3Each dwarf has a distinct personality. An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.Define personality.Each dwarf has a distinct personality.
4Psychodynamic Perspective In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders. Their complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes.Explain how Freud’s experiences in private practice led to his theory of psychoanalysis.Culver PicturesSigmund Freud( )
5Psychodynamic Perspective Freud’s clinical experience led him to develop the first comprehensive theory of personality, which included the1. unconscious mind, 2. psychosexual stages 3. defense mechanisms.Culver PicturesSigmund Freud( )
6Exploring the Unconscious A reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds (free association) in order to tap the unconscious.Discuss Freud’s view of the mind as an iceberg, and explain how he used this image to represent conscious and unconscious regions of the mind.
7Dream AnalysisAnother method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams.The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli (1791)
8PsychoanalysisThe process of free association (chain of thoughts) leads to painful, embarrassing unconscious memories.Once these memories are retrieved and released (treatment: psychoanalysis) the patient feels better.
9Model of MindThe mind is like an iceberg. It is mostly hidden, and below the surface lies the unconscious mind. The preconscious stores temporary memories.
10Personality Structure Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego).
11March 2, 2011 Do Now:What three methods did Freud use to “treat” his patients?Free Association- speaking whatever words come to mindDream AnalysisPsychoanalysisId- take themSuperego- badEgo- I’ll just look at them, but I won’t memorize them
12Id, Ego and SuperegoThe Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.The ego functions as the “executive” and mediates the demands of the id and superego.Personality consists of 3 partso Id- consists of instincts and psychic energy (libido)o 2 instincts- life instinct (Eros)evidenced as desire for sexo Death instinct (Thanatos)expressed as aggressiono Completely in the unconscious mindo Propelled by the pleasure principle- wants immediate gratificationo Babies propelled by ido Ego- contains thoughts, judgments and memories- partly conscious, partly unconsciouso Operates on reality principle- tries to satisfy desires of the id within limitations of the environmento Superego- the sense of conscience-sense of right and wrong- partly conscious, partly unconsciouso Ego mediates between Id and superegoThe superego provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
13Freud’s Personality Development Psychosexual stages: Personality formed during the first few years of life divided into stages.Determinism= early experiences will shape your later personalityDuring these stages the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones.OBJECTIVE 5| Identify Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, and describe the effects of fixation on behavior.
14Psychosexual StagesFreud divided the development of personality into five psychosexual stages.
15FixationFixation at any stage results from being either overly or underly satisfiedOral fixation- smoke, talk, chew gum, chew ice (under)Oral retentive: (overly satisfied during oral stage) shy or quietAnal retentive- too neat, organized (overly gratified from the anal stage)Anal expulsive- messy, disorganized (under satisfied)
16A girl’s desire for her father is called the Electra complex. Oedipus ComplexA boy’s sexual desire for his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.A girl’s desire for her father is called the Electra complex.
17“Keep your friends close and your enemies closer” IdentificationIdentification: Children cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and by “identifying” with the rival parent.“Keep your friends close and your enemies closer”From the K. Vandervelde private collectionThrough this process of identification, their superego gains strength that incorporates their parents’ values.
18Defense MechanismsThe ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.underlies all other defense mechanisms2. Regression- leads to an infantile (childish) stageOBJECTIVE 6| Describe the function of defense mechanisms, and identify six of them.Defense mechanisms reduce or redirect anxiety in various ways, but always by distorting reality. Repression, which underlies the other defense mechanisms, banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts from consciousness; regression involves retreat to an earlier, more infantile stage of development; and reaction formation makes unacceptable impulses look like their opposites. Projection attributes threatening impulses to others, rationalization offers self-justifying explanations for behavior, and displacement diverts impulses to a more acceptable object.
19Defense Mechanisms3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Example: “I hate my father I love him”Projection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.Example: My friend is always criticizing other people, she is mean and criticalExample of reaction formation- ego unconsciously makes unaccpetable impulses look like their opposites“I hate him” becomes “I love him” People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex.
