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1 #actfl14 @PabloMuirhead

2 “If you lead with culture, language will follow.”

3 To study another language and culture gives one the powerful key to successful communication: knowing how, when,and why to say what to whom. COMMUNICATION


5 INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE To study another language and culture gives one the powerful key to successful communication: knowing how, when,and why to say what to whom.


7 and now? What do you see?


9 … tantamount to perspective … intertwined with issues of power … products and practices

10 Pablo Muirhead POWER Perspectives Practices Products

11 Pablo Muirhead “Culture is a fluctuating embodiment of a group’s products, practices and perspectives. Inseparable from language, culture is also impacted by issues of power as it can be used to marginalize or privilege.” Muirhead, P. (2009). Rethinking culture: Toward a pedagogy of possibility in world language education. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies, 6(4), 243-268.

12 Having a single cultural perspective. Not being able to adopt different points of view. AVOID BEING CULTURE BOUND

13 THENNOWIDEAL  Pure focus on language  “Culture” limited to upper-level coursework (through literature)  Recognition of importance of culture  Struggle to make it natural part at all levels  Moving toward deeper understanding of culture  Subconsciously infusing culture in lessons  Inextricable link between culture and language visible in classrooms  Students gain multiple perspectives that help them challenge societal injustices

14 Co-authored by Cassandra Glynn, Concordia College, Pamela Wesely, University of Iowa, and Beth Wassell, Rowan University Words and Actions: Teaching Languages Through the Lens of Social Justice

15  Me?  Have culture?  Really!?!?  What does that mean?  How does my culture inform my behavior and the way I view the world?

16 Unspoken Rules Read the unspoken rules of behavior associated with your culture. Take on the role of someone from this culture when speaking to others. THEN, start with people from “your culture” and introduce yourself and share what your role is in language education. NOW, connect with people from the other cultures and find out what they have enjoyed the most from ACTFL thus far.

17  Our subconscious acts on its own and we often make assumptions as a result. These can often be completely innocuous but sometimes they can be very detrimental.  You are about to view a series of images. Share your first impression with a neighbor.

18 Woman in vanity... or Skull? Hint: move farther a bit from screen and blink to see the skull or the woman (looking at the mirror) C. Allan Gilbert (1892)

19 Man Playing Horn... or Woman's Silhouette? Hint: woman's right eye is the black speck in front of horn handle SOURCE

20 Young or old woman? W.E. Hill (1915)

21 Two Faces... or One? Hint: two faces side profile or one face front view Edgar Rubin (1915)

22 A Rabbit... or a Duck? Hint: the duck is looking left, the rabbit is looking right Fliegende BlätterFliegende Blätter (1892)

23 Chances are… …you and your partner didn’t see the same thing at first. …you may have struggled to see both representations all the time. Fact is… …impressions and decisions are made very quickly. …we will gain a bigger picture of issues if we can first suspend judgment.

24 Excellent resource for self- reflection. Multiple tests are available to measure your subconscious. /implicit/selectatest.html

25 Bennett Model Experience of Difference Development of Intercultural Sensitivity DenialDefenseMinimizationIntegrationAdaptationAcceptance ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES ETHNORELATIVE STAGES Lange, D. L. (1999). Planning for and using the new national culture standards. In J. K. Phillips & R. K. Terry (Eds.), Foreign language standards: Linking research, theories, and practices (pp. 57 135). Lincolnwood, Illinois: National Textbook Company.

26 DENIAL Individual does not perceive cultural differences, or avoids them. ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES I haven’t left my little bubble yet…

27 DEFENSE Individual demonstrates intolerance toward differences. ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES There “they” go speaking Spanish again.

28 MINIMIZATION Individual downplays differences and takes on belief that everyone is the same. ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES I like to think of myself as color blind. I don’t see a person’s race.

29 ACCEPTANCE Individual begins to value the richness that cultures offer. ETHNORELATIVE STAGES I don’t understand but I’m okay with that and am open to learning.

30 ADAPTATION Individual begins to develop other perspectives and skills to get along better with “others”. ETHNORELATIVE STAGES I see things differently now and can better understand why others feel the way they do.

31 \\ INTEGRATION Individual is able to view the world from multiple perspectives. ETHNORELATIVE STAGES I have acquired various lenses through which to understand the world.

32 Reflecting on these stages, prepare to answer some questions. DenialDefenseMinimizationIntegrationAdaptationAcceptance ETHNOCENTRIC STAGES ETHNORELATIVE STAGES

33 How would you rate yourself on the Bennett Model? TAKE OUT YOUR PHONES start a TEXT to 37607 How would you rate your typical student? (click here)

34 High-Challenge Content Low-Challenge Content Low-Challenge Process High-Challenge Process Learner Develops SkillsLearner Rests Learner LeavesLearner Acquires Knowledge The Bennett Model (as cited by Lange, 1999, p. 76) Balance between content and process is key

35 LOW-CHALLENGE PROCESS HIGH-CHALLENGE CONTENT Lecture Films Groups or pairs Songs, games, or TPR Cloze activities, Multiple choice Research projects Routine activities Matching or sorting exercises Reading Politics Homophobia Religion Sexuality Diversity Racism Social class Justice / fairness / inequalities Xenophobia Content adapted from Wendy W. Allen

36 HIGH-CHALLENGE PROCESS LOW-CHALLENGE CONTENT Performance on the stage Simulations Role plays Oral presentations Open-ended Debates Voicing an opinion Essays Weather Leisure activities Food Calendar Numbers Big C "products“ Courses of study Travel Colors Family Content prepared by Wendy W. Allen


38 PRACTICE: Extended conversation at table during and after a meal PERSPECTIVES: What perspectives would you associate with this practice? PRODUCTS: What products would you associate with this practice?

39 PRACTICE: Gemütlichkeit PERSPECTIVES: What perspectives do you associate with this? PRODUCTS: What products do you associate with this?


41 PRACTICE: How addresses are written PERSPECTIVES: What perspectives do you associate with this? PRODUCTS: Letter

42 PRACTICE: Use of two last names PERSPECTIVES: What cultural perspectives can we gain from this? PRODUCTS: Last names

43  Write from a different perspective.  Weather from different parts.  Interview community members.  Listen to and work with music.  Reenact an event.  Thematic Units  Cultural/Community Activities

44  One per chapter/unit  Given several resources  Encouraged to seek variety  Document each activity (Blackboard)  Throughout semester culture integrated in courses  Explicit discussions on hidden biases & stages of intercultural communicative competence  Write Final Reflection Paper  See rubric in



47 We inherently know the difference between an A and a B-. Do our students? Clear rubrics help students target their progress, and provide a roadmap to success.


49 Write a letter to the host family with whom you are about to go stay. Include the following:  introduce yourself,  tell them about your interests,  where you’re from (describe city, weather, etc.),  your family/friends,  what you’d like to do while you’re abroad, and  make sure to ask them a question, or two, as well. (24 puntos)

50 Take on the role of María and write an email home to your mother and sister in Colombia. Help them understand what you are experiencing by comparing and contrasting both your U.S. and your Colombian experiences. Include the following information:  What the weather in December is like,  What the people are like,  What the food is like,  Whether they should come live with you in the U.S., and  What your hopes are for your immediate future (Espero que…).



53 Jot down an idea you plan on implementing next week and/or something you plan on reflecting on for the long term.

54 The work you do as language teachers is vitally important. I wish you tremendous success making a more seamless connection between language and culture. Stay in touch. Pablo /

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