The Earth operates as a system… What is a system? Something that can be studied separately. Ex: Water Cycle, Adirondack Park, Green Mountains 1. Closed system- A system in which energy can enter and leave but matter cannot. Ex: sealed jar, Earth 2. Open system- A system in which there is a free exchange of both energy and matter between the system and its surroundings. Ex: New York & Vermont
Earth’s 4 Spheres Within the Earth energy and matter interact or can be exchanged amongst different regions (spheres). These are systems! 1.Hydrosphere- All water at or near Earth’s surface. 2. Biosphere- All living things on the planet. 3. Geosphere- The physical features that make up the Earth (rocks, mountains, etc.) Does not include water! 4. Atmosphere- The gaseous envelope surrounding Earth.
Interactions Among the Spheres Energy and matter move among the spheres. Locally an interaction among the spheres might look like: Water evaporates from Lake Champlain on a hot day (Hydrosphere). Water vapor in the atmosphere then condenses and causes rain over the Adirondack mountains. Rain drops penetrate into the cracks of rocks. (Geosphere) Tree roots in the rock cracks then absorb the water for photosynthesis. (Biosphere)
For each of the pictures: http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investigations/es0103/es0103page05.cfm 1. List the major features in the image and tell which sphere each one represents. 2. Describe sphere interactions you can infer from the scene. 3. Whenever possible, follow the results of an interaction through all four spheres.
Fact- something that can be proven true 100% of the time (data). ex: Gravity pulls objects towards one another Inference- an idea based on facts (may or may not be true); an assumption. ex: Someone stole my book since it’s missing. Opinion- your thoughts or feelings about something. ex: My favorite color is purple.
Observation- facts gathered by using your senses. Sight Sound Touch Taste Smell * Instruments are an extension of your senses!
Observations of the candle: Inference about the candle: White and black small Shaped like a skull hot Does not weigh a lot
What type of data did you collect about the candle? Qualitative data: descriptions (color, odor, etc.) that don’t involve measurements or numbers. Quantitative data: measurements made using standard units (temperature in °C, meters, etc.)
Scientific Method A process to solve a problem. 1.State the problem. 2. Gather information about problem. 3. Hypothesis: educated guess based on research- answer to problem. 4. Experiment: test the hypothesis, make Observations. 5. Conclusion: discussion- is the hypothesis correct? Explain your reasoning. People Get Happy Eating Oreo Cookies
Designing Experiments Independent variable- (aka: Responding variable) what causes the change. * variable that the scientist changes Dependent variable- (aka: Manipulated variable) this is expected to change as the independent variable changes. Constant- does not change in an experiment.
Making Conclusions from Experiments Scientific Theory- a well-tested idea that explains and connects a wide range of observations. * scientists need to get more information and observations before a theory can become a law. Scientific Law- a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions. Ex: Gravity exists on Earth, on other planets, and out in space
Homer notices that his shower is covered in a strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days of "treatment" there is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower. 1.What is the initial observation? 2.What is the control group? 3.What is the independent variable? 4.What is the dependent variable? 5.What should Homer’s conclusion be? Shower covered in green slime Half sprayed with water Coconut juice Amount of green slime Coconut juice does not remove green slime
Krusty was told that a certain itching powder was the newest best thing on the market, it even claims to cause 50% longer lasting itches. Interested in this product, he buys the itching powder and compares it to his usual product. One test subject (A) is sprinkled with the original itching powder, and another test subject (B) was sprinkled with the Experimental itching powder. Subject A reported having itches for 30 minutes. Subject B reported to have itches for 45 minutes. 6. What is the Control Group? 7. What is the Independent Variable? 8. What is the Dependent Variable? 9. Explain whether the data supports the advertisements claims about its product. Test subject A New Itching Powder Longer lasting itches The new itching powder causes itches to last 50% longer