20Defense Mechanisms Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations example: it’s not my fault I failed, I had three other testsDisplacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable object or personExample: you want to punch your sister, so instead you punch the pillow7. Sublimation – redirecting unacceptable or aggressive impulses into an acceptable behavior- example: you want to punch your sister, but instead you go for a runRatinalization occurs when we unconsciously generate self-justifying exoplanations to hide ourselves from the real treasons for our actionsHabitaul drinkers who drink with their friends “just to be sociable”Students who fail to study may rationalizein place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.or person, redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
22Do Now:Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as: a. regression. b. projection. c. displacement. d. reaction formation.Jaydon doesn’t realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a: a. strong ego. b. weak id. c. strong superego. d. weak egoBonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie’s reaction to her children illustrates: a. identification. b. reaction formation. c. displacement. d. projection.Freud's theories of Personality:Id, Ego, SuperegoDefense Mechanisms- in order to resolve the conflict between id and superego, we develop six defense mechanismsrepression-rationalization-regression-reaction-projection-displacement-question?All very controversialAll published in "Interpretation of Dreams,"What are some reasons why Freud might be controversial?
24Freud’s Theory of Personality Id, Ego, SuperegoPsychosexual StagesDefense Mechanismsin order to resolve the conflict between id and superego, we develop six defense mechanismsrepression-rationalization-regression-reaction-projection-DisplacementWhile many of Freudian theories are very controversial, he has had a huge impact on contemporary psychology, particularly influencing the PSYCHODYNAMIC movement
25AIM: How has Freud impacted contemporary psychology? The neo-Freudians accepted Freud’s basic ideas regarding personality structures, the importance of the unconscious, the shaping of personality in children, and the dynamics of anxiety and defense mechanisms.
26Why was Freud revolutionary? First to propose psychoanalysisImpact on pop culture“Oedipus complex”Freudian slip: unconscious is manifested through an error in speech"A Freudian slip is when you mean one thing, but you say your mother."Inspired future psychologists in the Neo-Freudian movement (Psychodynamic Movement)Can you think of Freudian references in pop culture?Bottom line- need to understand and appreciate Freud for what he is and what he gave- revolutionary and historic- greater impact on popculture, art, laypeople’s language (ego, repression, projection, complex, fixation, Freudian slips) than contemporary psychology
27Why were Freud’s Theories so heavily criticized? Gender BiasFor example: Little Hans2) Too much emphasis on sex3) Not predictive4) Little empirical evidence to supportNot predictiveGender BiasToo much emphasis on SexLittle empirical evidence to supportCan’t refute Both positive and negative reactions support- negative reaction= resistanceNot predictive (can explain why but not predict- but was never meant to predict)Example- Little HansContemporary studies- gender identity before age 5-6 and occurs without same sex parent presentToo much sex- underestimates social influencePenis envy is objectionable and Women have weak superegos to many feminists (ex: Karen Horney)- Freud had assumption that men superior to women (weak superego)
28Charles Potkay and Bem Allen describe Freud’s case study of Little Hans as the cornerstone of Freud’s ideas about the Oedipus Complex. Five-year-old Hans was afraid to leave his house because of an irrational fear that a horse would bite him. Hans developed the fear after having seen a horse fall down in the street. Freud believed that the real target of Hans’ fear was something else; through displacement Hans’s unconscious anxiety had merely been redirected from its original source onto horses. Freud suggested that Hans was actually afraid of his erotic feelings toward his mother and aggressive wishes toward his father. He supported his hypothesis with the following observations. 8 Chapter 15 Personality1. Hans has said he wanted to sleep with his mother, “coax with” or caress her, be married to her, and have children “just like daddy.” 2. Hans experienced castration anxiety. His parents warned that if he continued to play with his “widdler” (penis), it would be cut off. He noticed that his sister had no “widdler.” 3. Hans wanted his mother all to himself, was jealous of his father, and feared his mother would prefer his father’s bigger widdler, which was “like a horse.” 4. Hans was most afraid of horses with black muzzles, similar to his father’s black moustache. Hans had “accidentally” knocked a statue of a horse from its stand. When he saw a real horse fall down, he recognized his own aggressive impulse that his father fall down and die, an idea that frightened him and that he could not consciously acknowledge. Horses, then, were symbolic substitutes for Hans’s father, whom he both feared and hated. 5. Through psychoanalysis, the unconscious was made conscious. Hans’s fears were brought into the open and he achieved insight. Freud observed, “Hans was really a little Oedipus who wanted to have his father ‘out of the way,’ to get rid of him, so that he might be alone with his handsome mother and sleep with her.”
