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Achievement Standard 1.2 Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function related to performance of physical activity, through… Understanding Basic.

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Presentation on theme: "Achievement Standard 1.2 Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function related to performance of physical activity, through… Understanding Basic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Achievement Standard 1.2 Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function related to performance of physical activity, through… Understanding Basic anatomical features

2 Body Structure and Function
Other factors that influence human movement and action include: Biomechanical factors Improving fitness Skeletal system Muscular system Cardiovascular system Respiratory system UNDERSTANDING

3 The Human skeleton REMEMBERING
What are the functions of the human skeleton? To help understand this, let’s look at some of the activities we can do?

4 Sports / activities REMEMBERING
List an example of a competitive sport / activity for each letter of the alphabet. E.g. A = Archery

5 Sports / activities UNDERSTANDING
Group each activity according to the type of movement associated with it. Some activities will fit under more than one heading. E.g. Pulling the arm back – Archery, Javelin …

6 Sports / activities UNDERSTANDING
So far we have listed a range of ACTIONS. One of the functions of the human skeleton is to allow MOVEMENT

7 The Human skeleton UNDERSTANDING
What other functions does the human skeleton have? Imagine a body WITHOUT a skeleton!

8 The Human skeleton UNDERSTANDING
Are there any other functions of the human skeleton? What roles do the skull and rib-cage have?

9 The Human skeleton UNDERSTANDING
Many of the bones of the human skeleton are long and hollow.

10 The Human skeleton UNDERSTANDING
Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of bones that produces blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body. White blood cells act to ward off infection. Platelets aid in blood-clotting.

11 The Human skeleton UNDERSTANDING
The human skeleton serves one other function? The skeleton also stores minerals such as calcium.

12 Functions of the Skeleton
REMEMBERING

13 Functions of the Skeleton
Movement Support Protection Blood cell formation Storage REMEMBERING

14 The Human skeleton APPLY KNOWLEDGE
How does each of the functions relate to performance in physical activity?

15 Protection… APPLY KNOWLEDGE
Vital organs are protected from impact forces such as a crash on your bike or collision with another person / object. APPLY KNOWLEDGE

16 Support… APPLY KNOWLEDGE
The skeleton provides support for soft tissues to attach to, giving your body shape. E.g. attachment for muscles APPLY KNOWLEDGE

17 Blood cell formation… APPLY KNOWLEDGE
Red blood cells are important in transporting oxygen rich blood to muscles to help fuel them. The more oxygen we get to our muscles the more potential fuel our muscles have to work with. APPLY KNOWLEDGE

18 Storage of minerals… APPLY KNOWLEDGE
Minerals such as calcium help us produce strong bones. Strong bones are important in overuse injuries in repetitive and continuous activity such as multisport and also in contact sports. APPLY KNOWLEDGE

19 Movement… APPLY KNOWLEDGE
The skeleton provides levers & joints that allow movement to occur The type of bone / joint is related to the degree of movement possible. Long bones. E.g. ….. Short bones. E.g. ….. Irregular bones. E.g. ….. Flat bones. E.g. ….. Types of joints…. APPLY KNOWLEDGE

20 BLOOD CELL FORMATION sUPPORT PROTECTION MOVEMENT STORAGE UNDERSTANDING
The 5 functions of the skeleton are:

21 REMEMBERING Label the bones of the human body.

22 The Human Skeleton REMEMBERING

23 The Human Skeleton UNDERSTANDING Appendicular Skeleton Axial Skeleton
Parts of the skeleton associated with locomotion / movement Axial Skeleton Forms the central axis of the body Parts of the skeleton associated with central support and protection UNDERSTANDING Group each of the bones under the axial and appendicular skeleton

24 The Human Skeleton UNDERSTANDING
Group each of the bones under the axial and appendicular skeleton

25 The Human Skeleton UNDERSTANDING Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton

26 The Human spine APPLY KNOWLEDGE The spine is divided into 5 regions.
How does the size of the vertebrae relate to their position and the degree of weight bearing and movement required?

27 Types of joint in the body
The range and freedom of movement/action depends on the type of joint involved – the more stable a joint, the less movement occurs through it.

28 Types of Joints UNDERSTANDING Ball & Socket
Examples are the hip and shoulder Movement occurs in all directions UNDERSTANDING

29 Types of Joints UNDERSTANDING Hinge Joint
Examples are the elbow and knee (the knee is a modified hinge joint as there is slight rotation) Movement occurs in 2 directions in one plane – forwards & backwards UNDERSTANDING

30 Types of Joints UNDERSTANDING Pivot Joint
Examples are the neck (where the atlas pivots around the axis at the top of the spine) and the radioulner joint below the elbow joint (allows lower arm to rotate) UNDERSTANDING

31 Types of Movement You need to be able to discuss the type of movement associated with various joints in the human body and relate this to specific sporting examples.

32 Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Flexion
Bending a joint so the bones on either side of the joint are drawn together Examples include elbow flexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, … UNDERSTANDING

33 Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Extension
Straightening a joint so the bones on either side of the joint are drawn apart Examples include elbow extension, knee extension, hip extension, … UNDERSTANDING

34 Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Abduction
Moving the bone away from the mid-line of the body (when someone is abducted they are ‘taken away’). Examples include abduction of the arm as it is drawn out to the side of the body, abduction of the leg. UNDERSTANDING

35 Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Adduction
Moving the bone towards the mid- line of the body (adduction is adding to the mid-line of the body). Examples include adduction of the arm as it is drawn in to the side of the body, abduction of the leg. UNDERSTANDING

36 Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Plantar Flexion
Pointing the toes downwards Examples in sport include diving, gymnastics, acceleration in sprinting, jumping in volleyball, … UNDERSTANDING

37 Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Dorsi-Flexion
Pulling the toes upwards towards the tibia UNDERSTANDING

38 Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Pronation
Pronation is a rotational movement of the forearm at the radioulnar joint. (Pronation also occurs in the foot.) tennis.org/images/pronation.jpg&imgrefurl=http://adhd- tennis.org/serve.aspx&usg=__hEjucuNmw5EZcznFwIwmr7Y0NmI=&h=6 40&w=467&sz=33&hl=en&start=55&tbnid=fzNKjyr3JyA5aM:&tbnh=137&t bnw=100&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpronation%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D1 8%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN%26start%3D54 UNDERSTANDING

39 Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Supination
Supination: Rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm is up (and the corresponding movement of the foot and leg with the sole up). UNDERSTANDING

40 Muscles of The Human body
REMEMBERING Muscles of The Human body Label the muscles indicated on the photo above.

41 Muscles of The Human body
UNDERSTANDING Muscles of The Human body For each muscle give 2 examples of actions it is responsible for? E.g. Abdominals are responsible for a sit up and a ‘pike’ in a dive.


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