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CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 1 The Synergy Between Non-blocking Synchronization and Operating System Structure By Michael Greenwald and David Cheriton.

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Presentation on theme: "CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 1 The Synergy Between Non-blocking Synchronization and Operating System Structure By Michael Greenwald and David Cheriton."— Presentation transcript:

1 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 1 The Synergy Between Non-blocking Synchronization and Operating System Structure By Michael Greenwald and David Cheriton Presented by Jonathan Walpole

2 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 2 The Cache Kernel  Yet Another Attempt at a µ-kernel  Minimal privileged mode code: Caching model of kernel functionality  OS functionality in user-mode class libraries allowing application-customizablility of OS  Memory and signal-based communication  Goal: scalable, robust, flexible operating system design

3 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 3 Synergy of NBS and kernel structure  Claim: NBS and Good Design go together in the Cache Kernel design and implementation o NBS allows better OS structuring o Good OS structure simplifies NBS

4 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 4 Non-blocking Synchronization  Basic idea o Associate version number with data structure o Read version number at start of critical section o Atomically check and increment version number at end of critical section at the same time as applying the update(s), using a Double Compare and Swap (DCAS) instruction. o Try again on failure  Similar to Synthesis approach

5 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 5 Example: Deletion from Linked List do { retry: backoffIfNeeded(); version = list->version;/* Read version # */ for (p = list->head;(p->next != elt); p = p->next) { if (p == NULL) {/* Not found */ if (version != list->version) { goto retry; }/* List changed */ return NULL;/* Really not found */ } } while( !DCAS(&(list->version),&(p->next), version,elt, version+1,elt->next )

6 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 6 Double Compare and Swap int DCAS(int *addr1,int *addr2, int old1,int old2, int new1,int new2) { if ((*addr1 == old1) && (*addr2 == old2)) { *addr1 = new1; *addr2 = new2; return(TRUE); } else { return(FALSE); }

7 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 7 Problem …  What happens if someone else deletes an element while we are traversing the list? o What if we end up traversing into the free pool? o What if the memory is reused? o What if we end up in a different data structure? o What if the memory is reused for a different type?  How can we avoid these problems?

8 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 8 Solutions to reader hijacking  If memory is reclaimed immediately upon updates, readers must protect themselves from hijacking  Possible solution 1? o Readers use a load-linked / store-conditional (LL/SC) sequence to detect changed pointers at the end of their critical sections … or at the end of each use of a pointer  Solution 2: o Readers verify that version numbers associated with data structures have not changed (2 memory barriers) at the end of each use of a pointer

9 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 9 Type-stable memory management (TSM)  Descriptor that is allocated as type T is guaranteed to remain of type T for at least t stable o I.e. cannot switch quickly from T1 to T2 by reallocation o Restrict or prevent memory reuse??? o Generalization of existing technique: e.g. process-descriptors are statically allocated at system init, and are type-stable for lifetime of system  Advantage o T * ptr remains a pointer to an instance of T even if ptr is changed asynchronously by another process  Problem o Unacceptable restriction on memory reuse for production systems

10 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 10 TSM aids Non-Blocking Synchronization  Type stability ensures safety of pointer dereferences. o Without TSM, delete example is too big to fit on slide And very expensive to execute o Need to check for changes on each loop iteration o TSM makes NBS code simpler and faster

11 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 11 Other benefits of NBS in Cache Kernel  Signals are only form of IPC in Cache Kernel  NBS simplifies synchronization in signal handlers o Makes it easier to write efficient signal-safe code

12 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 12 Contention Minimizing Data Structures (CMDS)  Localization-based structuring used in Cache kernel: o Replication: Per-processor structures (ie. run queue) o Extra level of read-mostly hierarchy (ie. hash tables with per bucket synchronization) o Cache block alignment of descriptors  Well-known techniques used in other systems (Tornado, Synthesis, …)

13 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 13 Benefits of CMDS  Minimizes logical and physical contention o Minimizes (memory) consistency overhead o Minimizes false sharing  Reduces lock conflicts/convoys in lock-based system  Reduces synchronization contention with NBS o fewer retries from conflict at point of DCAS  CMDS is good for locks, cache consistency and NBS! o NBS needs CMDS

14 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 14 Minimizing the Window of Inconsistency Another general strategy to improve performance 1) Delay writes, and group together at end 2) Find intermediate consistent states 3) Keep log to allow undo/backout  Small W of I reduces probability of leaving inconsistent data structures after failure.

15 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 15 Minimizing the Window of Inconsistency  Preemption-safe: Easy to back-out of a critical section  Reduces lock hold time, and thus, contention (in lock- based systems)  Less probability of failure leaving inconsistency  Good for system design whether you use blocking or non-blocking synchronization!

16 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 16 Does NBS minimize the window of inconsistency?  What is the relationship between window of inconsistency and probability of conflict (contention)?

17 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 17 Priority Inversion Issues  NBS allows synchronization to be subordinate to scheduling o It avoids priority inversion problem of locks o Also, page fault,I/O, and other blocking  Highest priority process always makes progress

18 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 18 Why NBS is good for OS structure  Fail-stop safe: OS class libraries tolerant of user threads being terminated. o Most Cache Kernel OS functionality implemented in user- mode class libraries.  Portable: same code on uniprocessor, multiprocessor, and signal handlers.  Deadlock free (almost)  NBS supports class library implementation of OS functions

19 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 19 Implementing non-blocking Synchronization  Basic approach o Read version number o Rely on TSM for type safety of pointers o Increment version number and check with every modification (abort if changed).  Straightforward transformation from locking o … so long as you have DCAS and can tolerate TSM o Replace acquire with read of version number o Replace release with DCAS …

20 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 20 Implementing non-blocking Synchronization (cont.)  Variants of the basic approach: o N reads, 1 write: No backout o 2 reads, 2 writes: No version number  Optimization: o Cache based advisory locking avoids contention (& “useless parallelism”) o Uses Cload instruction  In the Cache kernel, every case of synchronization falls into the special cases

21 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 21 Complexity and Correctness  DCAS reduces size of algorithms (lines of code) by 75% compared to CAS, for linked lists, queues and stacks o Special case used of DCAS reduce complexity further  Relatively straightforward transformation from locking o Similar code size

22 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 22 Performance Issues  Simulation-based study  With non-preemptive scheduling: o DCAS-based NBS almost as fast as spin-locks o CAS-based NBS slower  With preemptive scheduling: o DCAS and CAS-based NBS better than spin-locks

23 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 23 Conclusions  “Good OS structure” can support Non-blocking synchronization o Type-Stable Mem. Mgmt (TSM) o Data Structures that Minimize Contention (CMDS) o Minimizing the window of inconsistency  Non-blocking synchronization can support convenient OS structure o Avoids deadlock; allows signals as sole IPC o Fault tolerant; enables functionality to be moved from kernel. o Performance; isolates scheduling from synch.  Strong synergy between non-blocking synch & good OS structure.

24 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 24 Advantages of Non-blocking Synchronization  Non-blocking: o Signal handlers don’t deadlock  Portability: o same code on uni and multiprocessors and signal handlers  Performance: o Minimizes interference between synchronization and process scheduling  Recovery: o Insulation from process failures  So why isn’t it universally deployed?

25 CS510 – Advanced Operating Systems 25 Obstacles to deployment  Complexity: o confusing to design and write efficient algorithms  Correctness: o hard to convince that there are no subtle bugs  Performance: o increased contention, high overhead  Unfamiliarity and insufficient system support

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