29(Psychodynamic) Neo-Freudians agree with Freud: id, ego, superegoanxiety, defense mechanismsshaping of personality in childhood(Psychodynamic approach)- even dissenters influenced by FreudThe neo-Freudians accepted Freud’s basic ideas regarding personality structures, the importance of the unconscious, the shaping of personality in children, and the dynamics of anxiety and defense mechanisms.
30Neo-Freudians disagree with Freud: Importance of consciousnessSex and AggressionHowever, in contrast to Freud, the neo-Freudians generally placed more emphasis on the conscious mind in interpreting experience and coping with the environment, and they argued that we have more positive motives than sex and aggression.
31Carl Jung: Neofreudian Unconscious consists of:1) Personal unconscious2) Collective unconscious based on our species’ universal experiences or archetypesExample: myths, maternal images, fear of darkArchive of the History of American Psychology/ University of Akronunconscious consist ofpersonal unconscious (complexes=Freud’s unconscious and repressed thoughts)collective unconscious: collection of memories and behaviors (archetypes) passed down through the ancestors ex: mother as nurturer, circles, fear of the darkmore likely shared evolution results in some universal dispositionswhich contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nurturance.Carl Jung ( )
32Alfred Adler ego psychologist (downplayed unconscious) childhood is formative periodInferiority-complex people are motivated by fear of failure (inferiority) and desire to achieve (superiority)Birth orderAlfred Adler- Viennese psychiatristFreud- emphasizes sexJung- emphasizes role of ancestersAdler emphasized social interest as the primary determinant tof behaviorConsciousness is the center of personalitysocial not sexual interactions shape personalityego psychologist because he downplayed unconscious and focused on egochildhood is formative periodInferiority complex: people are motivated by fear of failure (inferiority) and desire to achieve (superiority)We all try to compensate for physical, intellectual and social inadequacies.Birth order- oldest child- responsible, protectiveMiddle- ambitiousYoung- spoikedPeriod 2National Library of MedicineAlfred Adler ( )
33Karen Horney Womb envy Personality based on need for security Relationship with parent influences personalityWomen’s superego is just as strong as menKaren Horney- great critic but also Neo-Freudian-social not sexual interactions shape personalitywomb envy versus penis envy- penis envy is envy of privileges that males have in societypersonality is based on need for securityinteraction between child and parent as child deals with basic anxiety (being alone in unfamiliar and hostile world) forms basis for personalitychildren who find security in relationship with parents will find security in relationships with othersif not, likely to grow up insecure and distrustingLike Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer from “penis envy.”The Bettmann Archive/ CorbisKaren Horney ( )
34Do Now: Which NeoFreudian emphasized..? The role of the motherChildhood is important in personality developmentALL of the psychodyanmic psychologistsInferiority complexesAdlerCollective unconsciousJungBirth order- AdlerWomb Envy- Horney
35Assessing Unconscious Processes Projective tests- reveal the hidden unconscious mindRorschach Inkblot TestTAT (Thematic Apperception Test)OBJECTIVE 8| Describe two projective tests used to assess personality, and discuss some criticisms of them.Evaluating personality from an unconscious mind’s perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind.Good test must be:Reliability- consistent for scoresValidity- assesses what its supposed to assessStandardized-35
36Rorschach Inkblot Test The most widely used projective testHerman Rorschach10 inkblotsIt seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.1921Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.
43Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.Developed by Henry Murray,Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.43
45Projective Tests: Criticisms Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (predicting what it is supposed to).When evaluating the same patient, even trained raters come up with different interpretations (reliability).2. Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity).
47Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Modern ResearchPersonality develops throughout life and is not fixed in childhood.Freud underemphasized peer influence on the individualOBJECTIVE 9| Summarize psychology’s current assessment of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis.which may be as powerful as parental influence.
48Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Modern Research3. There may be other reasons for dreams besides wish fulfillment.4. Verbal slips can be explained on the basis of cognitive processing of verbal choices.5. Suppressed sexuality leads to psychological disorders. Sexual inhibition has decreased, but psychological disorders have not.Period 6 ends here
49Freud and the Unconscious Mind Modern research shows the existence of non-conscious information processing.Schemas that automatically control perceptions and interpretationsParallel processing during vision and thinkingImplicit memoriesEmotions that activate instantly without consciousness49
50Humanistic Perspective By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent with Freud’s negativity and the mechanistic psychology of the behaviorists.Abraham Maslow( )Carl Rogers( )
51Self-Actualizing Person Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Beginning with physiological needs, we try to reach the state of self-actualization—fulfilling our potential.OBJECTIVE 10| Summarize Abraham Maslow’s concept of self-actualization, and explain how his ideas illustrate the humanistic perspective.According to Maslow, self-actualization is the motivation to fulfill one’s potential. It is the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved. In his effort to turn psychology’s attention from the baser motives of troubled people to the growth potential of healthy people, who are thought to be basically good, Maslow reflects the humanistic perspective.Ted Polumbaum/ Time Pix/ Getty Images
53Ideal versus Real Write down a description of yourself currently: Write down a description of how you would like to perceive yourself:
54Assessing the SelfCarl Rogers asked people to describe themselves as they would like to be (ideal) and as they actually are (real).If the two descriptions were close the individual had a positive self-concept.OBJECTIVE 12| Explain how humanistic psychologists assessed personality.Humanistic psychologists assessed personality through questionnaires on which people report their self-concept. One questionnaire asked people to compare their actual self with their ideal self. Other humanistic psychologists maintained that we can only understand each person’s unique experience through interviews and intimate conversations.All of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, “Who am I?” refers to Self-Concept.
55Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective Humanistic psychology has a pervasive impact on counseling, education, child-rearing, and management.Concepts in humanistic psychology are vague and subjective and lack scientific basis.Individualism can promote selfishnessToo idealistic- some of us will never be able to acquire self-actualizationOBJECTIVE 13| State the major criticism of the humanistic perspective on personality.Humanistic psychologists assess personality through questionnaires on which people report their self-concept and by seeking to understand others’ subjective personal experiences in therapy.First, critics complain that the perspective’s concepts are vague and subjective. For example, the description of self-actualizing people seems more a reflection of Maslow’s personal values than a scientific description. Second, the individualism promoted by humanistic psychology may promote self-indulgence, selfishness, and an erosion of moral restraints. Third, humanistic psychology fails to appreciate the reality of our human capacity for evil. Its naive optimism may lead to apathy about major social problems.
56Self-Esteem and Self-Concept Self-concept: our overall view of our abilitiesSelf-esteem: how we evaluate ourselves
57Read pages :Pick a personality trait, and explain or evaluate this trait using the following perspectives:FreudianNeoFreudian (Jung, Adler, Horney)Humanistic
58Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective The scientific merits of Freud’s theory have been criticized. Psychoanalysis is meagerly testable. Most of its concepts arise out of clinical practice, which are the after-the-fact explanation.
59The Trait PerspectiveTrait= An individual’s characteristic behaviors and conscious motivesExamples of TraitsHonestDependableMoodyImpulsiveOBJECTIVE 14| Describe the trait and perspective’s contribution to personality research.Allport & Odbert (1936), identified 18,000 words representing traits.Allport is more concerned with describing traits rather than explainingHow different from Freud?
