Presentation on theme: "Sexual Offenders: What you need to know, and why"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sexual Offenders: What you need to know, and why Red RiverChildren's Advocacy ConferenceFargo, North DakotaMay 10, 2012Stacey Benson, Psy.D., L.P.
2 An Overview of the Day 6. Types of Sexual Crimes 1. Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior2. Types of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior3. Assessment of Legal Compulsive Sexual Behavior4. Treatment of Legal Compulsive Sexual Behavior5. Prevalence of Sexual Crimes6. Types of Sexual CrimesHands OnHands Off7. Types of Sexual OffendersAdolescentAdult8. Assessment of Sexual OffendersJuvenilesAdults9. Treatment of Sexual Offenders
3 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior According to the Internet Filter Review site, 40 million Americans visit Internet porn sites at least once a month (Maltz, 2008).Currently, over 60 percent of all visits on the Internet involve a sexual purpose (Schneider and Weiss, 2010).
4 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior A record breaking 25% of employees in the United States are accessing porn at work, according to a 2008 Nielsen Online survey (Maltz, 2008).
5 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior There are 100,000 Web sites dedicated to selling sex in some way-not including chat rooms, s, or other forms of sexual contact on the web (Cybersex Unhooked, 2007).
6 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior In the United States, twenty million “adult” magazines are sold each month.
7 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior The numbers of paid subscribers for selected pornography magazines are (The National Research Bureau, 1992):Penthouse – 4,600,000Playboy – 3,600,000Hustler – 1,200,000Gallery – 500,000Oui – 395,000Chic – 90,000
8 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior Nearly all college men and women have looked at an explicit magazine, such as Playboy or Playgirl by the time they leave high school and 85%-90% have done so in junior high school.The average college male spends about six hours a month looking at sexually explicit material and the average college female about two hours.
9 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior December 2005: there were 63.5 million unique visitors to adult websites.As of 2006: 87% of university students polled engaged in virtual sex.Mobile porn revenue is over $1 billion.At the end of 2004, there were420 million pages of pornography.Adults admitting to internet compulsion=10%.
10 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior The vast majority of all the respondents reported exposure to hard-core, X-rated, sexually explicit material .Furthermore, “a larger proportion of high school students had seen X-rated films than any other age group, including adults”: 84%, with the average age of first exposure being 16 years, 11 months .
11 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior 33% of the boys versus only 2% of the girls reported watching pornography once a month or more often.As well, 29% of the boys versus 1% of the girls reported that pornography was the source that had provided them with the most useful information about sex (i.e., more than parents, school, friends, etc.).
12 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior In an anonymous survey of 247 Canadian junior high school students whose average age was 14 years, James Check and Kristin Maxwell (1992) report that 87% of the boys and 61% of the girls said they had viewed video-pornography.The average age at first exposure was just under 12 years.
13 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior 34% of kids reported exposure to unwanted sexual material while surfing the internet.1 in 7 report unwanted solicitation as compared to 1 in 5 in 2000.92% of teens downloaded music online.
14 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior Pornography has become a substantial part of the United States’ economy .No matter it’s means of access,pornography produced annualrevenues in excess of $13 billiondollars in the United States.Worldwide it produced $100 billion.
16 Pornography’s Effects Evidence shows that as many as one in three rapists and child molesters use pornography to become sexually aroused immediately proceeding and during the commission of their crimes (Marshall, 1989).And other studies report that 56% of rapists and 42% of child molesters reported that pornography was somehow implicated in their offense (Able, 1985).
17 Pornography’s Effects Persons reporting exposure to pornography are 28% more likely to engage in sexually deviant behavior (such as exhibitionism or voyeurism) than the general population.Risk of engaging in sexual perpetration - that is, sexually hostile or violent behavior - was found to increase by between 21 and 30% for persons exposed to pornography.
18 Prevalence of Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior It is estimated that about 15 % of people in the United States using the internet for sexual purposes DO have problems with their cybersex activities (Cohn, 2010).Approximately 6% or about 9 million of these users could be classified as “sexually addicted”, and another 10% or about 15 million are using cybersex in ways that are risky and showing signs of compulsivity.
19 So, does everyone become “addicted”? No Research shows that the majority of people who use the internet for sexual purposes are recreational users “Most people can use the internet (including for sexual purposes) without being obsessed and compulsive, managing their use with little difficulty while continuing to maintain a reasonably balanced life and without negative consequences” (Cohn, 2010). Think of these people like your “social drinkers”
20 The ProgressionWhen I talk to college students, I use the analogy of drinking to help describe the problem.Some people can be social drinkers,some people can not.
22 Having Said That…… Using pornography Having affairs Sexual texting Posting on Craig's ListEtcThese are Choices!!! Do not let clients or their partners excuse their behavior by calling it an “addiction”.If they chose to conceptualize the behavior from an addiction model, that can be helpful for many clients, but watch for “Its not my fault, I’m addicted” statements.It is different from alcohol and drug addiction. It shares features, but it is different
24 The Power of Cybersex: The “Cyber-Hex” The internet has six attributes- “the Cyber-Hex”- that make it unique among all other media (Delmonico et al, 2007)These attributes make it extremely alluring for someone seeking sexual arousal and fulfillmentThe 6 attributes:IntoxicatingIsolatingIntegralInexpensiveImposingInteractive (Delmonico et al, 2007)
26 Assessment of Legal Compulsive Sexual Behavior Extensive QuestionnaireDetailed Clinical InterviewAssessment instruments such as the ISST-R and othersCollateral information from the spouses
27 Questions To Ask Clients Questions that should be asked to help increase client’s awareness in order for them to evaluate their involvement with pornIs porn increasing or decreasing your self esteem and integrity?Is it upsetting or alienating your intimate partner (or harming your future chances of being in a healthy relationship)?Have you become preoccupied, out of control, dependent on, or compulsively engaging with porn?How is porn shaping your sexual thoughts, desires, and behaviors?What negative consequences could occur if you continue to use porn?(Maltz, 2008)
28 Questions To Ask Clients How many hours a week are you on the internet in sex related pursuits?Have you accessed porn at work?Have you made attempts to control it in the past? Were they successful?Do you belong to any pay sites? How much per month do you spend?Have you ever met someone in person you met on line?Do you have a webcam?Have you engaged in cyber sex?
