Presentation on theme: "Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function related to performance of physical activity, through… Understanding Basic anatomical features."— Presentation transcript:
Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function related to performance of physical activity, through… Understanding Basic anatomical features
Body Structure and Function Body Structure and Function Other factors that influence human movement and action include: - Biomechanical factors - Improving fitness Skeletal systemMuscular systemCardiovascular systemRespiratory system
What are the functions of the human skeleton? To help understand this, let’s look at some of the activities we can do?
List an example of a competitive sport / activity for each letter of the alphabet. E.g. A = Archery
Group each activity according to the type of movement associated with it. Some activities will fit under more than one heading. E.g. Pulling the arm back – Archery, Javelin …
So far we have listed a range of ACTIONS. One of the functions of the human skeleton is to allow MOVEMENT
What other functions does the human skeleton have? Imagine a body WITHOUT a skeleton!
Are there any other functions of the human skeleton? What roles do the skull and rib-cage have?
Many of the bones of the human skeleton are long and hollow.
Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of bones that produces blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body. White blood cells act to ward off infection. Platelets aid in blood-clotting.
The human skeleton serves one other function? The skeleton also stores minerals such as calcium.
How does each of the functions relate to performance in physical activity?
Protection… Vital organs are protected from impact forces such as a crash on your bike or collision with another person / object.
Support… The skeleton provides support for soft tissues to attach to, giving your body shape. E.g. attachment for muscles
Blood cell formation… Red blood cells are important in transporting oxygen rich blood to muscles to help fuel them. The more oxygen we get to our muscles the more potential fuel our muscles have to work with.
Storage of minerals… Minerals such as calcium help us produce strong bones. Strong bones are important in overuse injuries in repetitive and continuous activity such as multisport and also in contact sports.
Movement… The skeleton provides levers & joints that allow movement to occur The type of bone / joint is related to the degree of movement possible. Long bones. E.g. ….. Short bones. E.g. ….. Irregular bones. E.g. ….. Flat bones. E.g. ….. Types of joints….
Appendicular Skeleton Parts of the skeleton associated with locomotion / movement Axial Skeleton Forms the central axis of the body Parts of the skeleton associated with central support and protection Group each of the bones under the axial and appendicular skeleton
The Human Skeleton Group each of the bones under the axial and appendicular skeleton
The Human Skeleton Axial SkeletonAppendicular Skeleton
The spine is divided into 5 regions. How does the size of the vertebrae relate to their position and the degree of weight bearing and movement required?
The range and freedom of movement/action depends on the type of joint involved – the more stable a joint, the less movement occurs through it.
Types of Joints Ball & Socket Examples are the hip and shoulder Movement occurs in all directions
Types of Joints Hinge Joint Examples are the elbow and knee (the knee is a modified hinge joint as there is slight rotation) Movement occurs in 2 directions in one plane – forwards & backwards
Types of Joints Pivot Joint Examples are the neck (where the atlas pivots around the axis at the top of the spine) and the radioulner joint below the elbow joint (allows lower arm to rotate)
You need to be able to discuss the type of movement associated with various joints in the human body and relate this to specific sporting examples.
Types of Movement Flexion Bending a joint so the bones on either side of the joint are drawn together Examples include elbow flexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, …
Types of Movement Extension Straightening a joint so the bones on either side of the joint are drawn apart Examples include elbow extension, knee extension, hip extension, …
Types of Movement Abduction Moving the bone away from the mid-line of the body (when someone is abducted they are ‘taken away’). Examples include abduction of the arm as it is drawn out to the side of the body, abduction of the leg.
Types of Movement Adduction Moving the bone towards the mid- line of the body (adduction is adding to the mid-line of the body). Examples include adduction of the arm as it is drawn in to the side of the body, abduction of the leg.
Types of Movement Plantar Flexion Pointing the toes downwards Examples in sport include diving, gymnastics, acceleration in sprinting, jumping in volleyball, …
Types of Movement Dorsi-Flexion Pulling the toes upwards towards the tibia
Types of Movement Pronation Pronation is a rotational movement of the forearm at the radioulnar joint. (Pronation also occurs in the foot.) http://images.google.co.nz/imgres?imgurl=http://adhd- tennis.org/images/pronation.jpg&imgrefurl=http://adhd- tennis.org/serve.aspx&usg=__hEjucuNmw5EZcznFwIwmr7Y0NmI=&h=6 40&w=467&sz=33&hl=en&start=55&tbnid=fzNKjyr3JyA5aM:&tbnh=137&t bnw=100&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpronation%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D1 8%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN%26start%3D54
Types of Movement Supination Supination: Rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm is up (and the corresponding movement of the foot and leg with the sole up).
Label the muscles indicated on the photo above.
For each muscle give 2 examples of actions it is responsible for? E.g. Abdominals are responsible for a sit up and a ‘pike’ in a dive.