60Personality TypePersonality types, assessed by measures such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, consist of a number of traits.SympatheticAppreciativeTactfulAncient Greeks described personality based on 4 basic categories- melancholic, cheerful, unemotional, irreitable2.5 million Americans a year take the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to determine their profile, it declares preferences and leaves them feeling good, not very valuable as a job predictorFor example, a feeling type personality is sympathetic, appreciative, and tactful. More research is needed on this popular test’s validity.Freud attempted to explain personality in terms of hidden, unconscious motives. In contrast to the psychoanalytic perspective, trait theorists attempt to describe personality in terms of stable and enduring behavior patterns, or dispositions to feel and act. Some theorists use dominant traits and their associated characteristics to describe personality “types.”Feeling Type Personality
64Cattell 16 Personality Factor (16PF) inventory. Exploring TraitsFactor analysis is a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality traits.Cattell 16 Personality Factor (16PF) inventory.OBJECTIVE 15| Describe some of the ways psychologists have attempted to compile a list of basic personality traits.used this approach to develop aOne way has been to suggest traits, such as anxiety, that some theory regards as basic. A newer technique is factor analysis, a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of behaviors that tend to appear together. For example, through factor analysis, Hans and Sybil Eysenck reduced normal variations to two or three genetically influenced dimensions, including extraversion–introversion and emotional stability–instability. Brain activity scans suggest that extraverts and introverts differ in their level of arousal, with extraverts seeking stimulation because their normal brain arousal level is relatively low. Jerome Kagan maintains that heredity, by influencing autonomic nervous system arousal, also affects our temperament and behavioral style, which help define ourpersonality.Raymond Cattell( )
65Factor AnalysisCattell found that large groups of traits could be reduced down to 16 core personality traits based on statistical correlations.ExcitementImpatientIrritableBoisterousBasictraitSuperficialtraitsImpulsive
66Personality Dimensions Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality could be reduced down to three dimensionsextroversion vs introversion,neuroticism vs stability,and psychoticism vs empathetic.Extroversion-Neuroticism- level of isntability, moody anxious and urneliablePsychotism- toughmindedness, hostuile ruthless inseticie as opposed to tender mindeneness
69Assessing TraitsPersonality inventories are questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviorsOBJECTIVE 16| Explain how psychologists use personality inventories to assess traits, and discuss the most widely used of these inventories.
70MMPIThe Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests.Psychologists assess several traits at once by administering personality inventories on which people respond to items designed to measure a wide range of feelings and behaviors. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely used personality inventory. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is now used for many other screening purposes. The MMPI items were empirically derived—that is, from a large pool of items, the test developers selected those on which particular diagnostic groups differed. The objective scoring of the test does not guarantee its validity. For example, those taking the MMPI for employment screening may give socially desirable responses that create a good impression.
72Barnum EffectTendency to accept as valid descriptions of our personality that are true of everyone especially if favorableBarnum: “There’s a sucker born every minute”Barnum effect exploited by astrologers, palm readers, fortune tellersThese are not accurate or scientific methods of determining personality. Fortune tellers and astrologists ar NOT scientists. Psychologists must rely on empirical and unbiased techniques.
73AIM: How do psychologists determine our personality traits?
74The Big Five FactorsToday’s trait researchers believe that Eysencks’ personality dimensions are too narrow and Cattell’s 16PF too large. A middle range (five factors) of traits does a better job of assessment.ConscientiousnessAgreeablenessNeuroticismOpennessExtraversionOBJECTIVE 17| Identify the Big Five personality factors, and discuss some of the strengths of this approach to studying personality.Researchers have isolated five distinct personality dimensions, dubbed the Big Five: emotional stability, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. These traits appear to be stable in adulthood, largely heritable, common to all cultures, and good predictors of other personal attributes. Locating an individual on these five dimensions provides a comprehensive picture of personality.* What is missing from this list? Can you define yourself on these characteristics?