29 Questions To Ask Clients Have other obligations (marital, financial, parenting, spiritual, community, job) taken a back seat to your porn use?Have you found yourself accessing more and more “unusual” sites?Do you get anxious or irritable if something interrupts your ability to go on line?Has it impacted your real life sexual life with your real life partner?What is the longest you have been on in one sitting?What is the latest you have been up on line?
30 Questions To Ask Clients Do you use pornography as a reward after a good day? Or a pick me up after a bad day?Have you engaged in riskier behavior now than in the past?Do you hide your Internet Porn use from others?Do you think you have a problem?Do you want to stop?If your wife/partner did not find out and insist you get into treatment, would you be here?If she leaves you, will you terminate treatment?
31 Types of Online UsersRecreationalUsersSexuallyCompulsiveAt-Risk
32 10 Criteria for Problematic Online Sexual Behavior 1. Preoccupation with sex on the internet2. Engaging in sex on the internet more often or for longer periods of time than intended3. Repeated unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back on, or stop engaging in sex on the internet4. Restlessness or irritability when attempting to limit or stop engaging in sex on the Internet5. Using sex on the Internet as a way of escaping from problems or relieving feelings such as helplessness, guilt, anxiety, or depression
33 10 Criteria for Problematic Online Sexual Behavior 6. Returning to sex on the Internet day after day in search of a more intense or higher-risk sexual experience7. Lying to family members, therapists, or others to conceal involvement with sex on the Internet8. Committing illegal sexual acts online (for example, sending or downloading child pornography or soliciting illegal sex acts online)9. Jeopardizing or losing a significant relationship, job or educational or career opportunity because of online sexual behavior10. Incurring significant financial consequences(Delmonico et al, 2007)
34 General Recommendations You should ask questions about sexual compulsive behavior of all new clients, regardless of their presenting problem. Its not unusual for clients to present with issues of “anger” or “relationship issues” only to tell you 45 minutes in that they have a problem with internet pornography.Try to avoid reacting with shock or disgust as they relay to you the extent of their sexual experiences. They have entrusted you with their secret shame, treat it with the respect it deserves.Do a thorough assessment of their compulsive sexual behavior.Refer when needed.
35 Treatment of Legal Sexually Compulsive Behavior
38 Initial Suggestions for Clients: Find a professional with experience in this area.Calculate how much your Compulsive Sexual Behavior has cost you.Change passwords to something that will be motivating.Net Nanny.Reestablish contact with positive support people.Involve family and friends in your recovery.Reestablish contact with your faith community.Find a 12 step support group.Encourage marital therapy or supportive therapy for the partnerMake a commitment to change-once an “addict” you can not go back to being a “social drinker.” The person must stop all compulsive sexual behavior.
39 What were they thinking? What time of day is it? The Next StepClients are encouraged to keep an Internet Log, and note the antecedents to their behavior.What were they doing?What were they feeling?What were they thinking?What time of day is it?
40 Antecedents Does any kind of predictable pattern emerge? Are there any environmental manipulations we can do based on these patterns?Can we identify risky:FeelingsThoughtsBehaviorsTimes of day
42 Recovery Strategies Recognize what you’re missing. Make a full assessment of the things you’ve cut down on, or cut out of your life because of your addiction to the Internet.Assess your online time.Use time management techniques.Find support in the real world.Recognize your addictive triggers.Carry positive reminder cards.Take concrete steps to address problems.Listen to the voices of denial.Confront your loneliness.(Young, 1998)
43 Treatment for Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior Talk about self controlHigh Risk SituationsSelf controlSeemingly Unimportant DecisionsProblem of Immediate GratificationAbstinence Violation Effect (might as well keep doing it)Thinking Errors/Cognitive Distortions
44 Treatment for Legal Sexual Compulsive Behavior Cognitive and Behavioral Interventions (CI’s and BI’s)Identify the true costsUnderstand the CycleMake a commitment
46 Prevalence of Sexual Offending NCMAC reports a significant and steady increase in child pornography for the 7th year in a row as of 2005It is estimated that there are 20,000 new child porn images online each weekChild pornography has become a $3 billion annual industryThey are getting younger, the abuse is more serious in nature and many of the venues appear to be domestic in nature
47 Prevalence of Sexual Offending There were an estimated 88,097 forcible rapes reported to law enforcement in 2009 (AARDVARC)The rate of forcible rapes in 2009 was estimated at 56.6 per 100,000 female inhabitants, a 3.4 percent decrease when compared with the 2008 estimated rate of (AARDVARC)Rapes by force comprised 93.0 percent of reported rape offenses in 2009, and attempts or assaults to commit rape accounted for 7.0 percent of reported rapes. (AARDVARC)In 2006 ND had 193 forcible rape cases, ranking us 48th in the Nation (Bureau of Justice Statistics).In 2002 ND had 222 forcible rape cases. (Attorney General Crime Report)
48 Prevalence of Sexual Offending 1 in 4 girls is sexually abused before the age of 14.Source: Hopper, J. (1998). Child Sexual Abuse: Statistics, Research, Resources. Boston, MA Boston University School of Medicine.1 in 6 boys is sexually abused before the age of 16.More than 90% of all sexual abuse victims know their perpetrator. Almost 50% of the offenders are household members and 38% are already acquaintances of the victims.Source: US Department of Justice. (1997) and Finkelhor and Ormond. (2001).
