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Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Chapter 1: Introducing Psychology and Research Methods Instructor:

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Chapter 1: Introducing Psychology and Research Methods Instructor:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Chapter 1: Introducing Psychology and Research Methods Instructor: Allen Thomas

2 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 What Is Psychology? Psychology –Psyche: Mind –Logos: Knowledge or study Definition: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes –Behavior: Overt; i.e., can be directly observed (crying) –Mental Processes: Covert; i.e., cannot be directly observed (remembering)

3 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Empiricism: The Goals To measure and describe behaviors To gather empirical evidence: information gained from direct observation and measurement To gather data: Observed facts Scientific Observation: Empirical investigation that is structured so that it answers questions about the world

4 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.1

5 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 What Might a Psychologist Research? Development: Course of human growth and development Learning: How and why it occurs in humans and animals Personality: Traits, motivations, and individual differences

6 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 What Might Psychologists Research? (cont.) Sensation and Perception: How we come to know the world through our five senses Social: Human social behavior Cultural: How culture affects human behavior

7 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Biopsychology: How behavior is related to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system Gender: Study differences between males and females and how they develop What Might Psychologists Research? (cont.)

8 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 What Are the Goals of Psychology? Description of Behaviors: Naming and classifying various observable, measurable behaviors Understanding: The causes of behavior Prediction: Forecasting behavior accurately

9 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 More Goals of Psychology Control: Altering conditions that affect behaviors –Positive Use: To control unwanted behaviors, (e.g., smoking, tantrums, etc.) –Negative Use: To control people’s behaviors without their knowledge

10 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 History of Psychology: Beginnings 1879: Wundt set up first lab to study conscious experience Introspection: Looking inward (i.e., examining and reporting your thoughts, feelings, etc.) Experimental Self-Observation: Combines trained introspection with objective measurement; Wundt’s approach

11 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 History of Psychology: Structuralism Wundt’s ideas brought to the U.S. by Tichener and renamed Structuralism Structuralism: School of thought concerned with analyzing sensations and personal experience into basic elements

12 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 History of Psychology: Functionalism William James (American) and Functionalism How the mind functions to adapt us to our environment Functionalists admired Darwin and his theory of Natural Selection: Animals keep features through evolution that help them adapt to environments

13 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Functionalism’s Effects on Modern Psychology Educational Psychology: Study of learning, teaching, classroom dynamics, and related topics Industrial Psychology: Study of people at work

14 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 History of Psychology: Behaviorism and Cognitive Behaviorism Psychology must study observable behavior objectively –Watson studied Little Albert with Rosalie Raynor; Skinner studied animals almost exclusively

15 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 History of Psychology: Cognitive Behaviorism Cognitive Behaviorism: Ellis and Bandura –Our thoughts influence our behaviors; used often in treatment of depression –Cognition (thinking) and conditioning are combined to explain behavior

16 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 History of Psychology: Gestalt Gestalt Psychology: “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts” –Studied thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analyzing experiences into parts –Key names: Wertheimer, Perls

17 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.2

18 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Table 1.2

19 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 History of Psychology: Freud Psychoanalytic Perspective –Our behavior is largely influenced by our unconscious wishes, thoughts, and desires, especially sex and aggression –Freud performed dream analysis and was an interactionist (combination of our biology and environment makes us who we are)

20 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Repression Repression: When memories, thoughts, or impulses are unconsciously held out of awareness Recent research has hypothesized that our unconscious mind is partially responsible for our behaviors

21 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 History of Psychology: Neo-Freudians New or recent—some of Freud’s students who broke away to promote their own theories Key Names: Alfred Adler, Anna Freud (Freud’s daughter), Karen Horney, Carl Jung, Otto Rank, Erik Erikson

22 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 History of Psychology: Humanism Key Names: Rogers and Maslow Goal of psychology is to study unique aspects of the person Focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals Each person has innate goodness and is able to make free choices (contrast with Skinner and Freud)

23 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Terms Self-Image: Perception of our own body, personality, and capabilities Self-Evaluation: Positive or negative feelings held toward one’s self Frame of Reference: Mental perspective used to interpret events Self-Actualization: Ongoing process of fully developing one’s personal potential

24 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Psychology Today Biopsychology: All of our behavior can be explained through physiological processes –Uses brain scans to gather data (CT, MRI, PET) Positive Psychology: Study of human strengths, virtues, and optimal behavior –Looks at positive side of human behavior

25 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Cultural Awareness Many thoughts and behaviors are influenced by our culture Psychologists need to be aware of the impact cultural diversity may have on our behaviors What is acceptable in one culture might be unacceptable in another

26 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Cultural Awareness (cont.) Cultural Relativity: Behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs Norms: Rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group

27 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Many Flavors of Psychologists Psychologists: Usually have masters or doctorate; trained in methods, knowledge, and theories of psychology –Clinical Psychologist: Treats psychological problems or does research on therapies and mental disorders –Counseling Psychologist: Treats milder emotional and behavioral disturbances

28 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Table 1.3

29 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.3

30 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.3b

31 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.3c

32 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 More Helping Professionals Psychiatrists: M.D.; usually use medications to treat problems; generally do not have extensive training in providing “talk” therapy Psychoanalysts: Receive additional training post-Ph.D. or M.D. at an institute for psychoanalysis

33 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Some More Helping Professionals Psychiatric Social Workers: Many have masters degrees and perform psychotherapy –Presently a very popular profession Counselor: Advisor who helps solve problems with marriage, school, and so on Not all psychologists perform therapy!

