Presentation on theme: "AUTOPSY It means to see for oneself. (Auto= Self Opis=View)"— Presentation transcript:
1AUTOPSY It means to see for oneself. (Auto= Self Opis=View) -Clinical autopsy.-Medico-legal autopsy.
2Medico-legal autopsy or post mortem examination is a special type of scientific examination of dead body carried out under the laws of the state for the protection of its citizens and to assist the identification and prosecution of the guilty.
3OBJECTS\ AIMS Cause of death. Manner of death. Time since death. To establish identity,To retain relevant organs and tissue as evidence.Infants-Live birth and viability.
4Rules for Medico-Legal Autopsy Authorization.Identification.Visit of scene of crime.History of the case.Verification of the injuries noted by the police.Examination.Notes.Preservation of viscera and other tissue.List of artifacts.
5-Time of arrival of body. -Date and place of examination. Contents of the Autopsy reportThe preamble-Authority.-Time of arrival of body. -Date and place of examination.-Name,Age and Sex.- Body identified by.
6The body of the report- External and internal examination.- Wounds\Injuries- nature,direction,situation and sizes.- Conclusions.
7External examinationCondition of the bodyMarks of identification.Eyes.State of natural orifices,ears,nostrils,mouth,anus,urethra and vagina.Injuries-nature,position and measurements.State of limbs.Genitals and breasts.
8Walls, ribs and cartilages. Pleura and diaphragm ThoraxWalls, ribs and cartilages.Pleura and diaphragmLarynx,trachea and bronchi.Lungs with weight.pericardium.Heart,cavities,valves and coronary vessels.Large vessels(Aorta)
9Smell of the body and viscera. Postmortem staining and its colour. Poisoning casesSmell of the body and viscera.Postmortem staining and its colour.If froth present,its nature.Colour of sclera, lips and nails.Mouth and surroundings.Injuries.Details of G.I tract examination.Description of stomach and contents.
10Upper part of small intestine. - 30cms with contents. Viscera to be collected for Chemical ExaminationStomach with contents.Upper part of small intestine.- 30cms with contents.500gms of liver and half of each kidney.5-10ml of blood.30ml of urine.
11Description of ligature material. Description of the ligatures mark. Hanging\Ligature strangulation casesDescription of ligature material.Description of the ligatures mark.Marks of salivary dribble.Condition of eyes and pupils.Colour of lips and nails.position of tongue.Distribution of postmortem staining.Presence of injuries on the body.
12Examination of neck sutures. Injury to cervical spine and cord.Examination of internal organs.Preservation of viscera in cases of suspicion of poisoning.
13Smell from the body,kerosene other inflammable agents. Burns casesSmell from the body,kerosene other inflammable agents.Nature of burns.- Antemortem- Postmortem.Extent and degree of burns.Age of burns.Injuries other than burns.
14Colour of postmortem staining. Examination of air passages for the presence of soot particles.Evidence of-Poisoning.- Pregnancy,abortion,sexual assaults.
15Negative AutopsyWhen gross and microscopic examination and other investigations fail to reveal a cause of death,the autopsy is considered to be negative.- Men.- Material.-Method.
16Inadequate microscopic examination. MenLack of experience.Lack of training.MaterialInadequate microscopic examination.Insufficient laboratory examination.Lack of toxicological analysis.
17Lapses in external examination. MethodInadequate history.Lapses in external examination.Inadequate or improper internal examination.
18-Death by emotion or work stress. Obscure AutopsyWhich do not reveal the cause for death in which there are trivial,equivocal or obscure findings or no positive findings.CausesNatural diseases.-Death by emotion or work stress.-Death due to functional failure epilepsy,paroxysmal fibrillation.
19Uraemia,diabetes,potassium deficiency. Anoxic anaemia. Biochemical disturbancesUraemia,diabetes,potassium deficiency.Anoxic anaemia.Endocrine dysfunctionAdrenal insufficiency.Thyrotoxicosis or Myxoedema.Concealed traumaConcussion.Blunt injury to heart.Reflex vagal inhibition.
20Anesthetic over dosage. Neurotoxic or Cytotoxic poisons. PoisoningNarcotic poisoning.Anesthetic over dosage.Neurotoxic or Cytotoxic poisons.Plant poisoning.MiscellaneousAllergy.Drug idiosyncrasy.
21ArtifactsMay be defined as a change in the natural state of the body that is likely to be misinterpreted at autopsy.-Before death.-At the moment of death.-After death.-During autopsy.
22Therapeutic artifacts. Surgical artifacts. Before deathTherapeutic artifacts.Surgical artifacts.At the moment of deathAgonal artifacts.Resuscitation artifacts
23Artifacts due to the handling of the body. After deathArtifacts due to the handling of the body.Artifacts related to rigor mortis.Artifacts related to postmortem lividity.Artifacts due to animal bite.Artifacts due to chemicals.Artifacts due to refrigeration.Embalming artifacts.
24Extravasation of blood. Fracture of hyoid bone. Artifacts during autopsyAir in blood vessels.Skull fractures.Visceral damage.Extravasation of blood.Fracture of hyoid bone.