49 Prevalence of Sexual Offending 21.6% of women who reported being raped during their lifetime were under age 12 at the time of their first rape. 32.4% of these women were years of age. Therefore, over half of all female rape victim/survivors surveyed in this study were under the age of 18 at the time of their first rape.Source: Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey, (NCJRS) 2000 (www.ncjrs.org/pdffiles1/nij/ pdf)
50 Prevalence of Sexual Offending Persons under 18 years of age account for 67% of all sexual assault victimizations reported to law enforcement agencies. Children under 12 years old account for 34% of those cases and children under six years account for 14% of those casesSource: Snyder, Howard. “Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics.” Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, 2000.
51 Prevalence of Sexual Offending According to the U.S. Department of Justice, victims of rape and sexual assault report that in nearly 3 out of 4 incidents, the offender was not a stranger. Based on police-recorded incident data, in 90% of the rapes of children younger than 12, the child knew the offender.Source: Greenfield, et al, Sex Offenses and Offenders: An Analysis of Data Rape and Sexual Assault. United States Department of Justice.
52 Prevalence of Sexual Offending 2/3rds of babies born to teenage mothers were fathered by adult men, not same age male peers.Source: The Alan Guttmacher Institute, 1996 Based on a California Study
53 Prevalence of Sexual Offending Women reported that offenses against them were committed by:Strangers: 28%Intimates/Partners: 10%Relatives: 2%Friends/acquaintences: 57%Unknown: 3%Men reported that offenses against them were committed by:Strangers: 48%Friends/acquaintences: 52%Source: AARDVARC
54 Prevalence of Sexual Offending The statistical victim of sexual assault is white, female, and under 18 years of age.The typical offender is white, male, and over 18 years of age.1.8 rapes or sexual assaults are REPORTED by women for each 1,000 over age 12. (That's about 248,000 per year.).3 rapes or sexual assaults are REPORTED by men for each 1,000 over age 12. (That's about 32,000 per year.)Women reported that offenses against them were committed by:Source AARDVARC
56 Types of Sexual Crimes Sexual assault Rape Molestation Forcible sodomy Hands OnHands OffSexual assaultRapeMolestationForcible sodomySexual touchingExhibitionismPossessing illicit pornographyObscene telephone callsVoyeurismSexual harassment
57 Sexual Paraphilias Exhibitionism Obscene Phone Calls Voyeurism FrotteurismFetishismTransvestismSexual MasochismHypoxyphiliaSexual SadismNecrophiliaZoophiliaCoprophilia and UrophiliaPedophiliaMysophilia
58 Online Solicitation Offenders According to a 2011 study by Seto, Babchishin, Wood, and Flynn, men convicted of internet solicitation offenses had some significant differences from child pornography offenders .Lower capacity for relationship stabilityLower sex drive/preoccupationLess deviant sexual preferencesThey were also different from lower risk contact sexual offenders.Higher sex drive/preoccupationGreater self-reported use of child pornography
59 What comes to mind when you think about sex offenders? Who are sex offenders?What comes to mind when you think about sex offenders?
60 Juveniles comprise 25.8% of all sexual offenses In FactJuveniles comprise 25.8% of all sexual offenses
61 AlsoOf all sex offenses committed against juvenile victims, 35.6% are committed by juveniles.
62 Age and Sex of Juveniles Who Offend The rate of sexual offense behavior rises sharply at the age of 12, and plateaus after age 14.The vast majority of juveniles who sexually offend are male (93%).Females who offend tend to be younger, have more victims, offend alongside peers more, have more male victims, and have more victims that are family members.
63 But!According to the U.S. Department of Justice, National Report Series from December 2011“Contrary to the popular perception that juvenile crime is on the rise, the data reported in this bulletin tell a different story. As detailed in these pages, juvenile arrests for violent offenses declined 10% between 2008 and 2009, and overall juvenile arrests fell 9% during that same period. Between 1994—when the Violent Crime Index arrest rates for juveniles hit a historic high—and 2009, the rate fell nearly 50% to its lowest level since at least Arrest rates for nearly every offense category for both male and female and white and minority youth were down in 2009.”
64 Proportions of Crimes Committed By Youth (Most Serious Offense)
65 Additional DataThe juvenile arrest rate for forcible rape in 2009 was half its 1991 peak.The 2009 rape arrest rate was at its lowest level in three decades.Juveniles accounted for 15% of all forcible rape arrests reported in 2009.More than two-thirds (68%) of these juvenile arrests involved youth ages 15–17.Not surprisingly, males accounted for the overwhelming majority (98%) of juvenile arrests for forcible rape.
66 Additional DataAlso in 2009, there were 13,400 juvenile arrests for sex offenses other than those related to prostitution.48% were under age 15.This is down 28% from 2000, and 10% below 2008.
