Presentation on theme: "Achievement Standard 1.2 Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function related to performance of physical activity, through… Understanding Basic."— Presentation transcript:
1Achievement Standard 1.2Demonstrate knowledge of body structure and function related to performance of physical activity, through…Understanding Basic anatomical features
2Body Structure and Function Other factors that influence human movement and action include:Biomechanical factorsImproving fitnessSkeletal systemMuscular systemCardiovascular systemRespiratory systemUNDERSTANDING
3The Human skeleton REMEMBERING What are the functions of the human skeleton?To help understand this, let’s look at some of the activities we can do?
4Sports / activities REMEMBERING List an example of a competitive sport / activity for each letter of the alphabet.E.g. A = Archery
5Sports / activities UNDERSTANDING Group each activity according to the type of movement associated with it. Some activities will fit under more than one heading.E.g. Pulling the arm back – Archery, Javelin …
6Sports / activities UNDERSTANDING So far we have listed a range of ACTIONS.One of the functions of the human skeleton is to allow MOVEMENT
7The Human skeleton UNDERSTANDING What other functions does the human skeleton have?Imagine a body WITHOUT a skeleton!
8The Human skeleton UNDERSTANDING Are there any other functions of the human skeleton?What roles do the skull and rib-cage have?
9The Human skeleton UNDERSTANDING Many of the bones of the human skeleton are long and hollow.
10The Human skeleton UNDERSTANDING Bone-marrow is a soft, fatty tissue found inside of bones that produces blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets). Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body. White blood cells act to ward off infection. Platelets aid in blood-clotting.
11The Human skeleton UNDERSTANDING The human skeleton serves one other function?The skeleton also stores minerals such as calcium.
13Functions of the Skeleton MovementSupportProtectionBlood cell formationStorageREMEMBERING
14The Human skeleton APPLY KNOWLEDGE How does each of the functions relate to performance in physical activity?
15Protection… APPLY KNOWLEDGE Vital organs are protected from impact forces such as a crash on your bike or collision with another person / object.APPLY KNOWLEDGE
16Support… APPLY KNOWLEDGE The skeleton provides support for soft tissues to attach to, giving your body shape. E.g. attachment for musclesAPPLY KNOWLEDGE
17Blood cell formation… APPLY KNOWLEDGE Red blood cells are important in transporting oxygen rich blood to muscles to help fuel them. The more oxygen we get to our muscles the more potential fuel our muscles have to work with.APPLY KNOWLEDGE
18Storage of minerals… APPLY KNOWLEDGE Minerals such as calcium help us produce strong bones. Strong bones are important in overuse injuries in repetitive and continuous activity such as multisport and also in contact sports.APPLY KNOWLEDGE
19Movement… APPLY KNOWLEDGE The skeleton provides levers & joints that allow movement to occur The type of bone / joint is related to the degree of movement possible. Long bones. E.g. ….. Short bones. E.g. ….. Irregular bones. E.g. ….. Flat bones. E.g. ….. Types of joints….APPLY KNOWLEDGE
20BLOOD CELL FORMATION sUPPORT PROTECTION MOVEMENT STORAGE UNDERSTANDING The 5 functions of the skeleton are:
23The Human Skeleton UNDERSTANDING Appendicular Skeleton Axial Skeleton Parts of the skeleton associated with locomotion / movementAxial SkeletonForms the central axis of the bodyParts of the skeleton associated with central support and protectionUNDERSTANDINGGroup each of the bones under the axial and appendicular skeleton
24The Human Skeleton UNDERSTANDING Group each of the bones under the axial and appendicular skeleton
25The Human SkeletonUNDERSTANDINGAxial SkeletonAppendicular Skeleton
26The Human spine APPLY KNOWLEDGE The spine is divided into 5 regions. How does the size of the vertebrae relate to their position and the degree of weight bearing and movement required?
27Types of joint in the body The range and freedom of movement/action depends on the type of joint involved – the more stable a joint, the less movement occurs through it.
28Types of Joints UNDERSTANDING Ball & Socket Examples are the hip and shoulderMovement occurs in all directionsUNDERSTANDING
29Types of Joints UNDERSTANDING Hinge Joint Examples are the elbow and knee (the knee is a modified hinge joint as there is slight rotation)Movement occurs in 2 directions in one plane – forwards & backwardsUNDERSTANDING
30Types of Joints UNDERSTANDING Pivot Joint Examples are the neck (where the atlas pivots around the axis at the top of the spine) and the radioulner joint below the elbow joint (allows lower arm to rotate)UNDERSTANDING
31Types of MovementYou need to be able to discuss the type of movement associated with various joints in the human body and relate this to specific sporting examples.
32Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Flexion Bending a joint so the bones on either side of the joint are drawn togetherExamples include elbow flexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, …UNDERSTANDING
33Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Extension Straightening a joint so the bones on either side of the joint are drawn apartExamples include elbow extension, knee extension, hip extension, …UNDERSTANDING
34Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Abduction Moving the bone away from the mid-line of the body(when someone is abducted they are ‘taken away’).Examples include abduction of the arm as it is drawn out to the side of the body, abduction of the leg.UNDERSTANDING
35Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Adduction Moving the bone towards the mid- line of the body(adduction is adding to the mid-line of the body).Examples include adduction of the arm as it is drawn in to the side of the body, abduction of the leg.UNDERSTANDING
36Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Plantar Flexion Pointing the toes downwardsExamples in sport include diving, gymnastics, acceleration in sprinting, jumping in volleyball, …UNDERSTANDING
37Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Dorsi-Flexion Pulling the toes upwards towards the tibiaUNDERSTANDING
38Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Pronation Pronation is a rotational movement of the forearm at the radioulnar joint. (Pronation also occurs in the foot.)tennis.org/images/pronation.jpg&imgrefurl=http://adhd- tennis.org/serve.aspx&usg=__hEjucuNmw5EZcznFwIwmr7Y0NmI=&h=6 40&w=467&sz=33&hl=en&start=55&tbnid=fzNKjyr3JyA5aM:&tbnh=137&t bnw=100&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dpronation%26gbv%3D2%26ndsp%3D1 8%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN%26start%3D54UNDERSTANDING
39Types of Movement UNDERSTANDING Supination Supination: Rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm is up (and the corresponding movement of the foot and leg with the sole up).UNDERSTANDING
40Muscles of The Human body REMEMBERINGMuscles of The Human bodyLabel the muscles indicated on the photo above.
41Muscles of The Human body UNDERSTANDINGMuscles of The Human bodyFor each muscle give 2 examples of actions it is responsible for?E.g. Abdominals are responsible for a sit up and a ‘pike’ in a dive.