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© 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 1 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Without using your sheets, list as many bones as you can remember from Friday. 1.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 1 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Without using your sheets, list as many bones as you can remember from Friday. 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 1 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Without using your sheets, list as many bones as you can remember from Friday. 1

2 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 2 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning

3 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 3 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: › Explain the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton › Define the functions of the skeletal system › Define the six types of fractures › Explain the difference between skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle 3

4 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 4 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to (cont’d.): › Explain the physiology of a muscle strain › Describe the function of a nerve cell › Explain nerve injuries and their treatment › List the different types of soft tissue injuries and their treatment › Explain how the body responds to injuries 4

5 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 5 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Average human skeleton: 206 bones  Joined to ligaments & tendons  Form protective & supportive framework for attached muscles & soft tissues 5

6 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 6 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  2 main parts to skeleton: › Axial skeleton: consists of skull, spine, ribs, & sternum (80 bones) › Appendicular skeleton: shoulder & pelvis girdles, limbs (126 bones)  Babies born with 270 bones  64 fuse together 6

7 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 7 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning 7

8 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 8 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Functions: › Aids in body movement › Supports and protects internal body organs › Produces red and white blood cells › Provides a storehouse for minerals 8

9 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 9 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Consist of osteocytes (mature bone cells)  Made of: › 35% organic material › 65% inorganic mineral salts, and water 9

10 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 10 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Formation: › Initially consists of collagenous protein fibers secreted by osteoblasts › During embryonic development, cartilage is deposited between fibers › During the eighth week of embryonic development, ossification begins  Mineral matter starts to replace previously formed cartilage, creating bone 10

11 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 11 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Structure of long bone › Diaphysis: shaft of long bone › Epiphysis: end of long bone › Medullary cavity: center of the diaphysis › Epiphyseal plates (“growth plates”)  Common site of fractures for adolescents

12 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 12 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Structure of long bone (cont’d) › Spongy bone: results from breakdown of hard bone › Periosteum: fibrous tissue that covers bone

13 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 13 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Growth › Osteoblasts: bone cell involved in formation of bone › Osteoclasts: bone cell involved in the resorption of bony tissue › Average growth:  Females: 18 years  Males: years

14 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 14 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Bone types: › Long (humerus, femur) › Flat (skull, ribs, scapula) › Irregular (vertebrae) › Short (carpals & tarsals)

15 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 15 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Fractures– 6 types › Simple or closed › Compound or open › Greenstick › Comminuted › Stress › Epiphyseal plate 15

16 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 16 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Simple (or closed) fracture › Broken ends do not pierce skin  Compound (or open) fracture › Complete break where bone ends break through the skin

17 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 17 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Greenstick fracture › Incomplete break in shaft of bone › Occurs in children (pliable)  Epiphyseal fracture › Break at the growth plate

18 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 18 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Comminuted fracture › Bone is shattered in many pieces  Stress fracture › Small, incomplete break › Results from overuse, weakness, or biomechanical problems

19 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 19 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  List the 6 different types of fractures.  List the 4 types of bones. 19

20 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 20 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Fracture signs and symptoms › Swelling, deformity, pain, tenderness, and discoloration  Treatment › Remodeling: process of reabsorbing & replacing bone in the skeletal system › Bones must sometimes be put back in proper position  reduction › Immobilization through use of a cast  external fixation › Surgery  internal fixation 20

21 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 21 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Principal types of muscles: › Skeletal  Under voluntary control › Smooth  Involuntary › Cardiac  Only found in the heart  Involuntary 21

22 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 22 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  4 common characteristics: › Contractibility: Ability to shorten or reduce the distance between 2 parts › Excitability: ability to respond to stimuli › Extensibility: ability to lengthen & increase the distance between 2 parts › Elasticity: ability to return to original form after being compressed or stretched 22

23 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 23 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  More than 650 muscles in the body › Muscles only pull, never push  Muscles attached to bones by tendons › Bones are connected at joints  Muscles are attached at both ends to bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, skin, or other muscles 23

24 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 24 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Origin: part of a skeletal muscle that is attached to a fixed structure or bone; moves the least  Insertion: attached to a movable part; moves the most  Belly: central body of the muscle  Prime mover (or agonist): movement in a single direction › Antagonist: movement in the opposite direction 24

25 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 25 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning

26 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 26 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Name the 3 different types of muscles in the body.  When you flex your elbow: › Which muscle is the prime mover (agonist)? › Which muscle is the antagonist? 26