67 Not all children or adolescents who sexually harm have been sexually abused. Many acted out after viewing sexual content on the Internet.Especially the younger children. They may act out the confusing images they have seen on the computer as a way to discharge their anxiety.Below 12-more of an adrenaline rushBeyond 12-more of a hormonal rush
68 Normal Sexual Behavior in younger children Sexual play with children they know (playing doctor)Interested in sexual content in movies, tv, internetInterested in touching own genitaliaCurious about sexWants privacy when dressingEasily redirected if told “no”Intermittent sexual play that includes consent, and with youth of similar age and size, whom they know well
69 Less Common sexual behavior Sexual contact beyond touching or looking (penetration, oral)Talks openly about sexual mattersAsks for sexual contactEngages in sexual contact with someone they do not know wellChosen over other activitiesIs aggressive, forced or coercedOccurs with children smaller, younger or otherwise more vulnerableDoes not respond to being told no
70 Kids Are Different!It is critical to understand that juveniles are VERY different from adults with regard to sexual offense behavior!The research shows that juveniles tend to offend at MUCH LOWER RATES compared to their adult counterparts, especially if treated.After treatment, children with sexual behavior problems have been found to be at no greater risk for future sex offenses as other clinic children (2% to 3%).This is a case for avoiding referring to a minor as a “sex offender.”They may never offend again, and thus it may not be appropriate for them to be thought of as a “sex offender.” Additionally, research has pointed to the adverse effects of this stigmatizing label for teens.
71 Other DifferencesJuveniles are more likely to offend in groups than adults (24% as opposed to 14%).They are more likely to have a male victim (25% versus 13%).They are less likely to offend at home (69% versus 80%) and more likely to offend at school (12% versus 2%).
72 Type of Sex Offense by Age Category Juveniles’ most serious offense is less likely to be rape, and is more likely to be sodomy or fondling.
73 Additional Demographics Juvenile’s who sexually harm are typically between the ages of 13 and 17.They are generally male.30-60% exhibit learning disabilities and academic dysfunction.Up to 80% have a diagnosable psychiatric disorder.Many have difficulties with impulse control and judgment.20-50% have histories of physical abuse.40-80% have histories of sexual abuse.80-90% will NOT sexually reoffend in adulthood.
74 Technology’s Recent Role Most of today’s youth have access to the Internet at home, school, friends’ homes, or their cell phones. Many use text and picture messaging services via cell phones.These services have made everything more convenient
75 . . . .Including Risky Behavior Regarding COMPUTERS:Between 40% and 60% of teens report they do not tell their parents what they do online.Between 15% and 20% of teens admit to meeting someone offline they did not previously know.60% of adolescents report giving personal information to an acquaintance online.The average age of first online pornography exposure is eleven.
76 Computers, ContinuedOne of every five children report being sexually solicited on the internet.
77 Risky Behavior, Continued Regarding PHONES:Sexting is prevalent, with 40% of youth saying they have friends who carry out such a practice.Among teens aged 12 to 17, 4% have sent sexually provocative images of themselves to someone else via text message, and 15% have received such a message. Rates are higher for older adolescents than this general statistic.
78 Phones, ContinuedOver half (56%) of teenagers are aware of instances where images and videos were distributed further than the intended recipient.30% of youth know people who were adversely affected by sexting.Only 24% of teens would turn to a teacher if they were affected by issues related to sexting.
79 Technology and Juvenile Sexual Offenses Why do all those statistics about teen computer and phone use matter to our discussion of juveniles who sexually offend?Redistribution of a sexually explicit picture message is a sexual offense.Adolescents with sexual offense behaviors have often engaged in the exchange of s, text messages, and picture messages with sexual content.Youth are especially prone to become victims of crimes based on technological resources.Often, teen behavior online and via cell phone is less restricted than forms of “real life” behavior.
80 Alternative Views Not all research has yielded similar results. Two studies from the University of New Hampshire Crimes against Children Research Center suggest that concerns about teen sexting may be overblown.One study found the percentage of youth who send nude pictures of themselves that would qualify as child pornography is very low.2.5 percent of youth surveyed have participated in sexting in the past year, but only 1 percent involved images that potentially violate child pornography laws (naked breasts, genitals or bottoms).The other found that when teen sexting images do come to police attention, few youth are being arrested or treated like sex offenders.Researchers discovered that in most police-investigated sexting cases, no juvenile arrest occurred.Standard cases: 18% arrested.With aggravating factors: 36% arrested.
81 Recent Legislation North Dakota: As of April 24, 2009, it is a Class A misdemeanor for a person to knowingly surreptitiously create or possess a surreptitiously created nude/nearly nude image without written consent from everybody in the image.It is a Class A misdemeanor to distribute such an image to harm or humiliate the image subject.It is a Class B misdemeanor to acquire and distribute any sexually expressive image without the consent of the image subject.Minnesota:No new legislation pertinent to juvenile sexting is known at this time.Note: Many more state laws apply to adults engaging in sexting practices.
83 Assessment of Sexual Offenders AdultsJuvenilesMnSOST-RMnSOST-IIIStatic 99RSVR-20PCL-RRisk Matrix 2000Stable 2007SRA-FVPPGAASI-IIERASORJSOAPSAVRYMEGA
84 What is a Risk Assessment? A Risk Assessment is a comprehensive evaluation to determination a particular sex offender’s likelihood to commit a subsequent sex crime, and a determination of their likelihood to benefit from treatment
85 Predicting Who Will Reoffend - before 1996 Clinical judgmentTesting“The Jerk” factorCorrelated 0.10 with sexual recidivism60% of all child molesters have no comorbid pathology
86 1996 brought changes… Civil Commitment Meghan’s Law Psychologists started looking for some research to back up our claims
87 Problematic Issues When Assessing Base Rates for Sexual Reoffense Sexual assaults are underreported.Problems in defining recidivism.How do you find out if the offender actually reoffended?How long should they be followed?Recidivism rates are different for different types of offenders.
