsDefense mechanisms are used by the ego to resolve conflicts and demands between the id and superego. (#11)These defense mechanisms reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality (#11)
25Defense Mechanisms Repression: bury it in the unconscious Ex: mugging or rape too traumatic to deal with, push it into unconscious… no recollection of it happeningProjection: disguise your own threatening impulses by attributing them to othersEx: “She’s such a slut!”
26Defense MechanismsDenial: the conscious mind ignores or can’t admit the problemEx: alcoholics, drug addictsDisplacement: take out feelings on someone/something else completely unrelated to the problemEx: you have a fight with your boyfriend and come home and scream at your brother
27Defense MechanismsSublimation: take negative behaviors and try to put them towards a positive useEx: join football team to redirect aggressive actionsRegression: reverting to an earlier stage of development in response to frustration or an inability to cope – acting infantile/childishEx: Bad day at school- come home and curl up in mommy’s lap and suck your thumb
28Defense MechanismsRationalization: try to justify our behaviors or feelings – make excusesIts not my fault I flunked my psych test, Mrs. DeKalb tests are too hard- its unfair!Reaction Formation: acting the opposite of what you really unconscious think or feelMrs. DeKalb you are sooooo pretty and the best teacher ever!
29Projective Personality Tests (#20) Have no clearly defined answersUse an open-ended formatPresent ambiguous stimuli and ask test taker to interpret what they see- The interpretation is thought to reveal information about their personality
30Two most common projective personality tests are the Rorschach Inkblot TestThematic Apperception Test (TAT) (#21)
31Rorschach Inkblot Test Created by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921Uses 10 official inkblots5 black and white2 black and red and white3 multicolored
32Rorschach InkblotPerson is shown card with inkblot and asked what they think it could beResponses to cards are interpreted according to the following factors:Location responding to whole card or part of card?Determinants responding to particular shaping, coloring, texturesContent the precise object that the test-taker is seeingForm is the answer based on the actual shape of the blot, or are they seeing a different form entirely?
35Thematic Apperception Test Created in the 1930’s by Harvard psychologist Henry MurrayInvolves a picture interpretation techniqueTest takers are shown ambiguous pictures and asked to create a story for the picture
36TAT Subject’s story may include: What has led up to the event shown What is happening at the momentWhat the characters are feeling and thinkingWhat the outcome of the story was
37TATEach story is carefully analyzed to uncover the test takers unconscious mind, including anyRepressed aspects of personalityMotives and needs for achievementPower and intimacyProblem solving abilities
40Learning Theory of Personality 2 learning approaches:BehaviorismSocial-Learning Theory
41BehaviorismWatson: believed external forces or influences- NOT internal traits or inner conflicts- shape people’s preferences and behaviorSkinner agreed, believed we should focus on how organisms behave, not what’s going on in their mindNeither believed in the influences of personal freedom, choice, and self-direction
42Behaviorists believe our personality is LEANRED and shaped by: Environmental influences (reinforcements, punishments)parent/peer approvalCultural factorsSocial customsSocializationThe process by which we learn socially desirable behaviors and adopt them as part of our personality
43Social Learning Theory Bandura and others agree we learn from our environment, but emphasized that we learn by OBSERVATION of our environment, not just reinforcement and punishmentSaid we can influence our environment based on our own internal factors:Our skillsOur valuesOur goalsOur expectationsSelf-efficacy expectations: positive thinking about yourself “I think I can… I think I can…”
44Bell Ringer What is a personality trait? List at least 5 of your personality traits.
45Trait Approach –entry #5 Rather than focusing on unconscious forces and unsatisfactory growth opportunities, some psychologists attempt toexplain personality in terms of stable and enduring behavior patters = TRAITS
46Trait Approach Traits are fixed (created) at an early age Traits are consistent and unchanging = you act/react the same in a variety of situationsExamples of Traits:HonestDependableMoodyImpulsive
47Trait TheoristsHippocrates: said personality caused by combinations of different bodily fluids, which he called humorsBlood made people sanguine (cheerful)Black bile made people meloncholly (sad)Yellow bile made people phlegmatic (unconcerned, lazy)Green bile made people choleric (irritable, short-tempered)
48Trait TheoristsGordon Allport: defined personality in terms of identifiable behavior patters (traits)-identified 18,000 words representing traits!-Factor analysis is a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality traits = cluster similar traits into groups
49Example of factor analysis: People who describe themselves as outgoing also say that they like excitement, practical jokes, and taking on leadership roles. these behaviors can be clustered together to describe 1 basic personality trait:=extraversion
50Trait TheoristsRaymond Cattell: used factor analysis to develop a 16 Personality Factor inventory-whittled down 18,000 traits in 16 basic source traits
51-Believed thatby determiningwhich of these16 traits aperson has youcan predict theirbehavior incertainsituations
52Trait TheoristsHans Eysenck: categorized personality traits according to two polar dimensions:extraversion vs. introversion andemotional stability vs. emotional instability.
53Personality inventories are questionnaires Assessing TraitsPersonality inventories are questionnaires(often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to assess several traits at once.OBJECTIVE 16| Explain how psychologists use personality inventories to assess traits, and discuss the most widely used of these inventories.The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely used of all personality tests.
54The “Big Five” says that there are 5 basic personality dimensions: The Big Five FactorsToday’s trait researchers believe that Eysencks’ personality dimensions are too narrow and Cattell’s 16PF too large.The “Big Five” says that there are 5 basic personality dimensions:ConscientiousnessAgreeablenessNeuroticismOpennessExtraversionOBJECTIVE 17| Identify the Big Five personality factors, and discuss some of the strengths of this approach to studying personality.
56Evaluating the Trait Perspective -Walter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) points out that traits may be enduring, but the resulting behavior in various situations is different. =Therefore, traits are not good predictors of behavior.-Trait theory explains where we get our personalty from, but does not explain where traits come from!OBJECTIVE 18| Summarize the person-situation controversy, and explain its importance as a commentary on the trait perspective.