34 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 The Scientific Method Six Basic Elements –Making observations –Defining a problem –Proposing a hypothesis (an educated guess that can be tested)

35 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 The Scientific Method (cont.) –Gathering evidence/testing the hypothesis –Publishing results –Building a theory

36 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Scientific Theory A system of ideas that interrelates facts and concepts, summarizes existing data, and predicts future observations A good theory must be falsifiable; i.e., operationally defined so that it can be disconfirmed

37 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.4

38 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.5

39 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Naturalistic Observation Observing a person or an animal in the environment in which they/it live(s)

40 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Naturalistic Observation Problems Observer Effect: Changes in behavior caused by an awareness of being observed Observer Bias: Occurs when observers see what they expect to see or record only selected details

41 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Anthropomorphic Error Attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining their behavior (e.g., “Anya, my cat, is acting like that because she’s feeling depressed today.”)

42 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Correlations Existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables Correlation Coefficient: Statistic ranging from –1.00 to +1.00; the sign indicates the direction of the relationship –Closer the statistic is to –1.00 or to +1.00, the stronger the relationship –Correlation of 0.00 demonstrates no relationship between the variables

43 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Correlations (cont.) Positive Correlation: Increases in one variable are matched by increases in the other variable Negative Correlation: Increases in one variable are matched by decreases in the other variable Correlation does not demonstrate causation: Just because two variables are related does NOT mean that one variable causes the other to occur

44 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.7

45 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Experiments To identify cause-and-effect relationships, we conduct experiments –Directly vary a condition you might think affects behavior –Create two or more groups of subjects, alike in all ways except the condition you are varying –Record whether varying the condition has any effect on behavior

46 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.8

47 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Variables Independent Variable: Condition(s) altered by the experimenter; experimenter sets their size, amount, or value; these are suspected causes for behavioral differences Dependent Variable: Demonstrates effects that independent variables have on behavior Extraneous Variables: Conditions that a researcher wants to prevent from affecting the outcomes of the experiment (e.g., number of hours slept before the experiment)

48 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.9

49 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Groups Experimental Group: The group of subjects that gets the independent variable Control Group: The group of subjects that does NOT get the independent variable Random Assignment: Subject has an equal chance of being in either the experimental or control group

50 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Placebo Placebo: A fake pill (sugar) or injection (saline) Placebos alter our expectations about our own emotional and physical reactions

51 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Placebo Effect Changes in behavior that result from expectations that a drug or other treatment will have some effect –These expectancies then influence bodily activities –Relieve pain by getting pituitary to release endorphins Also gain some effect through learning Herbal remedies may be based on placebo effect

52 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Experiment Types Single Blind: Only the subjects have no idea whether they get real treatment or placebo Double Blind: The subjects AND the experimenters have no idea whether the subjects get real treatment or placebo –Best type of experiment if properly set up

53 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Experimenter Effects Changes in behavior caused by the unintended influence of the experimenter Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: A prediction that leads people to act in ways to make the prediction come true

54 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Does Marijuana Impair Memory?

55 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 The Clinical Method Case Study: In-depth focus of all aspects of a single person Natural Clinical Tests: Natural events, such as accidents, that provide psychological data Survey Method: Using public polling techniques to answer psychological questions

56 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Samples, and Some Problems Representative Sample: Small group that accurately reflects a larger population –Population: Entire group of animals or people belonging to a particular category (e.g., all married women) Courtesy Bias: Problem in research; a tendency to give “polite” or socially desirable answers Internet Surveys: Web based research; low cost and can reach many people –Samples are not representative

57 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Table 1.5

58 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.10

59 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Figure 1.11

60 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Critical Thinking Ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information –What would you expect to see if the claim were true? –Gather evidence relevant to the claim –Evaluate the evidence –Draw a conclusion Oftentimes used in research

61 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Table 1.6

62 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Four Basic Principles of Critical Thinking Few truths transcend the need for empirical testing Evidence varies in quality Authority or claimed expertise does not automatically make an idea true Critical thinking requires an open mind

63 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Pseudo-Psychologies Pseudo means “false”; Any unfounded “system” that resembles psychology and is NOT based on scientific testing –Palmistry: Lines on your hands (palms) predict future and reveal personality –Phrenology: Personality traits revealed by shape of skull and bumps on your head

64 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Pseudo-Psychologies (cont.) Graphology: Personality revealed by your handwriting Astrology: The positions of the stars and planets at birth determine your personality and affect your behavior –Quite popular (“What’s your sign?”)

65 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 More on Pseudo-Psychologies Uncritical Acceptance: Tendency to believe positive or unflattering descriptions of yourself Fallacy of Positive Instances: When we remember or notice things that confirm our expectations and forget the rest

66 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 The Barnum Effect Barnum Effect: Tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if stated in general terms Always have a little something for everyone; Make sure all palm readings, horoscopes, etc. are so general that something in them will always apply to any one person! (e.g., Miss Cleo)

67 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Separating Fact from Fiction Be skeptical Consider the source of information Ask yourself, “Was there a control group?” Look for errors in distinguishing between correlation and causation (are claims based on correlational results yet passed off as causations?)

68 Psychology: A Modular Approach to Mind and Behavior, Tenth Edition, Dennis Coon Chapter 1 Separating Fact from Fiction (cont.) Be sure to distinguish between observation and inference (e.g., Robert is crying, but do we know why he is crying?) Beware of oversimplifications, especially those motivated by monetary gain Remember, “for example” is no proof!


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