88 Base Rates for Different Types of Offenders Intra familial offenders10-20%(Barbaree & Marshall, 1998, Gibbens, Soothil & Way, 1995, Gorden & Bergen, 1988, Dondis, 1965, Hanson, Steffy & Gauthieir, 1993)Extra familial child offendersover 50%(Prentky et all in press)Rapists39%(Prentky, Lee, Knight & Cerece in press)
89 Predicting Who Will Reoffend - After 1996 Predictions are now based on characteristics of sexual offenders that have been shown to predict the likelihood of a future sex crime-using actuarial instruments
90 The ProcessPre-interview regarding confidentiality and the limits there of, purpose of testing, who will see it, procedure for the evaluation etc.MnSOST-RMnSOST-IIIStatic 99RStable 2007SRA: FVBackground questionnaireMMPI-2MCMI-III (?)ShipleySAIMSIABEL screen (?)
91 The ProcessReview every document you can find-there is no such thing as a record that is “too old”, often old records can contain very important information that brings new light to the case, and how long such behavior has been going on.Dictate background information, questionnaire information, police records and testing results and do a preliminary score of the actuarial instruments
92 The ProcessStart out by explaining the process, exactly what you have been asked to do and what the limits of confidentiality are.Have the offender tell you, in his/her own words what they think they are being evaluated for, and put that quote in the report.Make sure they know the final report is going to the judge, not just their attorney, and that it will be reviewed by both attorneys.No such thing as “off the record”Get consent, written and verbal, to continue
93 What to look for in the testing/interview: Presence of a major mental illnessPresence of cognitive impairmentsPresence of cognitive distortionsHigh DenialBlaming the victimArgumentativeMultiple paraphilliasPsychopathyAxis IIAlfred PleasNumber of victims and offended across victim types (age, gender etc)No treatmentNo support systemProbation failures
94 The Process Dictate everything Refine the actuarials Contact Parole and ProbationWork on diagnostics,summaryand recommendations
95 The ContentA risk assessment should be comprehensive, and include at least some information on all of the following areas:
96 The Content Reason for Referral Administrative Procedures and Referral Time LineFamily HistoryEducational HistoryVocational HistoryMilitary HistoryLegal HistoryDrug and Alcohol Use HistoryTreatment HistorySexual HistoryPrevious Psychological EvaluationsPrevious Sexual CrimesPrevious Risk AssessmentsCurrent Sexual CrimeDiagnosesSummaryRecommendations
97 AssessmentAsk open ended questionsUse presumptive questioningBuild rapportStart with more neutral questionsAsk questions in unique ways, and at different times, helps get away from “rehearsed” answersDon’t help them be a better liar by pointing out inconsistenciesAsk good follow up, don’t just note they have or have not done something; ask how often, height of usage, age it started etc.Remain non judgmental neutral (dog story…)
98 Trouble ShootingWhat do you do if the score low risk on one, medium risk on another, and high risk on a third??????What do you do if they refuse to meet with you?What do you do with female offenders?Juvenile offenders?Offenders from other countries?First time incest offenders?
99 Typical Recommendations: Sex Offender Treatment following legal consequencesPolygraph / Plythysmograph / Abel screenNo contact with childrenPay for victim’s counseling (donation to rape and abuse)No pornography usageUnannounced home and work visits after incarceration period
101 J-SOAP-II Prior Legally charged sex offenses Number of sexual abuse victimsDegree of planning in sexual offensesCaregiver consistencyPervasive AngerSchool Behavior ProblemsJuvenile Antisocial BehaviorAccepting responsibility for the offenseEmpathyCognitive distortionsQuality of peer relationshipsManagement of sexual urges and desireStability of current living situationStability in schoolEvidence of support system
102 ERASOR Worling and Curwen Empirically Guided 5 domains Sexual Interests, attitudes and behaviorHistorical sexual assaultsPsychosocial functioningFamily environment functioningtreatment
103 ERASOR 1. Deviant Sexual Interest (children / violence or both): 2. Obsessive Sexual Interests/Preoccupation with Sexual Thoughts.3. Attitude Supporting of Sexual Offending:4. Unwillingness to Alter Deviant Sexual Interests/Attitudes:5. Ever Sexually Assaulted 2 or More Victims:6. Ever Sexually Assaulted Same Victim 2 or More Times:7. Prior Adult Sanctions for Sexual Assault:8. Threats of, or use of, Excessive Violence/Weapons During Sexual Offense:9. Ever Sexually Assaulted a Child:10. Ever Sexually Assaulted a Stranger:11. Indiscriminate Choice of Victims:12. Ever Sexually Assaulted a Male Victim:13. Diverse Sexual Assault Behaviors:
104 ERASOR 14. Antisocial Interpersonal Orientation: 15. Lack of Intimate Peer Relationships/Social Isolation:16. Negative Peer Associations and Influences:17. Interpersonal Aggression:18. Recent Escalation in Anger or Negative Affect:19. Poor Self Regulation of Affect and Behavior (Impulsivity):20. High Stress Family Environment:21. Problematic Parent/Offender Relationship/Parental Rejection:22. Parents Not Supporting Sex Offense Specific Assessment/Treatment:23. Environment Supporting Opportunities to Sexually Reoffend:24. No Development or Practice of Realistic Prevention Plans/Strategies:25. Incomplete Sex Offense Specific Treatment:
105 OBrian and Bera Naïve Experimenters Under Socialized Child Exploiters Sexual AggressiveSexual CompulsiveDisturbed ImpulsivePeer Group Influenced
106 Worling Antisocial/Impulsive Over Controlled Reserved Unusual/Isolated Confident/ Aggressive
107 Toni Cavanaugh Johnson Group I: Natural and Healthy Sexual PlayGroup II: Sexually Reactive BehaviorsGroup III: Extensive Mutual Sexual BehaviorsGroup IV: Children who Molest
109 Will Treatment help anyway? Early Conclusions“There is no evidence that treatment effectively reduces sex offense recidivism.”(Furby 1989)1. Lack of control groups2. Small N3. Unreliable reporting methods4. Other
110 Will treatment help anyway? Later conclusions:Sex offenders who completed treatment, are less likely to reoffend (Nagayama Hall 1995)When current treatments are evaluated with credible designs, there is a reduction in both sexual recidivism & general recidivism (Hansen etal: 2000)
111 So, Lets send all offenders to treatment, right? Wrong:“If the offender starts treatment subsequently quits, is kicked out, drops out, etc., he is statistically at a higher risk to reoffend than if he never entered treatment at all.”(Hanson and Bussierses 1996)
113 Treatment of Sexual Offenders Identify risk factors associated with lifestyleHigh Risk SituationsTriggersThoughts/Feelings and Behaviors that lead to reoffendingSUDSGrooming behaviorCognitive and Behavioral interventionsCounter conditioning methodsAmendsDenialTaking Responsibility
114 Treatment of Sexual Offenders Accepting ResponsibilityMaking a Commitment to TreatmentDenialDenial of the factsDenial of intentDenial of impactDenial of responsibilityDenial of the need for treatment
115 Treatment of Sexual Offenders Managing your behaviorCoping with Deviant arousalThe Sex Offense CycleSeemingly Unimportant DecisionsAbstinence Violation Effect (Giving )Behavioral alternatives at each level of the cycleAvoidance/EscapeMinimal Arousal ConditioningAmmonia ControlCovert ConditioningCoping with AngerAnger logAnger autobiographyTaking responsibility for your angerChanging how you express anger
116 Treatment of Sexual Offenders Understanding YourselfChildhoodWhat we learned about ourselvesFamily DynamicsWhat we learned aboutRulesRolesboundariesSexual autobiography
117 Treatment of Sexual Offenders Victim ImpactHow sexual abuse affects victimsVictim EmpathyThinking errors about victimsEmpathy role playsClarification letter
118 Treatment of Sexual Offenders Relationship and Communication SkillsUnderstanding relationshipsUnderstanding your role in relationship failuresBasic beliefs that interfere in relationshipsSelf defeating styles of relating to othersAssertiveAggressivePassive AggressiveEffective communicationtechniquesThe Characteristics of badcommunication
119 Treatment of Sexual Offenders Thinking, Feeling, BehavingAutomatic thoughts/feelingsSelf statementsThinking feeling linkDistorted thinkingStyles of distorted thinkingAll or NothingRationalizationMinimizationCatastrophizingPersonalizationOveremphasizing one detailEtc., etc., etc.Restructuring distorted thinking
120 Treatment of Sexual Offenders Thinking, Feeling, BehavingEmotionsExpressing emotionsSituation and SettingSymptomsBehavior chainsBuilding offense chainsThe imaginary relapse scenario
121 Treatment of Sexual Offenders Thinking, Feeling, BehavingPositive/Negative ConsequencesChanging Poor choicesProblem SolvingBehavior chainsBuilding offense chainsThe imaginary relapse scenario
122 Treatment of Sexual Offenders Sexually Compulsive Behavior related to child pornography requires different treatmentMinimal Arousal ConditioningAmmonia AversionMasturbatory ReconditioningTraditional Sex Offender Treatment
123 Treatment: JuvenilesVery few studies have evaluated the efficacy of sex offender treatment for juveniles.Currently, there are no evidence-based treatment guidelines for this population.
124 Treatment: JuvenilesThe guidelines that exist are based on expert opinion and accepted practice.National Task Force on Juvenile Sexual Abuser TreatmentAssociation for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (in process)So what can be done for the treatment of this youth?