75EndpointsIf a test specifies where you are on the five dimensions (conscientiousness, ageeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion)* What is missing from this list? Can you define yourself on these characteristics?Self-consciousness, masculinity
76Questions about the Big Five 1. How stable are these traits?Quite stable in adulthood. However, they change over development.2. How heritable are they?Fifty percent or so for each trait.3. How about other cultures?These traits are common across cultures.4. Can they predict other personal attributes?Yes. Conscientious people are morning type and extraverted are evening type.
77Evaluating the Trait Perspective The Person-Situation ControversyWalter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) points out that traits may be enduring, but the resulting behavior in various situations is different.OBJECTIVE 18| Summarize the person-situation controversy, and explain its importance as a commentary on the trait perspective.Therefore, traits are not good predictors of behavior.Although people’s traits seem to persist over time, critics of the trait perspective note that human behavior varies widely from situation to situation. Thus, traits are not good predictors of behavior. For example, being conscientious on one occasion is only modestly related to being conscientious on another occasion. Defenders of the trait perspective note that, despite these variations, a person’s average behavior across different situations is fairly consistent. We do have distinct personality traits. Moreover, research suggests that our traits are socially significant; they influence our health, our thinking, and our job performance.
78The Person-Situation Controversy Trait theorists argue that behaviors from a situation may be different, but average behavior remains the same.Therefore, traits matter.What does this graph show us?With age, personality traits become more stable, as reflected in the correlatio of tait scores with follow-up scores seven years later
79The Person-Situation Controversy Traits are socially significant and influence our health, thinking, and performanceZero acquaintance- we can discern something of others’ personality from glimpsing their Web site, dorm room, or officeMusic preferences- classical, jazz, blues, folkd musicDorm rooms and offices-John Langford PhotographySamuel Gosling
81Consistency of Expressive Style Expressive styles in speaking and gestures demonstrate trait consistency.OBJECTIVE 19| Explain why psychologists are interested in the consistency of the trait expressiveness.13 harvard university graduate students teaching, mere 10 second clips and rate confidence, activeness, warmth, predicted amazingly well the average student ratingsSurgeons- tone, pitch, rhythm- could accurately determine who was suedIn informal social situations, our expressive styles—our animation, manner of speaking, and gestures—are impressively consistent. Moreover, we can judge individual differences in expressiveness in a matter of seconds. Thus, we may form lasting impressions within a few moments of meeting someone. Research suggests people have little voluntary control over their expressiveness.Observers are able to judge people’s behavior and feelings in as little as seconds
82AIM: How does the interaction between the social context and the person influence personality? Sociocognitive PerspectivePeople as biopsychosocial organismsPeople’s biologically influenced psychological traits interact with their situations82
83Consistency of Expressive Style Expressive styles in speaking and gestures demonstrate trait consistency.OBJECTIVE 19| Explain why psychologists are interested in the consistency of the trait expressiveness.13 harvard university graduate students teaching, mere 10 second clips and rate confidence, activeness, warmth, predicted amazingly well the average student ratingsSurgeons- tone, pitch, rhythm- could accurately determine who was suedIn informal social situations, our expressive styles—our animation, manner of speaking, and gestures—are impressively consistent. Moreover, we can judge individual differences in expressiveness in a matter of seconds. Thus, we may form lasting impressions within a few moments of meeting someone. Research suggests people have little voluntary control over their expressiveness.Observers are able to judge people’s behavior and feelings in as little as seconds83
84Social-Cognitive Perspective Albert Bandura believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person’s behavior and their social context.Albert Bandura84
85Reciprocal Influences Bandura called the interaction between personality and our environment reciprocal determinism.The social-cognitive perspective applies principles of learning and cognition to the understanding of personality.Stephen Wade/ Allsport/ Getty Images85
86Reciprocal Determinism Specific ways in which individuals and environments interactDifferent people choose different environments.The school you attend and the music you listen to are partly based on your dispositions.Our personalities shape how we react to events.Anxious people react to situations differently than calm people.Our personalities shape situations.How we view and treat people influences how they treat us.86