27 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 27 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  When muscles work, they move the body and produce heat  For muscles to contract and work, they need energy › Major source of energy is adenosine triphosphate (ATP)  Cell requires oxygen, glucose, and other materials › When a muscle is stimulated, ATP is broken down, producing energy 27

28 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 28 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Muscle movement occurs as a result of: › Myoneural stimulation › Contraction of muscle proteins  Skeletal muscles must be stimulated by nerve impulses to contract › Begins with action potential, which travels along muscle fiber length › Basic source of energy is glucose 28

29 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 29 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Caused by accumulation of lactic acid in muscles  During vigorous exercise, blood is unable to transport enough oxygen for complete oxidation of glucose in the muscles › Causes muscles to contract anaerobically (without oxygen) 29

30 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 30 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  What is the main source of energy for muscles to work? (Hint: acronym)  What causes muscle fatigue? 30

31 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 31 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Muscles should always be slightly contracted and ready to pull (muscle tone)  Muscle atrophy: › Wasting or loss of muscle tissue resulting from disease or lack of use  Hypertrophy: › Increase in the mass (size) of a muscle 31

32 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 32 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Strain: › Caused by twisting or pulling a muscle or tendon › Acute or chronic  Symptoms: pain, muscle spasm, and muscle weakness  Treatment: reduce swelling, anti-inflammatory drugs, surgery, rehabilitation 32

33 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 33 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Sprain: › Caused by sudden twist, or a blow to the body; ligaments › 3 grades:  Grade I: mild; overstretching of ligament  Grade II: moderate; partial tearing  Grade III: sever; complete tear Symptoms: pain, swelling, bruising, and loss of ability to move Treatment is similar to care for a strain 33

34 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 34 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Tendonitis: › Inflammation of the tendon  Symptoms: pain and inflammation along a tendon  Treatment: avoid aggravating movements, medications, rehabilitation  Bursitis › Inflammation of a bursa › Bursa: decrease friction between 2 surfaces  Symptoms: joint pain often mistaken for arthritis  Treatment: avoid aggravating movements, medications, rehabilitation 34

35 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 35 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Contusion: › Direct blow that does not break the skin  Symptoms: swelling, pain to the touch, redness, and ecchymosis (bruising)  Treatment: monitoring, ice, medications, compressive dressing  Myositis ossificans: calification that forms within the muscle when contusion not properly managed 35

36 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 36 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Nerve tissue consists of: › Neuroglia  Insulate, support, and protect neurons  “nerve glue” › Neurons  Sensory: carries impulses from sensory to CNS  Motor: carries messages from brain to muscles  Associative: carries impulses from sensory to motor 36

37 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 37 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Nerves carry impulses by creating electric charges through membrane excitability › A synapse is the space between adjacent neurons through which an impulse is transmitted 37

38 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 38 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Click Here to Play Firing of Neurotransmitters Animation

39 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 39 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Nerves are fragile and can be damaged by pressure, stretching, or cutting › Injury to a nerve can stop signals to and from the brain  Causes muscles to become unresponsive and a loss of feeling in the injured area › Treatment: surgery 39

40 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 40 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  The nervous system sends electrical impulses at up to 250 miles per hour. How long would it take for an impulse from the brain to reach the foot of a person who is 6 feet tall? 40

41 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 41 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Classified as: › Open  Abrasions, lacerations, avulsions, and puncture wounds › Closed  Contusions, hematomas, ecchymoses, sprains, strains, tendonitis, bursitis, and stress-related injuries 41

42 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 42 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Abrasion: several layers of skin are torn loose (scrape)  Laceration: tear in the skin (“cut”)  Avulsion: layers of skin are torn off completely or a flap remains  Puncture wound: sharp object penetrates the skin 42

43 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 43 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Inflammation: › Reaction to invasion by an infectious agent or physical, chemical, or traumatic damage  pain, heat, redness, swelling  Regeneration: › Act of wound healing › Damaged tissue replaced by scar tissue (fibrous)  Cellular dedifferentiation: › Regeneration › Cells revert to an earlier stage of development 43

44 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 44 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  Transdifferentiation › Regeneration of cells with completely different functions than original  Tissue remodeling › Cells and molecules of tissue are modified and reassembled to yield a new composition of cell types and extracellular matrix 44

45 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 45 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning Click Here to Play Tissue Repair Animation

46 © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning 46 © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning  The skeleton › Provides support and protection to internal organs › Foundation for muscle attachment › Efficient factory for producing red blood cells  Many injuries associated with athletics are fractures › Other injuries involve muscles, attachments, and various surrounding tissues 46


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