126 Treatment: Juveniles What is consent and who can give it Legal vs. illegal sexual behaviorUnderstanding angerIdentifying problemsDisclosingDenialThinking ErrorsWho I hurtWhat I didHow I did itHow I planned itVictim’s ReactionsVictims FeelingsWho is ResponsiblePathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
127 Treatment: Juveniles Myths of Sexual Abuse Who is a victim Direct IndirectPathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
128 Treatment: Juveniles Why did I do it? Motivation (urges) Emotional NeedsSexual ArousalBlockageInternal BarriersExternal BarriersVictim ResistanceMy Sensitivity to Victim ResistancePathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
129 Treatment Goals1. Accept full responsibility for any sexually inappropriate and or criminal or harmful behaviors2. Develop a clear understanding of and sensitivity to the impact of my behavior on the people I have hurt3. Develop an understanding of the thoughts and feelings that led to my inappropriate behaviors and identity the factors that contributed to my poor choices4. Learn to develop healthy and legal relationships that don’t hurt other people5. Learn to have healthy sexual thoughts, feelings, actions and behaviors and learn to control and eliminate unhealthy sexual thoughts, feelings actions and behaviors.6. Identify high risk situations that could lead to committing sexually inappropriate behavior.7. Develop a strong network of people who will support me in making healthy choices8. Develop a healthy living plan that other people in my support system will read and sign9. Learn and demonstrate the four key treatment challenges, responsibility, honesty, sensitivity and integrity.From: Pathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
130 Treatment: Juveniles Identifying Grooming and Maintenance Behaviors Understanding the chain of events that lead to offendingCreating and Following a Relapse Prevention PlanSeemingly Unimportant Decisions (SUD’s)High Risk Situations (HRS’s)Controlling and expressing my sexual feelings in a positive wayCovert SensitizationVicarious SensitizationPathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
131 Treatment: Juveniles Accountability Plans Making things clear and apologizing for my behaviorClarification lettersPathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
132 Treatment: Juveniles S.T.O.P. plans Support Through On Going PreventionPathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment by Tim Kahn
133 Group RulesThe worth of every member is universal, intrinsic and unquestioned.Start and end of timeBe respectful of all membersNo electronicsConfidentialityExcused Absences only
134 Who might NOT be a good group candidate Low iq, learning disabled, FASDMajor mental illnessActive CD issuesPsychopathicAutisticVery low riskWhen the offense is such that group may reject themWhen the offense is such that they may reject the group
135 Safety Plans Who is an informed supervisor? Access to pornography? A sober, awake, adult, who knows what the child did, provides line of sight supervision and is willing to call treatment team if safety plan is violatedAccess to pornography?Parental controls, computer in central location, password protectedIn positions of authority over younger children?No babysitting-everAlarms on bedroom doors?Offenders door alarms, siblings door chimes
136 Safety Plans What about school and community activities? Who needs to know?Balance community safety and social stigmaContact with potential victims in the community? Over the Phone? Via Social Media?No babysittingNeed to check other things individually such as church, camp, sporting events, public poolsSleepovers?
137 Factors to Consider Individual factors in the youth Families overall health and functioningDo they minimize what their child did?Do they think this was all blown out of proportion?Do they blame the victim?Do they keep secretsDegree of potential harmYouths risk level of reoffenseTreatment behavior/progress
138 Some reasons why they fail Child is hypersexualChild is impulsiveFamilies not willing to follow the plan as writtenDo not monitor adequatelyDo not see the need for the planAre afraid to report violations
139 Treatment for Sexually Abusive & Sexually Inappropriate Behavior in Children & Adolescent The stages of Accomplishment ModelThe model is designed as a means of youths to demonstrate and to recognized for their accomplishments in learning, not as a measure of “success” or treatment “progress,” or as a “level and privilege” system. With accomplishment of each stage, the youths with whom we work are thus able to show themselves, their families, and others that they are learning important ideas about treatment, and are able to use these ideas in their everyday life (Rich, 2009).
140 STAGE 1 & 2 Stage 1, An Introduction to Treatment Learn about treatment, and about oneself and why one is in treatmentUnderstanding sexually abusive and sexually inappropriate behavior is addressedGoals of treatment are identifiedStage 2, Understanding YourselfLearn more about oneself—including feelings, attitudes, & ideasExamine how these responses sometimes can come together to contribute to sexually abusive or sexually inappropriate behavior
141 Consent is Not Simply Saying Yes! The definition of a sexual offence often revolves around consent. In simple terms, it's all about permission (or agreement).Kahn (2011) outlines that “True Consent” is Only established when the following 5 criteria are met…True consent requires that both people are emotionally and intellectually equalTrue consent requires honestyTrue consent requires understandingTrue consent requires permission to disagree or to refuse without penalty or harmTrue consent requires that both people really understand what is going to happen
142 STAGE 3 Stage 3, Understanding Dysfunctional Behavior Learn to understand problematic behaviors, and the impact one’s behaviors have on othersDysfunction behavioral cycle and phases of the dysfunctional behavior cycleHigh-risk situations and behaviorsBehavior management, staying safe, & preventing relapse
143 STAGE 4 Stage 4, Hitting the Target: Making Change Permanent Learn how to better understand and connect with others, make amends for one’s sexually abusive or inappropriate behavior, relate & give back to the community, & build stronger relationships with othersExamine how these responses sometimes can come together to contribute to sexually abusive or sexually inappropriate behaviorEmpathy ,caring, and victim awarenessLearning to communicateactive listening & non-verbal communicationassertiveness vs. aggressionHealthy and unhealthy relationshipspower & control in relationshipsrecognizing boundariesRecognizing healthy & unhealthy sexual relationships
144 Lowering Reoffense Risk Increase non-delinquent social involvementSportsClubsChurch activitiesNon-delinquent friendsStabilize living situation and school involvementMonitor for alcohol and drug useManage anger
145 Lowering Reoffense Risk, Continued Restrict contact with negative influencesParental controls for televisionExamine movie and video game ratingsEliminate access to offense opportunitiesPassword-protect computer, phoneDo not allow unsupervised contact with prior victims or similar individuals
146 Lowering Reoffense Risk, Continued Parental Involvement!!Our program relies heavily on parental involvement and we have a separate group that meets for the parents.It is based on Tim Kahn’s “Pathways Guide for Parents” and covers things such asWhere to turn, understanding the legal issues, evaluation and treatment, overcoming your own denialDirect vs. indirect victimsUnderstanding the sexual offense cycles, grooming and maintenance behaviors and relapse preventionFrom: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