87Reciprocal Determinism Taylor is friendly (trait)1. Influences her behavior (she talks a lot)2. Influences her environment (she is more likely to go to parties where she will talk a lot)3. Her environment influences her behavior: the more she talks, the more friendly she thinks she is and the more parties she goes to, the more she talksInteractions between individuals and environments occur when different people choose different environments, when our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events, and when our personalities help create situations to which we react.87
88Bandura’s Self- Efficacy Self-efficacy is our belief that we can perform behaviors that are necessary to accomplish tasksMajor factor in how we regulate our livesGreater self-efficacy- more competent,North america, western europe, societies foster an independent view of the self characterized by individualismCollective efficacy88
89BehaviorBehavior emerges from an interplay of external and internal influences.89
90Do Now:For each of the following perspectives, identify founding theorists:PsychodynamicFreudNeoFreudianHorney, Adler, JungHumanistMaslow, Mr. RogersTrait PerspectiveGordon AllportSociocognitive
91Sociocognitive Perspective Bandura Self EfficacyGeorge Kelly Personal ConstructJulian Rotter Internal/External Locus of Control
92George Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory We develop personal constructs consisting of polar opposites (fair-unfair, exciting-dull, smart-unintelligent) to understand our world Personality differences result from different constructsGeorge Kelly- we are strongly influenced to make sense out of worldPersonal constructs exist in oppositesBehavior is influenced by thinking and knowing how people behaved in the past can predict how they’ll behave in the future92
93Role Construct Repertory Test Too few constructs= stereotype othersToo many constructs- may have difficulty predicting other’s behaviorPeople who use few constructs end to stereotype othersToo many constructs- may have difficulty predicting others’ behaviors93
94Social-Learning Theory: Personal Control Julian Rotter emphasized our sense of personal control, whether we control the environment or the environment controls us.External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate.Discuss the effects of a perception of internal or external control, and describe the concept of learned helplessness.In examining our interactions with our environment, social-cognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of personal control, that is, whether we learn to see ourselves as controlling, or, as being controlled by, our environment. People who perceive an internal rather than an external locus of control achieve more in school, are more independent, and are less depressed. Moreover, they are better able to delay gratification and cope with various stresses. Faced with repeated traumatic events over which they have no control, people come to feel helpless, hopeless, and depressed. This learned helplessness may result in passivity in later situations where their efforts could make a difference. In contrast, under conditions of personal freedom and empowerment, people thrive.Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fate.94
95Internal Locus of Control Internals believe they can control their destiniesachieve more at schoolact more independentlyenjoy better healthbetter self controlless depressionWarm protective nurturing family environment, 1st /earlier bornWhat are some qualities of internal locus of control?95
96External Locus of Control Limited social powerLimited resourceslow socioeconomic classSocially MarginalizedDemocracy- would it have an internal or external locus of control?96
103Positive Psychology and Humanistic Psychology Positive psychology, such as humanistic psychology, attempts to foster human fulfillment. Positive psychology, in addition, seeks positive subjective well-being, (self-rating for happiness) positive character, and positive social groups.Courtesy of Martin E.P. Seligman, PhD Director,Positive Psychology Center/ University of PennsylvaniaMartin Seligman103
105Optimism vs. PessimismAn optimistic or pessimistic attributional style is your way of explaining positive or negative events.Our attributional style, that is, our way of explaining positive and negative events, can reveal how effective or helpless we feel. For example, those who optimistically see setbacks as flukes rather than as signs of incompetence are likely to be more persistent and successful.Optimists have also been found to outlive pessimists, as well as to have fewer illnesses. Excessive optimism, however, can lead to complacency, naivete and can blind us to real risks.105
106What do these all have in common? Times of relative peace and prosperity have enabled cultures to turn their attention towards promoting the highest quality of lifeSeligman’s Positive Psychology aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive.106
107Positive Psychology and Humanistic Psychology Positive psychology, in addition, seeks positive subjective well-being, positive character, and positive social groups.Seligman: positive psychologyCourtesy of Martin E.P. Seligman, PhD Director,Positive Psychology Center/ University of PennsylvaniaMartin Seligman107
108Review:According to Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of: a. free association. b. psychosexual development. c. projective testing. d. hypnosis.Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development? a. Allport b. Bandura c. Rogers d. AdlerAlbert Bandura’s social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of: a. free association. b. self-actualization. c. reciprocal determinism. d. factor analysis.Is there a downside to too much freedom in decision-making?
109Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective Critics say that social-cognitive psychologists pay a lot of attention to the situation and pay less attention to the individual, his unconscious mind, his emotions, and his genetics.Critics argue that the social-cognitive perspective focuses so much on the situation that it fails to appreciate the importance of the person’s inner traits, emotions, and unconscious motives.109
110Assessing Behavior in Situations Social-cognitive psychologists observe people in realistic and simulated situations because they find that it is the best way to predict the behavior of others in similar situations.Social-cognitive researchers observe how people’s behaviors and beliefs both affect and are affected by their situations. They have found that the best way to predict someone’s behavior in a given situation is to observe that person’s behavior pattern in similar situations.110
111Exploring the SelfResearch focuses on the different selves we possess. Some we dream and others we dread.Research studies how we overestimate our concern that others evaluate our appearance, performance, and blunders (spotlight effect).3. Research studies the self-reference effect in recall- remember information better if it applies to yourselfResearch on the self has a long history because the self organizes thinking, feelings, and actions and is a critical part of our personality.The self is one of Western psychology’s most vigorously researched topics. Underlying this research is the assumption that the self, as organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions, is pivotal in our universal understanding personality. One example of research on the self is the study of possible selves. It explores people’s visions of the self they dream of becoming. Such possible selves motivate us by laying out specific goals and calling forth the energy to work toward them.Another example is the study of the spotlight effect, which reflects our tendency to overestimate others’ noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders. Give example of Barry Manilow- spotlight effectthe self-reference phenomenon, our tendency to remember information better if we encode it in terms of ourselves. (adj friendly, for example)111
112Benefits of Self-Esteem Maslow and Rogers argued that a successful life results from a healthy self-image (self-esteem).When self-esteem is deflated, we view ourselves and others critically.Low self-esteem reflects reality, our failure in meeting challenges, or surmounting difficulties.From Myers: People who have high self-esteem have fewer sleepless nights, are less conforming, are more persistent at difficult tasks, are less shy and lonely, and are just plain happier. Some research shows a destructive effect of low self-esteem. For example, temporarily deflating people’s self-esteem can lead them to disparage others and express greater racial prejudice. Other researchers suggest that personal problems and failure may cause low self-esteem.112
113Culture & Self-EsteemMembers of groups who experience discrimination and low status maintain their self-esteem by (1) valuing the things at which they excel, (2) attributing problems to prejudice, and (3) comparing themselves to those in their own group.People maintain their self-esteem even with a low status by valuing things they achieve and comparing themselves to people with similar positions= relative deprivation113
114Self-Serving BiasWe accept responsibility for good deeds and successes more than for bad deeds and failures.We tend to view ourselves as better than averageDefensive self-esteem is fragile and egotistic whereas secure self-esteem is less fragile and less dependent on external evaluation.Self-serving bias, our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably, is evident in our tendency to accept more responsibility for good deeds than for bad, and for successes than for failures.Note: Most people also see themselves as better than average. Defensive self-esteem is fragile and focuses on sustaining itself which makes failure and criticism feel threatening.Similar to low self-esteem, defensive self-esteem correlates with antisocial behavior. In contrast, secure self-esteem is less fragile because it depends less on external evaluations. Feeling accepted for who we are enables us to lose ourselves in relationships and purposes larger than self.114