147 Parents GroupDiscuss the importance of parents showing interest in the their child’s treatment, becoming comfortable discussing sexual issues, showing respect for boundaries at all times, demonstrating responsible thinking and emphasizing positive reinforcement.From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
148 Answering common questions such as: How to tell the difference between normal sexual behavior during childhood and what is cause for concern?How do I know my child is making progress?How long will treatment last?How do I talk with my child about their sexual behavior problem?Who do I have to tell? Principal? Pastor?When will I be able to trust my child around children again?Does this mean they will become an adult sex offender?Can our child go to parks or playgrounds alone?Can our child go to Boy Scout meetings?Can our child sleep overnight at another child’s house?From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
149 Parents GroupParents are taught the same “treatment lingo” as their child, and are kept up to date on what their child is learning in treatment so that they can ask specific questions, instead of general “how is it going” or “what are you learning?”We work on getting through denial and minimization, and thinking errors.We spend a lot of time on parental responsibility.From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
150 Parents Group Such as limiting TV, video games and computer times. Encourage sports, reading, family games.Monitor what your child is watching on TV and computer.Watch for sexual and violent themes, use the parental controls available to youEncourage physical activity.Supervision and monitoring, especially if younger children are present-no unsupervised contact with children. Supervisors should be adults.No unsupervised access to community spaces.From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
151 Parents Group Parental discretion when it comes to sexual behavior. Try keep a regular routine (bedtimes, mealtimes etc.).Pay attention to hygiene.Pay attention to appropriate dress.No TVs in the bedroomtoo hard to monitor contentencourages isolationWatch sexual language, jokes, TV shows in the house.From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
152 Parents GroupWe also spend time on the siblings of adolescents with sexual behavior problems-these children, if neither victim or perpetrator, often get overlooked.It is important to avoid secrets as a family and to let them know as much as it is developmentally reasonable for them to know.Try to keep life for the sibling as normal as possible and not allow what has happened to keep them from engaging in normal activities (such as sleepovers, etc.).Try spend time one on one with them, and consider some counseling as well if this seems like it is needed.From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
153 Parents GroupSituations where a chaperone is needed, and not needed.
154 If the victim is a family member Each should have their own separate counselorReview the clarification and restitution letters your abusing child will write in treatmentOften parents feel torn, conflicting loyalties come into play.Encourage construction communication and appropriate affection.From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
155 If the victim is a family member Lastly, family reunification, if this is feasible.This comes only after a through assessment of both the victim and the perpetrator, and successful completion of treatment. Ideally the child’s PO has done a home visit, and all members of the family have agreed to the rules.The child is slowly integrated back into the home, starting with brief visits, moving towards overnight visits, then weekend visits etc.Meetings are held periodically during this process to assess how it seems to be going.From: “Pathways Guide for Parents” by Tim Kahn
156 If the victim is a family member Several house rules may be in place such asWhere the bedrooms are and whether the doors will have alarms on them.Video monitoring, intercoms, etc.
157 What Does NOT Appear to be Helpful Placing children on public sex offender registries.Segregating children with sexual behavior problems from other children.Such as when foster homes, agencies, and facilities form policies excluding children with a history of sexual offenses.An exception is if the child’s behavior is out of control or poses an acute and substantial risk for serious harm to other children.These policies offer little to no actual community protection.These practices make youth vulnerable to stigma and social disadvantage (which could indirectly increase risk of reoffense).
159 Benson Psychological Services Benson Psychological Services, PC offers the following servicesIndividual and Group therapy for Legal Sexually Compulsive BehaviorGroup Therapy for adult sex offendersGroup Therapy for adolescents who have sexually harmed othersPartners to offenders groupParents groupPartners of those who have problems with legal sexually compulsive behaviorYou can refer clients by having them call and speaking with our intake person, Alyssa, ext 153
161 ReferencesAssociation for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, Task Force on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems. (2006). Report of the Task Force on Children with Sexual Behavior Problems. Retrieved from Report-TFCSBP.pdf Barbaree, H. E., & Marshall, W. L. (Eds.). (2006). The juvenile sex offender, second edition. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Concerns about teen sexting overblown, according to new UNH research. (2011, December). University of New Hampshire Media Relations. Retrieved from Kahn, Tim. (year). Pathways: A guided workbook for youth beginning treatment. Brandon, Vermont: Safer Society Press. Phippen, A. (2009). Sharing personal images and videos among young people. Retrieved from SW Grid for Learning Website: Sacco, D. T., Argudin, R., Maguire, J., & Tallon, K. (2010). Sexting: Youth practices and legal implications. Retrieved from the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University Website: Seto, M.C., Babchishin, K. M., Wood, J. M., & Flynn, S. (2011). Online solicitation offenders are different from child pornography offenders and lower risk contact sexual offenders. Law and Human Behavior, no journal number specified, Wollert, R. (2012). The implications of recidivism research and clinical experience for assessing and treating federal child pornography offenders: Written testimony presented to the U.S. Sentencing Commission. Child Pornography Offenders, no journal number specified, Zimring, F. E. (2004). An American travesty: Legal responses to adolescent sexual offending. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
162 Sourcessex addiction workbook: proven strategies to help you regain control of your life - Tamara Penix Sbraga, William T. O'DonohueStages of Accomplishment - Phil Rich, EdD, MSWPathways - Timothy KahnRoad to Freedom - John Morin, PhD & Jill Levenson, MSWAdult Relapse Prevention workbook - Charlene Steen, PhD, JDTreating Nono ffending Parents in Child Sexual Abuse Cases: Connections for Family Safety - Jill Levenson & John MorinA L.I.F.E. Guide - LIFE Ministries - Mark Laaser, PhDManual for Structured Group Treatment with Adolescent Sex Offenders - Jacqueline Page, PsyD and William Murphy, PhD